US 3823520 A
A steel structure for prefabricated buildings which comprises a multiplicity of column-girder members formed by firmly combining steel columns, steel girders, and corridor board supporting girders and arranged in transversely juxtaposed and vertically connected relationship on a foundation, steel crossbeams connecting said column-girder members so as to define a multiplicity of framed space sections, and corridor boards securely installed at the front and rear of the column-girder members. The framed space sections can be used for residential, public, traffic and other applications. Prefabricated building units for living and other purposes can be adequately inserted into the framed space sections and removed therefrom for disassembly, movement, etc.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1191 Ohtaet al.
[ STEEL STRUCTURE FOR PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS  Inventors: Kazuo Ohta, Tokyo; Seiji Sawada,
Kawasaki, both of Japan  Assignees: Nippon Steel Corporation; Nihon Architects Engineer & Consultant l ncorp., both of Tokyo, Japan 22 Filed: Apr. 10,1972
Related US. Application Data  Continuation of Ser. No. 18,642, March 11, 1970, abandoned.
 Foreign Application Priority Data 1451 July 16,1974
FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 331,001 6/1930 Great Britain 52/727 1,509,042 12/1967 France 52/79 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Engineering-News Record June 2, 1949, pages 16, 17, and 18.
Primary Examiner-John E. Murtagh Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wenderoth, Lind 8L Ponack  1 ABSTRACT A steel structure for prefabricated buildings which comprises a multiplicity of column-girder members formed by firmly combining steel columns, steel girders, and corridor board supporting girders and ar- Mar. 20, .lapanu 44-20849 ranged in transversely juxtaposed and vertically nected relationship on a foundation, steel crossbeams [g2] CCll 52/73, 52/;9645h2/l236 connecting Said colummgirder members so as to d 727 fine a multiplicity of framed space sections, and corri- 1 0 can: l r dor boards securely installed at the front and rear of l v the column-girder members. The framed space sections can be used for residential, public, traffic and  References cued other applications. Prefabricated building units for liv- UNITED STATES PA ing and other purposes can be adequately inserted into 2,037,895 4/1936 Gugler 52/220 the framed space sections and removed therefrom for 2,555,782 6/1951 Brownstein 52/646 disassembly, movement, etc. 2,675,895 4/1954 Loewensteinm. 52/648 3,638,380 2/1972 Perri 52/79 5 Claims, 12 Drawing Flgllles f l n .m m1 I I M illll l /|4 31 3 I Ii! ll l| lll I'\I 7 1 1111 1 1| 11 PATENTEDMIBIW 3.823.520
SHEET 1 BF 4 FlG.
KAZUO OHTA and SEIJI SAWADA,
In entors By, V Orneys PATENTED Jul! 5 sumaur a FIG. 3
KAZUO OH'IA and SAWADA,
I Inventors wwimmw Attorneys PATENTED 1 5 SMEI3BF4 KAZUO OHTA and SEIJI SAWADA,
'lamludizz zt vpmu Attorneys PAIENTEBM 1 a 1m SNEENHY I FIG. I I
KAZUO OHTA and SEIJI SAWADA,
Attorneys STEEL STRUCTURE FOR PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 18,642 filed Mar. 11, 1970, now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates generally to a steel structure for prefabricated buildings and more particularly to a steel structure for prefabricated building units (hereinafter referred to as capsule units) having walls, floors, and ceilings which define volumes of space suitable for dwelling, capsule units being pushed into and pulled out of the steel structure in a horizontal direction.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of this invention is to provide a steel structure having framed recesses capable of accommodating capsule units for homes and the like and being utilized as spaces for artificial lands, public services, traffic facilities and their auxiliary attachments.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a rigid and fireproof steel structure which makes it possible to standardize themembers of the steel structure and to facilitate both factory production and field erection, thereby bringing about large savings in time and cost. I
Still another object of the invention lies in providing a skeleton structure exceedingly suited for the installation and removal of capsule units for living and the like.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Other objects of the present invention will be apparent from the following description taken in conjunction with the appended-drawings, in which:
FIG. I is a somewhat schematic plan in horizontal section showing a steel structure embodying the principle of the invention which is partly filled with capsule units;
FIG. 2 is a front view of the building structure shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a vertical section of the structure taken on lines Ill III in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective view illustrating a steel construction defining a compartment of the steel structure of the invention;
FIG. 5 is a horizontal section in the middle of a col umn; taken on lines V V in FIG. 2,
FIG. 6 is a vertical section in the middle of a girder or. a crossbeam; taken on lines VI VI in FIG. 1,
FIG. 7 is a vertical section showing a manner of connecting columns;
FIG. 8 isa horizontal section taken on lines VIII VIII in FIG. 2 showing how a column, girders, and crossbeams are joined together.
FIG. 9 is a vertical section taken on lines IX IX in FIG. 8,
FIG. 10 is a vertical section showing a portion of the steel structure loaded with capsule units;
FIG. 11 is a somewhat schematic side view showing a method of moving a capsule unit into the steel structure, shown in FIG. 3; and
FIG. 12 is a vertical section showing an exemplary method of fastening an inserted capsule unit.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Reference will now be made in-detail to the attached drawing. It will however be obvious that many modifications of the preferred embodiments which will be detailed hereunder may be effected without departing the spirit and scope of the invention.
First, an explanation will be given to the essential members composing the steel structure of the present invention. Columns (1) are each formed by covering an H-shaped steel element (5) with a concrete fireproof coat (6) all over except at joint portions, which comprise joint end portions (2) for connection with other columns (1), joint areas (2) for crossbeams (3), a joint zone for a girder (4), and a joint for a corridor board supporting girder (7). Column-girder members (A) are each composed of a pair of columns (1) spaced depthwise with the webs of the H-shaped steel elements (5) facing each other, a girder (4) connected at both ends with the pair of columns, and a pair of corridor board supporting girders (7) fixed, each at one end, to the pair of columns so as to extend in alignment with the girder (4).
The crossbeams (3) and girders (4) and (7) are each produced by covering an H-shaped steel element (8) with a concrete'fireproof coat (10) in such a manner that the top flange surface (9) of the H-steel element (8) is exposed while both sides and the bottom flange surface are covered. The H-shaped steel element (8) of the crossbeam (3) has both end portions (11) exposed to be joined with columns (1). The concrete fireproof coats of the columns (1), crossbeams (3), and girder (4) and (7) are previously applied to the H-shaped steel elements at the factory. Then, these coated members are carried to the construction site.
The erection of the steel structure begins with transversely juxtaposing a multiplicity of column-girder members (A) on a foundation. Thereafter a crossbeam (3) is connected at both ends to each pair of transversely adjacent columns (1) by means of high tenstion bolts (12), welding, or the like, with the upper surface of crossbeams 3 positioned above the top surfaces of the girders (4) and (7). Then, on the columns (1) are installed another group of column-girder members (A), and the top ends of the lower columns (1) are fastened to the bottom ends of the upperor superposed columns by such means as high tension bolts or welding. The upper columns (1) are also equipped with crossbeams (3) in the same way as the lower columns. Such work is repeated until the intended structure having ade quate spans and stories are constructed. The structure may be additionally equipped with intermediate crossbeams (3'), each of which is crosswise interposed between transversely adjacent girders (4) and secured at both ends to the girders. Besides, the structure may be stiffened by means of inclined braces (14) which connect vertically adjacent girders (4) as illustrated in FIG. 3. It is alternatively possible to reinforce the structure by fitting braces to the columns (1) and the girders (4) in such a way that four braces form a rhomb in a rectangular opening defined by a pair of columns (1) and a pair of girders (4), the four sides of the rhomb being diagonal with regard to the four corners of the rectangular opening. As a matter of course, the intermediate crossbeams (3') are formed in the same manner as the crossbeams (3) transversely connected to the columns (1). That is to say, each intermediate crossbeam (3') is made by covering an H-shaped steel element with a concrete fireproof coat with the top flange surface (9) and both end portions (11') exposed. The braces (14) are each formed by providing an H-shaped steel element with a concrete fireproof coat (16), leaving a joint end portion uncoated. The framed space defined by a pair of vertically adjacent crossbeams (3) and a pair of columns (1) is used for capsule unit insertion for a capsule unit and therefore can not be occupied by braces. Hence, the columns (1) and crossbeams (3) are in rigid combination without the aid of braces.
After the structure is thus built, the uncovered joint portions (2), (ll), (11') and (15) ofthe l-l-shaped steel elements are furnished respectively with concrete fireproof coats (17), (18), (19) and (20), which are previously produced at the factory. As will be seen in FIG. 2, the framed space sections defined in the structure by the columns (1), crossbeams (3) and girders (4) can be used for capsule units, public squares, gardens and other public and private applications. The residential capsule unit (22) to be installed in a framed space section (21) is lifted from the ground and moved into the space in a horizontal directon perpendicular to the crossbeams (3), and the unit thus inserted is firmly mounted on the front and rear crossbeams (3). The living capsule unit (22) houses various arrangements and has fireproof outer walls provided with necessary windows, doors, and so forth. As shown in FIG. 10, the bottom portion (23) of the capsule unit is composed, for example, of a deck plate (24) sandwiched by concrete fireproof coats (25), and the lower coat is in contact with the top flange surfaces (9) of the crossbeams (3), thus serving for fireproofing said surfaces (9).
When the framed space section (21) is used as a public space or occupied by at least one capsule unit (22), having a space portion left as a private space, an adequate number of floor boards (26) prepared by coating deck plates with light-weight concrete or floor boards made of reinforced concrete are securely laid on the crossbeams (3), extending from the front crossbeam (3) to the rear one, thereby fireproofing the top flange surfaces (9) of the crossbeams (3) just as when a capsule unit is installed. With these floor boards, the space can be utilized as a public open space or a private space for gardening. In a case where the joints of the floor boards are positioned on the upper surfaces of the crossbeams (3), small clearances exist. The clearances may however be filled with mortar or concrete. Besides, preformed ferroconcrete corridor boards (27) are fixed on the corridor board supporting girders (7), the top flanges (9) of which are thus provided with fireproof coverings.
In the illustrated embodiment, the girders, which are placed lower than the crossbeams, can not make contact with the bottom surfaces of the fioor boards or the capsule units. Therefore, fireproof cover plates formed beforehand are fixed on the girder top surfaces. The H-shaped steel of the column may be replaced by steel pipe, cast iron pipe, or another optional shape steel, while the H-steel of the girder and crossbeam may be replaced by a steel material produced by combining a pair of channel steel pieces in parallel arrangement. It is also possible to employ another fireproof coating material instead of concrete. When the capsule unit (22) is sufficiently fireproof, the fire resistance of the steel structure need not be taken into serious consideration. Besides, it is practicable to design a steel structure which has a fire resisting property satisfying construction standards.
By making the width of the capsule unit (22) an integral multiple of the width of the floor board (26), the number of capsule units to be installed in a given space (21) and the floor size can be set conveniently. When no capsule unit or floor board is installed in a space (21), there exists an opening through which the space communicates with the lower space (21), so that the opening can be used for installing a staircase, an elevator; or the like. Referring now to FIG. 9, the chain line represents grooves (28) and (29) formed respectively in a side surface of the fireproof coat (6) of the column (1) and in the bottom of the fireproof coat (6) of the girder (4). When a space (21) is not provided with any capsule unit but equipped with floor boards to be utilized as a space for common use, it is possible to make use of the grooves (28) and (29) to provide an external partition wall with much ease.
The following is an explanation of a method for installing a capsule unit (22) in the steel structure built as described hereinbefore. The capsule unit (22) is lifted up to the intended story by an adequate means such as a moving crane installed on the roof of the steel structure or a self-support type elevator. Reference is now made to FIG. 11, which illustrates the use of a moving crane by way of example, with the capsule unit (22) mounted on a pallet (31) equipped with support rollers (30). After the capsule unit (22) is thus lifted,
the front portion of the pallet (31) is fixed to the corrider board (27), and the capsule unit (22) is moved on the support rollers (30) so as to ride on the crossbeams (3) and (3) and further forced to slide on the crossbeams (3) and (3) until the unit (22) reaches the position shown by the chain line in the same figure. Instead of being slid on the crossbeams (3) and (3'), the capsule unit (22) may be advanced by the use of pulleys (32) fitted beforehand to the corridor boards (27), support wheels (33) fastened to the crossbeams (3) and (3), or the like.
Next, if necessary, a jack is interposed between the capsule unit (22) and the corridor board (27), and the capsule unit (22) is somewhat raised by means of the jack and adjusted in position, and then fixed on the crossbeams (3) and (3). When the levelness of the capsule unit is of vital importance, shims of adequate thickness are interposed between the bottom plate of the capsule unit (22) and the upper surface of the crossbeam (3) or (3) as required.
Referring to FIG. 12, which illustrates an exemplary method of fastening the capsule unit (22) on the crossbeam (3), a support (34) fixed to the crossbeam (3) and an L-shaped bracket (35) fastened to the bottom of the capsule unit (22) are joined by means of a bolt- (36) and a nut (37), so that the capsule unit (22) is secured to the crossbeam (3).
Since the steel structure of the present invention is constructed as described hereinabove, it is possible to define open spaces for various purposes and it is extremely easy to fit a capsule unit into one of the space sections defined in the structure and to remove the unit from the space, and the structure is high in both structural strength and fir'e resistance. Moreover, the structure is very simple in construction, employing prefabricated members, and therefore the required erection period is exceedingly short and the construction cost is inexpensive.
The arrangement of the mutually facing webs of each pair of depthwise spaced H-shaped steel columns is effective for enhancing the rigidity in the transverse direction, while vertically adjoining column-girder members are stiffened by braces. With this crosswise rigid and depthwise reinforced construction, the directional property of H-steel is skillfully utilized for the steel structure to be sufficiently strong to eliminate the necessity of bracing the structure in such a manner as to interrupt capsule unit insertion. Thus, it is not necessary to widen the framed space sections of the structure in view of brace arrangement, and the strength of the steel structure in the depthwise direction is made satisfactory by the braces occupying the space between each pair of vertically united column-girder members, thus never preventing the horizontal insertion of capsule units. Furthermore, since the steel columns, steel girders, and steel crossbeams are covered with fireproof coats, it is not required to install molds and the supports at the building site to place concrete or another fireproof material. Hence, the use of the fireproof-coated steel materials makes possible the easy and rapid construction of a fireproof-coated structure. Moreover, the uncovered top surfaces of the steel girders and steel crossbeams are easily leveled with high accuracy, thus enabling other members to be fastened directly on the steel girders and the steel crossbeams, so that the members can be connected firmly with much ease. In addition, it is to be noted here that a capsule unit can be inserted into and removed from the steel structure with extreme case, since the front portion of the pallet carrying the capsule unit can be fitted to one of the opposed corridor boards extending depthwise from the structure, in such a way that said front portion of the pallet are composed of the front mounting portion placed on the upper surface of the corridor boards and the front stopping portion fitted to the side surface of the corridor board.
What is claimed is:
1. A steel structure for prefabricated building to be assembled on a foundation which comprises:
a plurality of column-girder members each comprisa pair of H-shaped columns each having a web and flanges,
said columns being depthwise spaced from each other with said webs facing each other,
a steel girder extending in said depthwise direction and directly attached to and connecting said columns, and
a pair of corridor board supporting girders, one each directly attached to said columns and extending axially in the same direction as said steel girders;
said plurality of column-girder members being vertically connected at the columns thereof and spaced in the direction transverse to said depthwise direction;
a plurality of steel crossbeams each directly attached to and connecting said flanges of a pair of transversely adjacent columns of said transversely spaced column-girder members,
a plurality of braces connecting said columns and said steel girders of said vertically connected column-girder members;
said crossbeams together with said columns and steel girders defining a plurality of framed space sections;
a plurality of capsule units dimensioned to be selectively positioned within said framed space sections;
the opposed sides of all of said framed space sections in said depthwise direction being completely open, whereby said capsule units may be selectively inserted therein or withdrawn therefrom in either of the opposed depthwise directions; and
said capsule units being directly fastened to the upper surfaces of said steel crossbeams.
2. A structure asclaimed in claim 1, wherein said steel girders. are positioned lower than said steel crossbeams.
3. A structure as claimed in claim 1 wherein intermediate steel crossbeams are transversely secured to said steel girders.
4. A structure as claimed in claim 1 wherein said corridor board supporting girders are positioned lower than said steel crossbeams.
5. A structure as defined in claim 1 wherein a fireproof material is applied onto the circumferential surfaces of said steel columns, girders and crossbeams except the upper surfaces of said girders and crossbeams.