US 3823719 A
An inexpensive and efficient clamp type surgical instrument which is comfortable to use and eliminates excessive pressure at the jaws of the instrument is produced by incorporating heel and shoulder stops and open finger gripping loops having a return curve portion between the normal finger gripping position and the pivot axis of the instrument's arms. The return curve portion in the finger gripping loops of the instrument prevents the operator's fingers from sliding into the open portion of rhe fingerloops, thereby eliminating pinching the operator's fingers. The heel and shoulder stops assure that the jaws of the surgical instrument cannot have more force applied thereto than the instrument is designed to handle. As a result, these features of the surgical instrument of this invention cooperate to provide an inexpensive instrument having the rigidity and feel of more expensive surgical instruments.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Cummings 1 July 16, 1974 1 1 FINGER OPERATED FORCEPS TYPE SURGICAL INSTRUMENT  Inventor: Clinton M. Cummings, Southbury,
 Assignee: Acme United Corporation,
Nov. 14, 1972  Appl. No.: 306,321
 US. Cl .L 128/322, 128/325, 76/101, 128/321  Int. Cl. A611) 17/12, A6lb 17/28  Field of Search 128/322, 321, 325, 340, 128/346; 81/318; 32/63; D8/57  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS I 1,002,961 9/1911 Beuoy et a1 128/321 1 1,356,048 10/1920 Dederer 128/322 1,918,469 7/1933 Hargrave 76/10 R 2,583,892 1/1952 Sh e|lhouse.. 128/321 3,404,683 10/1968 Eizenberg.. 128/322 3,654,930 4/1972 Hobbs 128/325 D204,854 5/1966 Cumming. D8/57 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 28,711 12/1902 Great Britain...-. 128/322 1,152,220 8/1963 Germany ..128/322 Primary ExaminerAldrich F. Medbery Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Mattern, Ware and Davis  ABSTRACT ment prevents the operators fingers from sliding into the open portion of rhe fingerloops, thereby eliminating pinching the operators fingers. The heel and shoulder stops assure that the jaws of the surgical instrument cannot have more force applied thereto than the instrument is designed to handle. As a result, these features of the surgical instrument of this invention cooperate to provide an inexpensive instrument having the rigidity and feel of more expensive surgical instruments.
16 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures FINGER OPERATED FORCEPS TYPE SURGICAL INSTRUMENT BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This application relates to surgical instruments and more particularly to shear and clamp type surgical instruments and fingerloops and positive stops therefor.
Most prior art surgical instruments employ fingerloops which are either completely enclosed circles or partially opened loops. The completely circular fingerloops are effective in providing a comfortable gripping surface for the operator. However, the completely enclosed circular handles are extremely expensive to manufacture since they require expensive molding operations.
As a result, manufacturers have attempted to reduce the cost of surgical instruments by employing a fixed length of continuous rod-like material, which is bent into a desired shape, to form one arm of the instrument. As a result, the fingerloops on these types of instruments are not completely circular and have an open end portion. The major failing of these surgical instrumcnts, manufactured from a continuous length of rodlike material, is that the fingerloop construction is such that as the operator applies pressure at the fingerloops to effectuate operation of the instrument, his fingers slip along the fingerloops towards the open end ofthe loop. This is extremely uncomfortable and in many situations causes pinching of the operators fingers.
Another common failing in most prior art surgical instruments is the absence of a positive stop to prevent excessive pressure at the jaws of the instrument. The elimination of excessive pressure is extremely important. In an instrument such as a suture, excessive pressure on the blood vessels, which are sealed by the suture, may cause irreparable damage to the vessel necessitating surgical removal of that portion of the vessel. Similarly, with surgical towel clamps, excessive pressure on the clamping jaws may'damage these jaws and also may damage the towel, causing undesirable shredding or tearing. I
lnspi'te of the undesirable results caused by excessive pressure being applied at thejaws ofthe surgical instruments, most surgical instruments do not employ effective stops. To a large extent, the reason for the absence of an effective stop on these instruments is the high ad ditional cost required to produce an instrument with enough precision that the stops will effectively prevent excessive pressure while not interfering with thenormal operation of the instrument. v
Therefore, it is a principal object of the invention to provide a surgical instrument which is easily handled and comfortable to use.
' Another object of this invention is to provide a surgical instrument of the above character, whicheliminates excessive pressure at the jaws of the instrument.
Another object of this invention is to provide a surgical instrument of the above character, which eliminates pinching of the operators fingers during use.
A further object of this invention is to provide a surgical instrument of the above character, which is both economical and reusable.
Another object of this invention isto provide a surgical instrument of the above character, which is both simple and inexpensive to manufacture.
Other objects of this invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
SUMMARY or THE INVENTION A surgical instrument which embodies this invention is inexpensively manufactured from fixed lengths of continuous rod-like material which is bent into shape to form the pivotable arms of the surgical instrument. However, several unique, innovative features are incorporated in orderto provide the surgical instrument of this invention. The first of these features is provided in the formation of the fingerloops wherein, as the loop is constructed, a reversed curve is incorporated into the finger loop just prior to reaching the open end portion of the fingerloopfbetween the normal finger holding position and the pivot axis of the arms. This reverse curve provides a comfortable holding position for the fingers of the operator while also preventing the operators fingers from slipping intothe open portion of the fingerloop, thereby preventing pinching.
Another feature incorporated in the surgical instrument of this invention is the shoulder and heel stop, which prevent the operator from applying excessive pressure on the jaws of the surgical instrument. The heel and shoulder stops are incorporated into the arms of the surgical instrument by flattening a portion ofthe rod-like material about the point where the arms will be pivotably interconnected. As a result, the side or shoulder of the flattened portion of one arm will come into abutting contact with the heel or raised portion of the terminating edge ofthe other arm. Consequently, when the heel and shoulder portions are brought into abutting contact, the arms can no longer pivot. This preformed using the entire diameter of the rod, or extension portion provided for the ratchet teeth. Since the ratchet construction is made so as to allow easy locking engagement of the teeth, the ratchet teeth are both beveled to be easily advanced over each other. However, since the entire diameter of the rod or extension portion is used for the ratchet teeth, application of additional force causesthe ratchet teeth to continue to be advanced over each other resulting in excessive force being applied at the'jaws and the interconnecting pivot point.
In the construction of the surgical instrument of this invention, a portion of the rod is removed and the ratchet teeth are formed in the remaining portion. This provides a ratchet portion which does not comprise the entire diameter of the rod material while also having a ratchet stop at that point when the full diameter of the rod is reached. As a result, when the ratchet teeth are advanced to their full extent, the initial contacting point between the ratchet teeth abut the remaining full diameter wall of the rod material, forming this positive stop. Therefore, continued camming of the ratchet As a result of the flattening operation, portion 36'of arm 22 incorporates two side or shoulder stops 50 and 52 and two heel or raised portions 54 and 56. Similarly, portion 37 of arm 24 incorporates two side or shoulder stops 60 and 62 and two heel or raised portions 64 and 66. When arm members 22 and 24 are pivotably interconnected by rivet 26, shoulder 50 comes into abutting contact with heel 66 when the jaws of towel clamp are closed. Similarly, shoulder 52 comes into abutting contact with heel 64, shoulder 60 comes into abutting contact with heel 56, and shoulder 62 comes into abut ting contact with heel 54 when the jaws of towel clamp 20 are closed.
As a result, a firm and secure heel and shoulder stop is provided which prevents jaws 28 and from coming into greater cooperating overlapping contact than is desired. This prevents any unwanted, excessive pres sure and excessive overlap at the jaws of the surgical instrument. Furthermore, since the heel and shoulder stops are easily manufactured during the formation of the arm members of the surgical instruments without 'the requirement for expensive measuring of molding operations, the surgical instrument of this invention incorporates these unique features while still providing a surgical instrument that is inexpensive to manufacture.
The final feature of the surgical instrument of this invention is the interlocking ratchet construction, best seen in FIGS. 3 and 3A. Substantially straight portions 44 of arms 22 and 24 incorporate ratchet teeth 70 which are beveled .to cooperatingly slide over each other. into a locked position and be maintained in this locked position until release. The use of ratchet teeth in surgical instruments is well known in the art, however, virtually all prior art surgical instruments have the tips of the ratchet teeth substantially coinciding with the outer peripheral surface of portion 44. In the ratchet construction of this invention, the tips of ratchet teeth 70 do not coincide with outer surface 72 of portion 44, and instead are spaced substantially inward of outer surface 72.
Substantially straight portion 44 also incorporates leading edge 74 which marks the beginning of ratchet teeth 70 and a substantially flat wall 76 at the end of the ratchet teeth construction. Since the tips of ratchet teeth 70 do not extend to outer surface 72 of portion 44, surface 76 extends from the last required ratchet position to outer surface 72. Preferably, surface 76 is substantially flat and substantially perpendicular to outer surface 72. As a result, when the leading edges 74 70 from being advanced beyond the desired locking po-' sition, which would result in unwanted spreading or bending of portions 44.
Finger slip-preventing portions 34 cooperate with the ratchet stop arrangement to prevent the fingers of the user from being pinched when the ratchet's stop sur-,
faces 76 prevent further advancement of the finger holding portions 32. Also, shoulder stops 50, 52, 60
and 62, and heel stops 54, 56, 64 and 66 cooperate with the ratchets stop surfaces 76 to prevent excessivepressure from being applied to jaw members 28 and 30 when in the closed position. Similarly, finger slippreventing portions 34 cooperate with shoulder stops 50, 52, and 62 and heel stops 54, 56, 64 and 66 to prevent finger pinching when jaw members 28 and 30 are in the closed position.
As is obvious to one skilled in the art, the finger slippreventing portion, the heel and shoulder stops, and the ratchet construction described above'and exemplified by the towel clamp of the drawings, can be effectively employed in any shear and clamp type surgical instrument including, but not limited to, sutures, hemostats, sponge clamps, etc., as well as in other shear and clamp type instruments not related to the surgical field. Furthermore, these features can be embodied in other instruments individually or in alternate combinations, depending upon the particular application.
It will best be seen that the objects as set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efficiently attained and, since certain changes may be made in the above article without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that allm'atter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings, shall be intepreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
It is also to be understood that the following Claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A hand-operated surgical instrument comprising two cooperating arms pivotally interconnected along a single axis, each of said arms comprising;
A. a jaw member located at one end of said arm; and
B. a finger loop located at the other end of said arm,
said loop comprising a means for preventing unwanted finger advancement toward said pivot axis incorporating a finger-restraining section in the portion of the loop nearest said pivot axis, said section defined by a curved portion extending towards the loop and a reverse-curved portion extending away from the loop.
2. An instrument as defined in claim- 1, wherein each of said cooperating arms is manufactured from a single piece of rod-like material.
3. An instrument as defined in claim 2, wherein said curved portion of said finger restraining section comprises a concavely curved portion converging smoothly with said finger loop.
4. An instrument-as defined in claim 3, wherein said reverse-curved portion of said finger restraining section further comprises a convexly curved portion convergheight less than the cross-sectional height of said ratchet lock section.
7. An instrument as defined in claim 6, wherein said ratchet lock section comprises a substantially flat surface extending from the terminating edge of the last ratchet tooth to the outer peripheral surface of said ratchet lock section, preventing further engaged advancement of interlocked ratchet sections.
8. An instrument as defined in claim 2, wherein each of said arms are further defined as comprising a substantially flat zone peripherally disposed about said pivot axis and incorporating:
a. a heel stop, and
b. a shoulder stop cooperating with the heel stop of the other arm to prevent additional closing force from being applied to said jaw members, once said jaw members are closed.
9. A hand-operated surgical instrument comprising two cooperating arms pivotally interconnected along a single axis, and comprising:
A. cooperating jaw members, each located on one end of said arms, spaced away from said pivot axis in a similar direction;
B. finger loops spaced away from said pivot axis in an opposite direction from said jaw members;
C. a substantially flat zone peripherally disposed about said pivot axis and incorporating:
a. a heel stop, and
b. a shoulder stop cooperating with the heel stop of the other arm to prevent additional closing force from being applied to said jaw members when said jaw members are closed; and
D. means for preventing further engaged advancement of interlocked ratchet sections comprising ratchet lock sections mounted-on each arm adjacent said finger loops, each comprising a substantiallyv flat surface extending from the terminating edge of the last ratchet tooth to the outer peripheral surface of said ratchet lock section.
10. An instrument as defined in claim 9, wherein said finger loops are further defined as incorporating means for preventing unwanted advancement of the finger toward said pivot axis comprising a double reverse-curved finger-restraining section in the portion of the loop nearest said pivot axis.
11. An instrument as-defined in claim 9, wherein said shoulder stop is further defined as comprising one of the sides of said arm adjacent to said flat zone.
12. An instrument as defined in claim 9, wherein said LII heel stop comprises the intermediate raised portion between said substantially flat zone and the outer peripheral surface of said arm.
13. An instrument as defined in claim 9, wherein each of said ratchet lock sections comprises at least two interlocking ratchet teeth having an effective, extending height less than the cross-section height of said ratchet lock section.
14. A hand-operated surgical instrument comprising two cooperating arms pivotally interconnected along a single axis, and comprising:
A. cooperating jaw members, each located on one end of said arms, spaced away from said pivot axis in an identical direction;
B. a finger-loop portion for controlling the movement of said arms and said jaw members spaced away from said pivot axis in an opposite direction from said jaw members; and
C. a ratchet lock section mounted on each arm, interconnected with said finger loop portion, and comprising:
a. at least two interlocking ratchet teeth having a height less than the height of said ratchet lock section, and
b. a substantially flat surface extending from the terminating edge of the last ratchet tooth to the outer peripheral surface of the ratchet lock section comprising a means for preventing further engaged advancement of interlocked ratchet sections.
15. An instrument as defined in claim 14, wherein said handle portion is further defined as comprising:
a. a finger holding portion for controlling the movement of said arms and said jaw members, and
b. a finger slip-preventing portion positioned between said finger holding portion and said pivot axis for preventing unwanted advancement from said finger holding portion toward said pivot axis.
jaw members are closed.
l l l [111 3,823,720 [4 July 16,1974
[ SURGICAL DRAIN  Inventor: David E. Tribble, 1400 Barnwell St.,
Columbia, SC. 29201 22 Filed: June21,1972
211 Appl. No.: 264,757
 US. Cl 128/350 R, 128/240, 128/260  Int. Cl A6lb 27/00  Field of Search 128/276, 278, 348, 349 R, 128/350 R, 240, 241, 260, 268
FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS France 128/350 R H1906 France 128/350 R 8/1952 Germany 128/276 Primary Examiner-Dalton L. Truluck Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Nathaniel A. Humphries,
[ 57] ABSTRACT A surgical drain is disclosed in the form of a drainage catheter about the inner or distal end of which a nylon net is wrapped and retained in position loosely by a plurality of ties with the net and catheter being encased in a thin rubber sheath in a loose manner so that air can flow into the sheath when the outer or proximal end of the catheter is connected to suction; an additional feature 'resides in an irrigation catheter extending through and along the length of the sheath for providing an irrigation discharge outwardly of the distal end of the sheath for discharging internally of the sheath for internally flushing the sheath for discharge via the suction catheter.
10 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PATENTED JUL! 61974