US 3824354 A
A man-to-machine interface system including activator or wand means which is movable, using generally the same musculature as in writing, to and/or through various combinations of vertical and lateral positions to develop at least two signals, one of which is representative of the vertical position of the wand and one of which is representative of the lateral position of the wand. These signals may be developed as by the wand means actuating switch means. These signals are paired by appropriate means and correlated with machine functions assigned to the various combinations of signals to provide input signals to the machine that cause it to perform those functions that correspond to those combinations of positions to or through which the wand is moved.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
UnitediStatesPatent [191 Anderson et a1.
[ OPERATOR MEANS ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE SWITCH ARRAY AND SIGNAL TO FUNCTION CORRELATOR MEANS  Inventors: Norman G. Anderson; Norman L.
Anderson, both of 126 Westlook Cir., Oak Ridge, Tenn. 37830 22 Filed: Mar. 17, 1972 21 Appl. No.: 235,614
 U.S. Cl 200/1 R, 200/18, 2'00/6 A, 178/23 R, 340/365 R  Int. Cl. H0lh 9/00  Field of Search 200/6 A, 17 R, 1 R, 18; 340/345 R, 365 R; 178/23 A, 101;, 235/145  9 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,391,881 l/1946 2,841,659 7/1958 2,984,720 5/l96l 3,022,878 2/1962 3,238,316 3/1966 3,271,532 9/1966 3,283,088 11/1966 1111 5 3,824,354 [451 July 16, 1974 3,293,381 12/1966 Eitel 200/6 A 3,319,884 5/1967 Franklin 235/145 R 3,428,747 2/1969 Alferieff 340/365 R X 3,507,376 4/1970 Kafafian 178/101 X Primary Examiner-James R. Scott Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Fitch, Even, Tabin & Luedeka 5 7] ABSTRACT A man-to-machine interface system including activator or wand means which is movable, using generally the same musculature as in writing, to and/or through various combinations of vertical and lateral positions to develop at least two signals, one of which is representative of the vertical position of the wand and one of which is representative of the lateral position of the wand. These signals may be developed as by the wand means actuating switch means. These signals are paired by appropriate means and correlated with machine functions assigned to the various combinations of signals to provide input signals to the machine that cause it to perform those functions that correspond to those combinations of positions to or through which the wand is moved.
6 Claims, 14 DrawingFigures mm m 1 6 m4 SHEU 01 0f 12 MAN POW SOUR INTERFACE SIGNALTO-FUNCTION CORRELATOR MACHINE Pmunuwus 3.824.354
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CONTROL CIRCUITRY MACHINE OPERATOR MEANS ASSOCIATED MULTIPLE SWITCH ARRAY AND SIGNAL TO FUNCTION CORRELATOR MEANS Previously described interfacing devices or systems fall into three general classes, the first of which includes the typewriter in which one key stands for one or two symbols, and where, except for the shift key, only one key is depressed at a time. The second class, exemplified by the stenotype, has the same .invariant key-symbol relations but more than one key may be depressed at a time yielding simultaneously printed letter groupings. The third class of interface uses multiple simultaneous inputs from a multiplicity of keys to code for a single letter, digraph, or even word. With ten fmgers, and each finger having choice of two or more keys, 1,024 or more possible choices exist. One such system of this class is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,532,228. Interfaces of the third class have not come into general use because, while the hand positions described are natural, the complex movements described are not; the codes are extremely difficult to teach, the charts used toteach them complex, and unlike the typewriter where one can visually check a key before depressing it, no direct visual check has been possible. Moreover, such interfaces are inoperable by certain physically handicapped, paraplegic or similar individuals, where the fingers may be present in insufficient numbers, may be deformed or lack proper control. Such individuals, as well as blind persons, who have difficulty learning keyboard positions and what they represent, also experience considerable difficulty with multiple-key type keyboard interfaces.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a man-to-machine interface system, particularly such a system wherein the natural writing movements of a man are employed to advantage. It is also an object to provide a man-to-machine interface system which is relatively uncomplicated in construction and mode of operation and which is compact and adaptable for use with various machines in various environments. It is a further object to provide a man-to-machine interface system which requires a minimum of movable human body members for functioning of the system. It is a further object to provide a system of the type described including a display of the progress of the system functioning, making the system readily self-taught. It is a still further object to provide a system of the type described which functions speedily and has a large capacity.
Other objects and advantages will be recognized from the following description including the drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a diagram of a man-to-machine arrange ment including the disclosed system;
FIG. 2 is a representation of a system depicting various features of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a representation of a wand as employed in the disclosed system;
FIG. 4 is a representation of a gimbal-type mount for the wand of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a representation of a vertical bank of switches as employed in the disclosed system;
FIG. 6 is a'fragmentary top view of the wand of FIG. 3 and a plurality of circumscribing microswitches;
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of various circuitry and other components of the disclosed system;
FIGS. 8A and 8B are a schematic diagram depicting the relationship of various microswitches, AND gates and the machine function associated therewith;
FIG. 9 is a plan layout of the relationship of various lateral wand positions with various vertical wand positions;
FIG. 10 is a representation of a display of the various possible machine functions;
FIG. '11 is a representation of a further embodiment of a system in accordance with the disclosure;
FIG. 12 is a fragmentary top viewof the wand and writing surface of the system shown in FIG. 11; and
FIG. 13 is an enlarged fragmentary view of the wand shown in FIG. 11.
In accordance with the present system, a multiplefunction machine is operated by a man acting through an interface to develop signals useful to cause the machine to function. In general, the interface system includes activator or wand means which is movable,
1 using generally the same musculature as in writing, to
and/or through various combinations of vertical and lateral positions to develop at least two signals, one of which is representative of the vertical position of the wand and one of which is representative of the lateral position of the wand. These signals are paired by appropriate means and correlated with machine functions assigned to the various combinations of signals to provide input'signals to the machine that cause it to perform those functions that correspond to those combinations of positions to, or through which the wand is moved.
. Advantageously, the wand'represents a single locus of I control, as distinguished from multiple keys. Its movements extend through only limited excursions in three dimensions so that the usual highly developed writing musculature is used in bringing about the desired functioning of the machine. Consequently, good accuracy and speed of the operator is realized.
The thumb and forefinger of man are capable of the 7 most refined movements of all musculature, and during life a large amount of time and effort is spent in all societies refining and extending skills related to these fingers, while very little attention is paid, except in musical studies, typewriting and the like, to developing sequential movement patterns involving all fingers. In the present system, use of motor pathways highly developed during evolution is combined with motor skills normally learned, in an advantageous manner to provide machine inputs.
In one embodiment of the present system, the activator means comprises a pencil-like wand which is movable to a plurality of vertical postions and to a plurality of lateral positions while in each such vertical position. In each selected vertical position, the wand actuates a switch means such as a microswitch, to develop a signal representative of such vertical position. While located in a selected vertical position, the wand is moved laterally to one of its plurality of possible lateral positions whereupon another switch means is actuated and there is developed a further signal representative of its lateral position. These signals are paired by appropriate means to develop an input signal to the machine which causes the machine to perform a function which is representative of the vertical and lateral positions of the wand. Sequential movement of the wand between various positions results in sequential functioning of the machine. Notably, at least two signals are employed to provide a resultant suitable input signal to the machine,contrary to the prior art systems such as electric typewriters where depression of a single key develops a single input signal to the machine, requiring large keyboards and unnatural finger movements for their operation and resulting in limited speeds of operation.
Whereas it is recognized that actuation of a switch does not literally develop an electrical signal, for the present purposes, the actuation of a microswitch by the wand is referred to as developing an electrical signal that is fed to other electrical apparatus. Such wording is chosen in part for convenience of expression but also with the intent to include other alternative electrical or nonelectrical components that may be used in system in which case valves would be used in place of the microswitches. In either event, the functioning of the wand is substantially the same.
With reference to FIG. 1, the disclosed system functionally connects a man to a machine through an interface and a signal-to-function correlator, there being provided a source of power for the interface and for the machine;
In the illustrated embodiment, the apparatus of the disclosed system comprises an'upstanding elongated wand 20 which is anchored in a manner thatpermits vertical movement of the wand and which also permits pivotal or lateral movement of the upper end 22 of the wand. As shown in FIGS. 2 and 4, such anchoring of the wand is accomplished by a gimbal-type mounting 24 including an arm 26 pivotally mounted at one of its ends 28 to a fixed bracket 30 as by pin means 25 and having a yoke 32 on its unattached end 34, the legs 36 and 38 of which receive the wand 20 therebetween.
. The wand is pinned to the yoke 32 as by pins 40 and 42 (only onepin is visible in FIG. 2) which reside in elongated slots 44 and 46 in the legs 36 and 38, respectively, of the yoke to permit at least limited rotational movement of the wand. As noted, the arm 26 is pivotally mounted so that the wand 20 is provided with vertical freedom of movement. In addition, the yoke 32 is pivotally connected to the arm 26 by means of a shaft 45 fitted in a bore 47 in the outboard end 34 of the arm. This shaft is retained in the bore as by means of a screw 49 threadly received in the arm 26 and engaging a circumferential slot 51 on the shaft so that the shaft, hence the yoke is held in the bore but is free to rotate about the axis of the shaft. By means of this mounting and the pins 40 and 42 that reside in slots 44 and 46, the wand is provided with lateral freedom of movement.
The depicted wand (FIGS. 2 and 3) comprises two elongated elements 48 and 50, the first element 48 of which comprises a hollow tube which receives the other of the elongated elements 50 therein. The second or inner element 50 is pivotally secured as by a pin 52 to the outer tubular element 48 at a location approximately half-way between the ends of the inner element 50. The two elements 48 and 50- are coterminal at the upper end 22 of the wand and are provided with knurled knobs 4 and 56 respectively, adapted to be grasped, as between the thumb 59 and forefinger 60, to effect movement of the wand between its various positions using generally the same musculature as that used in normal writing. A spring 62 secured to the lower leg 64 of the inner element 50 bears against the inner wall 66 of the tubular element at a position such that the knob 56 of the inner element is spring-biased away from the knob 54 on the tubular element and the lower end 64 of the inner element 50 is spring-biased away from a microswitch 68 whose function will be referred to hereinafter.
The arm 26 which serves as a gimbal-type mount for Each of the microswitches is mounted on the end of a leaf spring 104, 106, 108, 110, 112 and 114 with the leaf spring of each of the two microswitches'96 and 98 nearest the arm (one above and one below) being of the same length to give them substantially equal spring constants. The leaf springs of the next two microswitches 94 and. 100 in the vertical bank are likewise matched as are the leaf springs of subsequent pairs of microswitches in the bank.
As illustrated in FIG. 5, when the wand 20 is moved upward, the arm 26 is also moved upward and contacts the microswitch 96 to actuate this microswitch. By reason of the spring constant of the leaf spring 108 on which the microswitch 96 is mounted and the force required to physically move the spring-biased contact element 106 of the microswitch 96, there is a definite resistance imposed against the arm which tends to restrict upward movement of the arm 26. This resistance is discernible by the operator through his finger and thumb that holds the wand. The resistance is not so great that it is not readily overcome by a lifting force applied to the wand by the operator, but it is definite and discernible so that the operator can readily detect when he has contacted or moved out of contact with the microswitch 96. Each of the additional microswitches 94 and 92 in the upper part of the bank 90 exerts a further and wand or by keeping account of the increments of increased resistance. The arm 26 is biased by a spring 118 to a neutral position wherein it does not actuate any one of the microswitches in the vertical bank.
In the illustrated. apparatus, the wand 20 is circumscribed by a plurality of microswitches 120, eight in the depicted apparatus, mounted in a horizontally oriented ring bracket 122. Each of the microswitches is spaced radially apart from the upstanding wand but each is secured sufficiently near the wand to permit the microswitch to be actuated upon its being contacted by the wand as the wandis moved laterally by the operator. 'By reason of the continuous cylindrical surface of the wand 20, once it is moved into acontact with a switch, the wand may be moved vertically either up or down, without losing contact with the switch as will be discussed further. The lateral microswitches 120 in the illustrated apparatus are individually separated by positioning the contact element 124 of each microswitch within a concavity 126 on the inner wall 128 of the bracket 122. The joinder between adjacent concavities defines a raised detent 130 between the adjacent concavities which forces a slight radially inward movement of the wand before it can be moved from one microswitch to another. The horizontal position of the bracket 122 is maintained by means of a support member 1332 which serves -to mount the bracket 122 on one wall 134 of an appropriate housing 136 which is shown only in part in the drawings.v
From the foregoing description, it will be apparent that the wand is movable by an operator to one of several lateral positions to contact and actuate the microswitch located in such lateral position. By reason of a greater weight provided on the bottom leg of the wand and the gimbal-type mounting of the wand, the wand is biased toward a neutral lateral position wherein the wand is not in contact with any one of the microswitches 120 which circumscribe the wand. Thus, actuation of any microswitch requires positive action by the operator.
Other microswitches 138 and 140 are actuatable by rotation of the wand in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction so as to move a lug 142 mounted on the wand into contact with one of such other microswitches 138 and 140.
In the illustrated system, there are seven vertical levels designated +3, +2, +1, 0, 1, 2, and 3, reading from the top microswitch down and designating the neutral position as 0. For each vertical level, there are eight possible lateral positions of the wand. As referred to hereinbefore, by reason of the cylindrical shape of the wand where it contacts the lateral microswitches, the wand may be held in contact with a selected microswitch and moved up or down to select a different vertical level, hence a different machine function.
As will appear more fully hereinafter, the actuation of a microswitch, (whether it be opening or closing of the switch is a matter of choice) completes an electrical circuit to pass a signal to appropriate electrical apparatus. The described wand is thus capable of actuating at least one microswitch to develop a signal representative of the lateral position and while so holding such microswitch actuated, to actuate at least one other microswitch to develop a further signal which is representative of the vertical position of the wand.
With reference to FIG. 7, each of the microswitches of the depicted apparatus is connected in an appropriate electrical circuit including a source of electrical power I44 which is fed through a transformer 146 to the system. One lead 148 from the transformer is connectedto a solenoid 150 adapted to actupon apparatus such as a typewriter key 151 and cause it to function as by striking a roll 152 and printing a letter. Each of the several microswitches has one of its poles 154 connected to a further lead 156 from the transformer 146. The second pole 158 of each microswitch is connected to an AND gate 160 whose output lead 162 is connected to the solenoid 150. As depicted, each AND gate 160 requires an input signal from each of two microswitches 120 and 88 before it develops an output signal. In accordance with the present system, one input to an AND gate is provided by a microswitch 120 whose signal is representative of the lateral position of the wand and the other input signal is provided by a microswitch 88 whose signal is representative of the vertical position of the wand. Accordingly, the AND gate output is representative of both the lateral and vertical positions of the wand so that the machine function which is effected by the AND gate 160 is also representative of such lateral and vertical positions of the wand.
Conversely stated, the functioning of the machine is chosen by choice of the lateral and vertical positions of the wand.
It will be recognized that the circuitry depicted in FIG. 7 is fragmentary and intended to be representative of the functioning of the individual components of the present system. In the total circuitry, there is one AND gate provided for each desired machine function and at least two microswitches connected to each AND gate. One suitable combination of AND gates and switches for producing inputs to an electric typewriter, for example, is shown in FIGS. 8 and 9. In these Figures, the eight microswitches whose respective actuation is representative of lateral positions of the wand are designated 1 through 8, with number 1 being in the 12 oclock position relative to the operator, and the six microswitches in the vertical bank are designated +3, +2, +1, 1, 2, and 3. The neutral position of the arm 26 is designated as 0 as referred to above. The right (clockwise) rotational position of the wand wherein the lug 142 actuates microswitch 140 is designated R and the left (counterclockwise) rotational position wherein the lug 142 actuates microswitch 138 is designated L. The letter P is used to designate the position of the knurled knobs 54 and 56 when they are pinched or pressed together to cause the inner element of the wand to actuate the microswitch 68. In the illustrated system, the single signal developed upon actuation of the microswitches 138, 140 or 68 (position L, R, and
. P, respectively) is fed directly to the machine without the use of an AND gate. As depicted, positions L, R, and P effect carriage return, shift to capital letters, and spacing functions of the typewriter, respectively.
In one example of operation of the present system,
the wand is positioned in the neutral vertical position,
(position 0 in FIGS. 5 and 8) to feed a signal to AND gates 164, 166, 168, 170, 172, 174, 176 and 178. The wand is next moved laterally into contact with microswitch (position 1 in the circuitry of FIG. 8) to send a further signal to AND gate 164. These two signals are fed to the AND gate 164 and cause it to develop an output signal which when received by the typewriter causes it to print the letter N. Other letters are caused to be typed by moving the wand to other positions, either laterally, vertically or both. Appropriate conventional circuitry (not shown) provides control over the number of times a letter is typed per each output from an AND gate. By reason of the placement of the microswitches with respect to the wand, the wand is readily moved to any of its various positions, laterally or vertical (including rotation and pinching together of the knobs), throughthe use of generally the same musculature as employed in writing, that is, laterally as in forming written letters or figuresand vertically as in lifting a writing instrument off a paper or in accentuating the written letters by varying the pressure on the writing instrument. This use of the more developed motor pathways enhances the speed at which the wand can be moved, making the present system faster and more efficient than prior art devices or systems.
The present system is readily learned, even being amenable to self-teaching. As depicted in FIG. 10, preferably the present system includes a visible indication of the position (lateral and vertical) of the wand before the machine responds by typing that letter represented by the wand position. This is accomplished by causing the outputs of the several AND gates to be directed through a display panel 182 which gives a visual indication of each possible machine function (letters and numbers in the illustrated apparatus). As a particular machine function is ordered, the corresponding function on the panel is lighted, for example, for ready recognition by the operator. A further feature includes a variable delay 184 in'the electrical circuitry between each AND gate and the machine. In accordance with this delay, if the operator moves the wand to an incorrect position and detects such by observing the visible indication on the display panel, he has time to move the wand to correct his error prior to the machine functioning. The time of delay preferably is variable so as to allow longer times for beginners to interrogate a position and make a correction if necessary. For more experienced operators, the delay can be substantially eliminated.
In a further embodiment of the disclosed system, a wand 190 is tipped with a ball 192 of a magnetic material which is mounted in a socket 194 in the end of the wand such that the ball will rotate as it is moved over a circular writing surface or plate 196. The writing surface is of a'nonelectrically conductive material, such as a plastic, and has eight individual sectors 198, 200, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210 and 212. In FIG. 12, these sectors are designated 1 through 8, respectively, in the same manner as the lateral microswitches described hereinbefore.
In this latter embodiment, when the ball 192 is rolled into contact with a sector 198, for example, a signal (corresponding to the actuation of a microswitch as described earlier) is developed as by'an increase in the capacitance of the sector or through some other electrical property of the sector. Through circuitry readily provided by one skilled in the art, when a signal is developed through the ball contacting a sector, a solenoid 214 mounted beneath and concentric with the writing surface is actuated to draw the ball from the sector to the approximate center of the writing surface, such being the neutral lateral position of the ball, i.e. the wand.
Beneath the sector-containing surface of the writing plate, there is provided a like-sized sheet of permanently magnetic material 216. This magnetic material attracts the ball and keeps it in contact with the writing plate. The writing plate and its magnetic sheet is mounted on a central rod 218 which is slidably received in a central bore 220 of a pedestal 222, thereby mounting the plate 196 in a manner which permits it to move up or down. Inasmuch as the ball 192 is held in contact with the plate 196 by the magnetic attraction between the ball and the magnetic sheet 216, the operator canselect or change the vertical position of the plate 196 at will (corresponding to the vertical wand movements described before).
Thebottom surface 224 of the plate 196 is provided with a lug 226 to which there is pivotally connected One end of a link 228. The other end of the link 228 is connected to a rocker arm 230 that is centrally pivoted to a mounting pedestal 232. The outboard end 234 of the rocker arm 230 is provided with a contact element 236 comprising a rounded tip 238 secured to or integrally formed with a sleeve 240 having a central bore 242.
The sleeve is fitted on the outboard end 234 of the rocker arm 230, the rocker arm end being received in the bore 242 of the sleeve 240..A spring 244 is inserted in the bore of the sleeve prior to its being fitted onto the rocker arm so as to bias the sleeve, hence the rounded contact tip, away from the rocker arm and into contact with an arcuate surface 246 on a bracket 248 which has a plurality of electrical contacts 250, 252, 254, 256 and 258 mounted therein. These contacts are exposed at spaced apart locations along the arcuate surface 246 so that the rounded tip 238, the arcuate surface 246 and the contacts define a type of sliding rotary switch 246 wherein one of the contacts is touched by the tip 238 at each of five different vertical levels of the plate 196 to close an appropriate circuit between the rocker arm 230 and the contact and develop a signal representative of the vertical position of the plate 196. The curvature of the surface 246 is chosen so that'the radial distance between the surface 246 and the pivotal connection of the rocker arm 230 to the pedestal 232 decreases as the tip 238 moves in either direction away from the central contact 254 thereby compressing the spring 244 and increasing the resistance to vertical movement of the plate by the operator to provide him with an indication of the vertical position of the plate 196.
The operation of this alternative embodiment is substantially identical to the previously described embodiment in that the operator moves the wand to various combinatons of vertical and lateral positions to develop pairs of signals which bring about functioning of the machine.
By way of example, in the alternative, the signals from the several AND gates may be fed to conventional apparatus adapted to utilize such signals for purposes other than operation of a typewriter. Similarly, appropriate circuitry and/or apparatus may be interposed between the AND gates and the machine to provide any of several desired results. In a specific example, the operator may utilize the English language in moving the activator through appropriate locations to type a message in English. The signals from the AND gates in such example may be fed into conventional equipment for translating the English message into another language so that the machine types or prints the message in the new language.
While the present description has included specific examples and embodiments, it will be understood that there is no intent to limit it by such disclosure, but
, rather, it is intended to cover all modifications and alternate constructions falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as'defined in the appended claims. What is claimed is:
l. A man-to-machine interface system including activator means adapted to be moved to a plurality of lateral and vertical positions, said activator means occupying not more than one lateral position and one vertical position at any given time, first plurality of switch means disposed in spaced apart relationship to each other and in operative proximity to said activator means, each of said first plurality of switch means being responsive to a single lateral positionof said activator means to translate said lateral position of said activator means into a signal that is representative of such lateral position,
a second plurality of switch means disposed in spaced apart relationship to each other and in operative proximity to said activator means, each of said second plurality of switch means being responsive to a single vertical position of said activator means to translate said vertical position of said activator means into a signal that is representative of such vertical position, signal-to-function correlator means receiving said signal that is representative of the lateral position of said activator means and said signal that is representative of the vertical position of said activator means, said correlator means including a plurality of means each ofwhich is adapted to pass a selected signal representative of the lateral position of said activator means and a selected signal representative of the vertical position of said activator means to provide an input signal to a machine adapted to perform a plurality of individual functions each of which is adapted to be actuated upon receipt of an input signal representative of an assigned combination of one lateral and one vertical position of said activator means.
2. The interface system of claim 1 wherein said plurality of switch means responsive to vertical positions of said activator means are disposed in an upright bank with individual ones of said switches being spaced from each other in a vertically stacked array, and including a contact member operatively connected to said activator means and interposed in said bank of switches whereby vertical movement of said contact member moves said contact element into actuating relationship with a first one of said switch means in said bank and further movement of said contact member moves said first one of said switch means into actuating realtionship with a further one of said switch means.
3. The interface system of claim 1 and including housing means receiving and mounting said plurality of switch means responsive to lateral positions of said activator means in positions concentrically and spaced apart from said activator means within respective concavities defined by said housing so that movement of said activator means from one lateral position to another lateral position requires radially inward movement of said activator means prior to changing of its lateral position.
4. The interference system of claim 1 including housing means for supporting said activator means in operative relation to each of said plurality of switch means wherein said activator means comprises a hollow cylindrical upright member mounted in said housing means and adapted to engage individual 'ones of said pluralities of switch means, a further cylindrical upright member disposed within said first hollow cylindrical member, said second member being pivotally mounted with respect to said first member, and switch means disposed adjacent the lower end of said second member whereby pivotal movement of said second member within said first member functions to bring said lower end of said second member into actuating relationship with said switch means, said second member being biased out of actuating relationship with said switch means.
5; The man-to-machine interface system of claim 1 and including means connected to said signal-tofunction correlator means for receiving and visually displayingsaid input signal to said machine.
6. The man-to-machine interface system of claim 5 and includingsignal delay means interposed between said visual display means and said machine for providing a discrete time delay in the transmission of said input signal from said visual display means to said machine whereby said input signal is displayed during said time delay.