|Publication number||US3825465 A|
|Publication date||Jul 23, 1974|
|Filing date||Mar 24, 1972|
|Priority date||Mar 24, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3825465 A, US 3825465A, US-A-3825465, US3825465 A, US3825465A|
|Original Assignee||Stock R|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (48), Classifications (18)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
July 23, R STOCK THREE DIMENSIONAL RETICULATED STRUCTURE Filed March 24, 1972 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 PIC-1.1
23, 1974 R. STOCK THREE DIMENSIONAL RETICULATED STRUCTURE Filed March 24, 1972 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 United States Patent US. Cl. 161-112 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A three dimensional, open mesh structure is described which is fabricated from sheet stock of metal, paper or the like. The sheet stock is slit in a predetermined pattern and then is expanded to form the structure. The structure has a three dimensional shape with a reticulated pattern of apertures in planar surfaces transverse to the plane of the sheet material prior to its expansion. The structure is formed by a plurality of unbroken, continuous strips of material lying in a plurality of superimposed planes, each strip having a sinuous path departing in regular frequency to either side of a medial line with web sections lying on said medial line where each strip is in joined, unbroken attachment to immediately adjacent strips and with each pair of such adjacent strips defining said apertures. The structure is useful to form the core of a wall with elongated reinforcement members disposed perpendicular to the planar surfaces and extending through superimposed apertures of the reticulated pattern. The wall comprises the aforementioned assembly of reinforcement members and three dimensional structure with a plastic material such as plaster encasing the assembly.
This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application, Ser. No. 62,337, filed Nov. 13, 1970 and now abandoned.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to an expanded sheet product, the assembly of the product with reinforcing members to form a core of a wall and to a wall with the assembly embedded within a mass of plastic material.
Expanded metal products are well known in the construction industry. Sheet metal has been cut with a pattern and then expanded to form a sheet of metal having a reticulated structure which can be used as lath in the manner suggested by Pat. 1,372,741 or Pat. 2,477,381. The expanded metal product is, however, a sheet having essentially only a two dimensional shape and must be used with other supporting structure. Other patents which show related metal products are 1,506,296; 3,111,204 and 3,591,351.
The high costs of labor in the construction industry requires that, to every extent possible, the labor involved in construction be reduced. A very considerable amount of labor is used in the rough construction or framing of buildings. Plastered walls, for example, are formed With a supporting frame of upright wood studs which are covered with an expanded metal lath and plastered.
The three dimensional open mesh structure of this invention eliminates the separate framing in wall or ceiling construction. Sheet stock is cut with a predetermined pattern and is then expanded in three dimensions to form a three dimensional shape with a reticulated pattern of apertures in a plurality of generally planar surfaces transverse to the plane of the sheet material before expansion. The structure is formed by a plurality of unbroken, continuous strips of material lying in a plurality of superimposed planes, each strip having a sinuous path departing in regular frequency to either side of a medial line with web sections lying on said medial line where each strip is in joined, unbroken attachment to the immediately adjacent strip and with each pair of such adjacent strips defining said apertures. A wall assembly is formed with this expanded three dimensional structure having reinforcement members disposed perpendicular to the planar surfaces and extending through superimposed apertures of the reticulated patterns. From this assembly, a wall can be prepared simply by embedding the assembly with a plastic material such as plaster.
The invention will now be described with reference to the figures, of which:
FIG. 1 illustrates the sheet stock cut with the predetermined pattern;
FIG. 2 is a view of the sheet after expansion taken on a plane perpendicular to the view of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view of the wall assembly;
FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view of the wall; and
FIG. 5 is a view of the assembly of three dimensional structure and reinforcing members taken at about 45 degrees to the surface plane of the structure.
Referring now to FIG. 1, the sheet stock is shown prior to expansion. Any suitable material can be used for the sheet stock; sheet metal is preferred, however, plastics, paper and cardboard can also be selected. Sheet metal, of course, has sufiicient stiffness to retain its shape after expansion. Paper or cardboard can be expanded and then impregnated or sprayed with a plastic such as various thermoplastic or thermosetting resins, e.g., polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyolefins, etc.; polymers of styrene, butadiene, acrylonitrile, etc. These resins can be dissolved in a volatile solvent or suspended in an aqueous latex. The resins can also be applied in a molten condition. Tar and other high boiling and semi-solid mineral oil and coal tar products can also be used as the impregnating material. These resins or tars are used in sufiicient quantity to impart a stiffness to the three dimensional shape.
The cutting or slitting of the sheet material is along a predetermined pattern which repeats in regular cycles on the sheet stock 10. The slits are spaced apart at a desired distince, w, which will be the width of the strips of unbroken sheet material in the finished structure. This distance can be from about inch to 1 inch, or greater, depending on the overall dimensions of the structure. The pattern repeats after four rows of slits and the first set of these rows are identified as 12, 14, 16 and 18 in FIG. 1. The slits are separated by an unbroken length, l, as shown and have two lengths; the shorter is identified as distance x and the longer is 2x+1. The slits in the first row 12 are all of the distance 2x+1 and repeat for each distance 2x+2l. The slits in the second row 14 are all of the distance x and are symmetrically disposed below the longer slits of row 12 with a short slit 15 centered beneath the longer slit 13 of row 12. The next row 16 has repeating slits of the longer length; however, these are a half cycle out of phase with the slits of row 12, i.e., each slit in row 16 starts and terminates at a distance of /21 from the middle of a slit in row 12. The fourth row 18 repeats the shorter slits of row 14. The slitting of the sheet stock can be done in any conventional manner, the slits can be stamped using a press with a cutting die or the sheet can be passed through a cutting mill equipped with blades which have the necessary shape to slit the sheet in the indicated manner.
After slitting, the sheet is expanded to the desired, three dimensional structure. FIG. 2 illustrates a cross section of the expanded structure. The plane of illustration is through the strip a and is shown in cross section. This strip has a width, normal to the plane of illustration of distance w, described in FIG. 1 as the distance between each row of slits. The continuous strip immediately below strip a is identified as strip b. Together these strips define a network of reticulated structure with polygonal apertures 31, 33, 35, 37 and 39. The strips a and b are joined at the web sections 32, 34, 3-6 and 38. The web sections have a length l and are provided by the pattern of slitting described in FIG. 1 where distances 1 separate the slits in each row. Each of the strips of the structure has a sinuous stepped path that departs in regular frequency to either side of a medial line with the web sections lying on this medial line. The medial line for strip a is shown as broken line 19.
Immediately beneath strip b is a third strip of similar construction, which is identified as strip 0. This strip is in a joined, unbroken connection to strip b at web sections 40, 42. and 44 and has a sinuous path which is the same as that of strip a and is in phase therewith. Immediately beneath strip 6 isstrip d. This latter strip is in joined, unbroken connection to strip c at web sections 46, 48, 50 and 52 and has a sinuous path which is the same as that of strip 12 and in phase therewith. Strips c and d, together, define a network of reticulated structure with polygonal apertures 41, 43, 45, 47 and 49: The cycle of unbroken strips repeats and lying directly beneath row a at a distance of four widths of the strips, 4w is a fifth strip which is identical to row a and is attached to strip d at periodic web sections. Broken arrow lines e indicate where this strip projects from and toward a webbed junction with strip d. Together, all strips a, b, c and d form apertures 51, 53 55 and 57.
The apertures repeat, beneath each other at every fifth continuous strip and a plurality of cells, perpendicular to the plane of FIG. 2 are thereby defined with the polygonal cross section of the apertures. The apertures are shown with a hexagonal shape, this is preferred, but is not essential. Any of a wide variety of shapes can be employed, e.g., the apertures can be rectangular or square, if desired.
The metal sheet 10, after slitting is formed into the three dimensional structure by pressing with dies that are moved perpendicularly to the sheet. The strips are pressed outwardly from the sheet 10, the position of which is on the centerline of the structure. This outward expansion of the sheet forces a contraction of the length of the sheet, the degree of which depends on the distance of outward expansion. A typical expansion such as shown results in about 15% contraction. A typical die is shown at 21 and each die has a thickness no greater than w with an engaging face which has a toothed or scolloped shape as shown. Four different sets of dies are used to form the individual strips into their stepped, sinuous paths. The sets of dies can be stacked, placed at successively lower levels in a stepped fashion. A single set of these dies can be used and the sheet material can be moved past the dies with each stamping operation or a plurality of sets can be used, repeating the aforedescribed pattern with each repeating cycle of slits. Alternatively, the dies can be the surfaces of a pair of engaging rollers and the sheet material can be passed between these rollers.
The assembly of the three dimensional structure and the elongated reinforcement members is shown in cross section in FIG. 3. In this illustration, reinforcing members 60, 62 and 64 have been inserted through the upright cells defined by the superimposed apertures of the three dimensional structure. The reinforcement members are disposed perpendicularly to the apertures of the recticulated patterns of the structure and lie in the extended plane of the structure, passing through apertures 33, 43 and 51, previously identified in FIG. 2. If desired, a reinforcement member can be placed in each of the apertures, i.e., in each of the cells defined by the superimposed array of apertures, or some of such cells can be void of any reinforcement members. The reinforcement members can be of any cross section and can be solid or hollow. Tubular members are shown and are preferred because of their availability and low cost. The members can be of a diameter that approximates the width of the apertures, as shown, or can be of considerably lesser cross sectional area, e.g., simple reinforcing steel rods havng diameters from about inch to one inch can be use The size, thickness and shape of the. reinforcement members can be varied as desired to provide the necessary structural strength to support the wall or ceiling panel that is formed of the'structure. Ceiling panels, of course, would require sturdier reinforcement members so that the structure would be resistant to bending. Wall panels, where the reinforcement members would hear the loading in compression could be fabricated with lighter reinforcement members.
The material used for the reinforcing member can be widely varied. Metal shapes such as steel or aluminum rods or tubing can, of course, be used. Paper or cardboard tubing can also be used. This tubing, which is formed by helical winding of paper on a mandrel and cementing of the resulting laminate, is available in many diameters, lengths and wall thicknesses. This tubing can be used, particularly for the wall sections since it can support the loading imposed on it by the structure and the final wall.
FIG. 4 illustrates a cross section of the completed wall. In this view, the plastic material, e.g., plaster or concrete, has been placed about the assembly of the three dimensional structure and reinforcement members. Some of the cells defined by the apertures are void of reinforcement members and these are filled by the plastic material. In some of the cells, a solid rod is shown while in others a tubular reinforcement member is used. The plastic material can also be various organic plastics such as polyurethane foam, polystyrene foam, e.g., that formed by molding of pre-expanded polystyrene beads; polyethylene foam; etc. Solid or non-cellular plastics such as polyethylene, polystyrene, etc., can also be used, however, the costs of these would necessitate the casting of relatively thin walls. The plastic material is packed in the Wall by filling the assembly, preferably from the bottom and con ventional means such as gunniting or trowelling can be used. The cellular plastics can be foamed in place by placing the assembly of three dimensional structure and reinforcement members in a suitable form and forming the plastic foam about the assembly using conventional foam forming techniques.
The wall dimensions are determined by the shape of the three dimensional structure, which, in turn is determined by the length of the slits, spacing between the slits and the overall size of the sheet material. A plurality of three dimensional structures can, of course, be combined to obtain varied wall thicknesses, heights and lengths. When using only a single three dimensional structure, however the height of the wall, with vertically disposed reinforcement members, is determined by the width of sheet 10. The length of the wall is determined by the length of sheet 10 and the amount of outward expansion of the sheet. The thickness of the wall is determined by the length of the slits in the blank sheet 10, longer slits which permit greater outward expansion being used for thicker walls.
FIG. 5 is a view of the assembly of a three dimensional structure and reinforcement members which is taken at an angle of about 45 degrees to the top and front of the structure. The front row of vertical cells is provided with reinforcement members 60 and 62 which are to the left and right sides of the drawing and the central cell 64 is empty. Directly behind the front row of cells is a second row in which reinforcement members 66 and 68 are placed with the left, rearmost cell unfilled. The inner row of cells is shown with reinforcement members 70 and 72 positioned therein. All of the reinforcement members terminate at the same upper level in the illustration.
The hollow reinforcement members can be readily used for the installation of wiring or other utility conductors. This is shown with electrical wiring 74 that is shown in reinforcement member '68. This member can be perforated at various elevations where connection to the wiring can be made for outlet boxes, switch boxes, etc. At these locations, the three dimensional structure can be readily cut and shaped to provide a mounting recess for the conventional type electrical box. The various unfilled cells can also be used for plumbing, again using conventional plumbing means such as plastic or metallic pipe.
The entire assembly can be mounted in building construction by various means. A channel can be placed along its edges and the channel can be secured in the construction, e.g., attached to the floor or extended along the top of the assembly. The vertical edges can also hear upright channels over their edges or I-beams with webs that extend over adjacent panels can be used in forming a unitary wall or ceiling.
The invention has been described with reference to the presently preferred embodiment thereof. It is not intended that this description and illustration be unduly limiting of the invention. Instead, it is intended that various modifications and substitutions of equivalents can be made without departing from the scope of the invention which is defined by the elements and their obvious equivalents set forth in the following claims.
1. A three dimensional reticulated shape formed by slitting a sheet material with a repeating, four-row pattern of slits separated, end-to-end, by unslit web portions with the slits of the first and third rows being in staggered placement and equal in length to the sum of the unslit web portion plus twice the length of the slits of the second and fourth rows and expanding the resultant slit sheet material to provide said shape with a plurality of generally planar surfaces transverse to the plane of the sheet material before expansion, said planes comprising rows of reticulated patterns of apertures formed by a plurality of unbroken, continuous strips of material lying in a plurality of superimposed planes, each strip having a stepped, sinuous path departing in regular frequency to either side of a medial line with said web portions lying on said medial line where each strip is in joined, unbroken attachment to its immediately adjacent strip and with each pair of such adjacent strips defining said apertures.
2. The three dimensional shape of claim 1 wherein said apertures are hexagonal.
3. The three dimensional shape of claim 1 wherein said apertures'are rectangular.
4. The three dimensional shape of claim 1 wherein said apertures define a plurality of cells in three rows, disposed on and to each side of the plane of said sheet material prior to expansion with the cells in said rows being parallel to said plane.
5. The combination of the three dimensional shape of claim 1 with a plurality of elongated reinforcing members extending perpendicularly through superimposed apertures and parallel to said plane of the sheet material.
6. The combination of claim 5 wherein said reinforcing members are tubular.
7. The combination of the three dimensional shape of claim 1 with plastic material surrounding said shape and having smooth exterior surfaces defining a panel.
8. The combination of claim 7 including a plurality of elongated reinforcing members extending perpendicularly through superimposed apertures and parallel to said plane of the sheet material.
9. The combination of claim 8 wherein said plastic material is concrete.
10. The combination of claim 8 wherein said plastic material is plaster.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,837,393 12/1931 Arey 52670 2,989,145 6/1961 Goodloe 52670 X 3,304,685 2/1967 Whetstone 52-670 902,357 10/ 1908 Wohlpart 52676 X 1,976,395 10/ 1934 Herbest, Jr. 52670 X 2,462,399 2/1949 Hinchman 52687 X 2,148,698 2/ 1939 Lachman 52676 X GEORGE F. LESMES, Primary Examiner P. C. IVES, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
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|U.S. Classification||428/135, 428/137, 428/138, 428/136, 52/687, 52/671, 428/178, 428/140, 52/676, 428/131, 52/670|
|International Classification||E04C5/06, E04C5/07, E04C5/01|
|Cooperative Classification||E04C5/07, E04C5/06|
|European Classification||E04C5/07, E04C5/06|