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Publication numberUS3825920 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 23, 1974
Filing dateNov 16, 1972
Priority dateNov 16, 1972
Publication numberUS 3825920 A, US 3825920A, US-A-3825920, US3825920 A, US3825920A
InventorsLucky C, Nelson R
Original AssigneeSierracin Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Laminated security window system
US 3825920 A
Abstract
A security window system having a transparent structure having high resistance to penetration is described. A transparent conductive layer is provided over most of the area of the window and the resistance of the layer is monitored for sensing penetration. Preferably the layer is subdivided into a number of conductive regions for substantially increasing the sensitivity of the system to minor interruptions in the layer. Temperature and stress effects can be minimized by connecting different conductive areas of the layer as arms of a resistance bridge. An alarm may be sounded when a small steady state change in resistance is sensed or when a rapid change in resistance is sensed.
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Unit ed States/Patent 191 Nelson et al.

'LAMINA'l'ED SECURITY wmnow SYSTEM Inventors: Roger E. Nelson, Northridg fi; Clyde L. Lucky, Santa Susana, both of Calif.

The Sierracin Corporation, Sylmar, Calif.

Filed: Nov.16, 1972 Assignee:

,u.s. c1..,.., 340/274, 52/616, 109/21,

. 1 161/404, 340/285 1m.c1. G08b13/04 "Field of Search ..'..'340/274,'285 109/21,v 10,

{References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 12/1958 -Danfo1'd.... 52/171 1/1960 Boicey 340/274 4/1965 Ryan et al 161/192 1111 3,825,920 July 23, 1974 7/1971 l-lametal. .Q 340/285 6/1972 1.10611, .lr. 109 495 Primary Examiner-John W. Caldwell Assistant Examiner-Glen R. Swarm, III Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Christie, Parker & Hale [57] ABSTRACT v A security window system having a transparent structure having high resistance to penetration is described. A transparent conductive layer is provided over most of the area of the window and the resistance of the layer is monitored for sensing penetration. Preferably the layer is subdivided into a number of conductive regions for substantially increasing the" sensitivity of the system to minor interruptions. in the layer. Temperature and stress 'effects'can be minimised by connecting'different conductive areas of the layer as arms of a resistance bridge. An alarm may be sounded when awsmall steady/state change in resistance is sensed or when a rapid change in resistance is sensed.

l6'Clalms, 13 Drawing Figures PATimEnJmzawn sum 2 or 4 AME/l4 PATENTEDJULZBIHH SHEET 3 BF 4 n L MW 7 I! vvv V b/v vvv. 1

QR mm window that is relatively impenetratable. Such windows maybe used in prisons, hospitals, museums, z oos,'computer rooms, laboratories, or in store fronts where'theft or vandalism maybe a problem. They are useful any placewhere maximum natural lighting, 'visual access and physical security are requisite. Jewelry counters and'laboratoryhoods are other suitable locations. Bars can be added adjacent ordinary glass; however, this is in many cases undesirable fora variety of reasons.

Thus, in a prison or hospital or similar institutions, bars may have asignificantly undesirable effect on persons within theins'titutionrBars' detract from'the pleasure of visitors'to 2005 or. museums.v In stores and the like where protection is desired against entry, the-presence Of'bars, is highly undesirable because of the adverse effecton potential customers-Collapsible window grates are little better. I I 1 Windows that are highly resistant to'penetration can be formed with thicklayers of glass or preferably with laminated glass sandwiches which may include layers of tough, impact resistant plastics, such as the polycarbonateplastics. 'Tempered glass is desirable in some sitnations in case of breakage. Thus, for example, in some institutions persons may deliberately break windows to obtain slivers of glass to use as weapons or toingest in a suicidal act. Tempered glass is desirable for such situa tions. since it does not shatter like ordinary glass but breaks into relatively of all sharp edges. 3 a

In addition to resistance to penetration it is often highly desirable to provide sensing of efforts to penetrate so that an alarm can be sounded locally or at some remote station. Thus, for example, penetration of a prison window indicateseither an escape attempt or an effort to convey contraband. Sensors in the individual prison windows can be monitored in a central location for detection of such unlawful activities. Similarly, in stores or the like, breakage of a window commonly precedes a burglary attempt. For this reason, burglar alarm systems commonly include means .forsensing breakage of the window. v

A very common technique for sensing breakage of a window is to adhere a conductive tape such as thin aluminum or lead foil directly to the glass around the periphery of the window. Such strips are unsightly and are preferably avoided, particularly in store windows and the like where an attractive appearance is highlydesirable'. Omission of the obvious alarm strips may also be small fragments substantially free ative until someone gets to the window andbridges a break in the tape. There is no way of resetting such an alarm from a remote location.

It is therefore desirable to provide a security'window system having'an alarm built into it which is sensitive to attempts to penetrate the window and which can be reset from a remotelocation. It is desirable to have a signal from the window that is related to the degree of penetration, which in this context'can be considered to be an analog change as compared with the binary change that occurs upon complete interruptionv of an electrical path. Preferably such a security window is substantially free of apparent visual indications of the presence of the alarm. For most uses the window is preferably resistant to penetration with the impact re-' sistance'of polycarbonate and the resistance to sawing that is characteristic of glass. i A

BRIEF SUMMARY or THE INVENTION" There is, therefore, provided in practice of this invention according to a presently preferred embodiment a security window system having a transparentielectrijcally conductive layer over most of the area of the window. Means are provided for making electrical contact with edges of the conductive layer so that an analog change in resistance can be detected. An output signal can then be given in response to a change in resistance 9 in excess of a predetermined magnitude.

DRAWINGS:

FIG. 4 is a face view of another embodiment of security window; a k

FIG. 5 is'a block diagram of a sensing circuit for the window of FIG. 4; I

FIG. 6 is a face view of another embodiment of security window;

FIG. 7 is a face view of still another embodiment of security window; 1

FIG. 8 is a partially cut-away section of the window of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary cross section of another embodiment of security window;

FIG. 10 is'a fragmentary cross section of another embodiment of security window;

FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of another penetrationsensing system; i p

FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram of another resistance sensing technique; and

FIG. 13 illustrates another embodiment of security window and a schematic circuit connected thereto.

DESCRIPTION FIG. 1 is a face view of a security window and FIG. 2 is a fragmentary cross section showing the laminated layers thereof. In face view the security window apof a sensing circuit for the windowof FIG. 1;

pears much like an ordinary transparent window except that it may appear somewhat tinted or have slightly less light transmission than an ordinary clear glass window. In addition, very narrow isolation lines 20, described in greater detail hereinafter, may be seen in the face of the window. Ordinarily these lines are'very minute and not noticeable except on close examination. Metallic bus bars 21 are imbedded along opposite side edges of the security window. A short tab 22 from each of the bus bars typically extends beyond the edge of the window for making electrical contact. The bus bars are preferably'imbedded corrugated copper strips as described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,612,745. Other suitable bus bar arrangements vwill be apparent to one skilled in the art, such as theexternal bus bars of U.S. Pat. No. 3,529,074. Typically, when the security-window'is used it is mounted in a frame'so that the edge portions are all hiddenand the bus bars 21 are thereby hidden by the opaque frame. This is desirable so that the appearance of the security window essentially matches the appearance of an ordinary glass window.

The various laminations forming the cross section of the security window-are illustrated in the fragmentary view of FIG. 2. A sheet of tempered glass 23 forms one face of the window. As will be apparenthereinafter it ispreferred that this face be the one from which penetration is most likely to occur. Typically the tempered glass layeris about one quarter inch thick. A transparent resilient plastic interlayer 24 is securely bonded to the glass'sheet 23. This interlayer is thesame as that typically employed in laminated automobile glass, for example. A layer 0.030 inch thick of polyvinyl butyral makes a suitable interlayer that is conveniently bonded to the other layers of the laminated window by conventional heat and pressure laminating techniques.

A carrier film 25 having a metal layer 26 on one face thereof is bondedto the plastic interlayer 24. It is relatively unimportant which face of the carrier film has the metallic layerthereon. The carrier film is, for example, a film of polyethylene terephthalate about 0.005 inch thick. The metal layer 26 is an extremely thin layer of a metal such as nickel, gold, silver, aluminum, copper or the like which can be vacuum metallized onto the carrier film. Such vacuum deposition of thin metal films is a conventional process widely used for preparing electrically heatable windows. The metal coating is deposited in a sufficiently thin layer that it is transparent and'absorbs relatively minor amounts of incident,

light so that the overall transmission characteristics of the window are not substantially diminished. The metal layer is sufficiently continuous to have a substantial electrical conductivity.

By employing a thin carrier film the metal layer may be vacuum deposited on the carrier film by a continuous process whereby large sheets of carrier film are coated and subsequently cut to a desired size. Relaatively uniform resistance throughout the metal layer can be achiever by such a vacuum metallizing .treatment. The conductive layer 26 extends over most of the only requirement is that the conductive layer extend near enough the edges of the security window to make good electrical contact with the bus bars 21 (FIG. 1)

adjacent the edges of the sheet and extend over most of the area of the window where penetration may be likely to occur. Ths bus bars are imbedded in the laminate between the interlayer 24 and the carrier film 25 so as to be in electrical contact with the metal film.

Another interlayer 27 is bonded to the opposite side of the carrier film 25 from the first interlayer 24. These interlayers are substantially identical. An impact resistant plastic ply 28 is bonded to the second interlayer 27. A variety of transparent impact resistant plastics are suitable for use in such a security window. Methyl methacrylate resin may be employed, for example. it is preferred, however, to employ a polycarbonate resin for the plastic ply. This material is commercially available under the trademark Lexan from General Electric and under the trademark Merlon from Mobay Chemical Company. The polycarbonate sheet is extremely impact resistant and has a high transparency. Thus, even if the tempered glass layer 23 is broken the polycarbonate layer 28 normally resists impact penetration. Such a polycarbonate sheet, for example, may be about one quarter inch thick.

Another polyvinyl butyral layer 29 is bonded to the other side of the impact resistant ply 28. This interlayer is substantially identical to the first two. Finally a second sheet 30 of tempered glass is bonded to the third interlayer 29 and forms the other face of the laminated security window. This second layer of tempered glass is also about one quarter inch. The glass and plastic layers have differing coefficients of thermal expansion and when temperature cycling is expected it is desirable to provide stress relief around the periphery of the window. A suitable edge separator technique is provided in copending U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. l 1 1,993 by Jan B. Olson, entitled interlayer Stress Reduction in Laminated Transparencies and assigned to Sierracin Corporation, assignee of this application. The polycarbonate layer may be subject to attack by plasticizers in thepolyvinyl butyral layer and it is usually desirable to employ a polycarbonate sheet with a barrier layer on its faces. Such a coated polycarbonate material is available from General Electric under their trade designation MR4000. Any of a variety of conventional transparent melamine, phenoxy or urethane resins form suitable barrier layers.

The security window illustrated in FIG. 1 is highly resistant to penetration since the tempered glass has substantial impact resistance. Even if the glass layer is broken by scratching or sharp impact the polycarbonate layer has much higher strength and ordinarily has sufficient impact resistance to prevent penetration. Tempered glass breaks into alarge number of relatively small particles and these particles remain bonded to the interlayer. The presence of such a mass of glass fragments on the surface of the window does a great deal to inhibit sawing or other cutting of the polycarbonate plastic.

There are substantial advantages to having a security window formed with a glass face layer and a polycarbonate plastic layer laminated together in combination with an alarmas herein described. It will be noted that the carrier film where the conductive layer forming the analog sensor of the alarm circuit is located is separated from the glass and polycarbonate layers by a relatively soft and flexible polyvinyl butyral interlayer. lf the frangible glass layer is broken, as by a sharp localized blow or a deep scratch which may trigger fracture of tempered glass, the glass fragments are largely held in place by adhesion to the interlayer. The cracks from the glass seldom penetrate the resilient interlayer and hence-do not interrupt the thin metal film. Thus the mere fact that the glassis broken does not necessarily trigger an alarm. The same is not true of a system wherein the alarm sensor comprises a leadtape around the periphery of the window or an electrically conductive filmapplied directly to the glass. In such a system a crack propagating to the edge of the windownormally results in breaking of the lead tape or conductive film and triggering of an alarm. v

I The resistance sensor extending over most of the area of thefwindow'therefore serves to detect penetration of the window. When a hole is madein the window of a sufficient size to interrupt a portion of the conductive layer, the alarm will be triggered. Mere cracking of the window or surface damage will not ordinarily trigger the alarm. Detectioniof penetration .is what is; sought and this is provided by the composite laminated win- I dowwith aconductive layer embedded therein.

Referring again to FIG. 1, the conductive layer is in electrical contact with the bus bars 21' along opposite edges of the window. A resistive connection is thereby provided betweenthe, two bus bars. The isolation lines are actually extremely fine scribelines made in the face of the carrier-film on which the conductive layer is deposited.Since this conductive layer is extremely thin a scribe line that is nearly invisible to the naked eye is sufficientforinterrupting the electrical continuity of layer in a direction parallel to the bus bars, a straight line out was made through the conductive layer in a direction parallel to the bus bars. A cut extending more than 20 percent of the way between the side edges of the conductivelayer increased the resistance less than 1.1 percent. A circular interruption in the conductive layer having a diameter of about 17 percent of the width of the conductive layer caused an increase in-re sistance of only about 2.6 percent.

When isolation lines are scribed through the conductive layer in a direction extending between the bus bars the conductive film is divided into a plurality of'conductiveareas that are electrically in parallel'with each other. Then when a sufficient cut is made parallel to the bus bars to completely sever one of such parallel conductive areas a jump in resistance occurs. Thus, for example, a conductive layer was subdivided into six conductive areas by five scribed isolation lines. Asa straight line out proceeded across one of the parallel conductive areas a nominal gradual change in resis-' tance occurred. When one of the six parallel conductive areas was completely severed between adjacent isolation lines, an increase in resistance of about 20 the film. A scribe-line can be made with a shallow sharp groove that extends into the carrier film a tiny distance, but not even this is needed. The'metal layer isso thin out marringfthe carrier film. I

If an effort is made topenetrate the security window the electrically conductive layer must also be penetrated. Any interruptionof the conductive layer having that almost any abrasion is enough to interrupt it withn a component in a direction parallel to the bus bars will cause an increase in the resistance of the conductive layer. As pointed out hereinafter the-resistance between the two bus bars 21 can be monitored-and any significant change in resistance employed for triggering an alarm. Any such sensing system has a predetermined sensitivity. If thesensitivity threshold for triggering an alarm is toosmall, a significant number of false alarms may be sounded. On the other hand if the thresholdof sensitivity for triggering the alarmis too high, a rather large penetration of the window may occur before an alarm is sounded. It has been found that a sensitivity threshold in the area of about one to two percent change in resistance is suitable for triggering an alarm,

althoughfihigher or lower changesare also suitable thresholds.

If a security window is made with a continuous conductive layer over most of the area of the window without any electricalisolation lines subdividing it into a plurality of conductive areas, the change in resistance as a function of the magnitude of the interruption of the conductive, layer may; be unduly low. When the entire window between the twobus bars constitutes a continuous conductive layer, each point on each bus bar is in direct electrical contact with every point on the other bus bar. "Current flow between the two bus bars can therefore occur over a substantial area and destruction of a minor portion of the conductive layer may have a relatively minor affect on the total resistance. Thus, for example, in one test wherein the distance betweenthe bus bars was 1.67 times the width of the conductive percent was observed. Since a similar length cut in a film without isolation lines would produce a resistance changeof less than about 1 percent the value of the parallel conductive areas can be readily seen. In addi-.

tion to increasing the sensitivity of the security window to relativelysmall penetration, the sensitivity of the circuit for detecting a change in resistance can be readily correlated with the resistance change thatmay occur when one conductive area of a selected width is sev v ered.

each 7% inches wide. Addition of only two more isolation lines cuts the width of each areato only 5: inches for very high sensitivity: to penetration. If. desired a large number of electrical isolation lines can be extended between the bus barsso that. the conductive layer is divided into a number "of .narrow parallel conductors..A penetration of the window interrupts a number of such narrow conductors and the resistance change is the usual change due to deleting some of the resistors in aparallel array of resistors. n

The arrayof resistors in electrical parallel is considered to extend over most of the area of the window since penetration at any point will interrupt one or more resistors. This may be true even when the resistors become narrower than the electrical isolation lines between them. Thus, if desired, one could form narrow strips of conductive material on the carrier film with clear areas between the stripsand have a structure differing only in scale from the arrangement illustrated in FIG. 1, for example.

FIG. 3 is a schematic illustration of a system for detecting penetration of the security window. Very broadly the penetration of the conductive layer causes an analog change in the resistance of .the window which is a function of the extent of penetration, and the magnitude of this change may be used for triggering an alarm. The resistance of the conductive layer 26 is represented by the resistor 26' in the schematic illustration of FIG. 3. This resistance is connected to the de- I tectinjg circuit by electrical leads 33 including the window bus bars and whatever additional leads may be desired for conveying signals to a remote location. The thin film .resistor 26 is connected in a bridge with a resistor 34 as an adjacent arm of the bridge. A power supply 36applies anelectrical signal to the resistances 26 and 34.

'The electrical signal is also applied to a fixed resistor 37 and a variable resistor 38 connected in series with a tapped resistor or potentiometer 39. These additional resistors 37, 38 and 39 form the other two arms of a 36 can be either a voltage or current arrangement. Similarly the power supply can be either 'AC'or DC as may be desired in a particular application. Similarly the signal applied by the bridge to the amplifier 41 can be either a differential signal, that is, with neither bridge tap grounded or connected to a circuit common,'or it may be a single ended signal with either of the bridge connections grounded or connected to a circuit common. Many variations in'thebridge excitation and unbalance detection will be apparent to one skilled in the art.

I The output of the amplifier 41 is applied to a conventional threshold detector 42 which senses when the null balance of the bridge is outside of a predetermined limit. A wide variety of threshold detectors may be suitable, depending on the signal selected from the amplifier in a particular embodiment. When the threshold detector notes that the bridge is out of balance beyond the preset limit an alarm 43 is triggered. Any desired alarm may be used such as a bell, klaxon, light or the like. Thealarm can be adjacent the window or remotely located. One can even dispense with the threshold detector and apply the amplifier output directly to an audio alarm, such as, for example, a loudspeaker. When the-sound of the loudspeaker reaches some arbitrary level as noted by an individual in the vicinity this can also serve as an alarm.

Once an alarm has sounded, and it has beendetermined that the signal is'erroneous or one decides to presently ignore the unbalance, the bridge can be read justed by means of the resistors 38 and 39 to bring it back into balance. This is quite feasible since the signal output from the bridge is analog. A change in the resistance of the conductive layer modifies the electrical signal in an analog manner. The alarm system can I therefore be reset by-rebalancing the bridge, all'of which can be done from a remote location if desired.

I Such is infeasible in a window fitted with conventional lead tapes or with a conductive layer directly on the glass since rupture of the tape or layer on glass is a binary output and the circuit cannot be restored without access to the window and repair of the tape.

Some changes in the resistance of the conductive layer-may occur gradually even when penetration of the window is not attempted,-thus for example, temperature changes in the window may cause resistance changes in theconductive layer of a sufficient magnitude to unbalance the bridge. One can therefore provide an automatic balance reset 44 which senses an unbalance and brings the bridge back to null by adjusting the potentiometer 39. The fact of resetting of the bridge or the magntidue of the resetting may be recorded with a conventional recorder 45. The cumulative change in resistance recorded by the recorder 45 could be used to trigger an alarm if desired. It will be apparent, of course, that the balance reset 44 may be operated by the amplified null balance signal from the amplifier 41 so as to operate in a more analog fashion and accommodate slow drifts in the resistance balance of the bridge. Similarly, if desired the balance reset or bridge adjustment may simply control operation of the amplifier 41 to'remain below the threshold signal. Electrical balance of the amplifier can substitute for actual bridge resistance balancing for alarm actuation as well. The automatic reset 44 and recorder 45 are not essential to the'functioning of the system.

It will also be apparent that a high degree of sophistication may also be incorporated in the balance detection system so that, for example, a single transient of resistance can be ignored and a more permanent change employed for, triggering the alarm. Means may also be provided for triggering the alarm in case the bridge leads are shorted or cut, or if the power is cut off, or if any of a variety of techniques are employed for circumventing the alarm system.

As mentioned above, the resistance of the conductive layer in the window may vary with temperature and cause an unbalance of the bridge. Although this can be readily accounted for with an automatic balance resetting system, it is also quite easy to simply compensate for the temperature change by making the fixed resistor 34 in the adjacent arm of the bridge to the resistor 26 also be a conductive layer in'a window. If the temperature pattern in the two resistors-is similar, any changes in resistance will be equivalent and the balance of the bridgewill not be upset. The second conductive layer in a window may be in a separate window located in a position subject to similar temperature conditions or it may simply be another portion of the same window in whichthe layer resistor 26' is located.

FIG. 13 illustrates in face view another embodiment of security window having a conductive layer extending over most of the area of the window. In this embodiment, there is a bus bar 102 extending along one side edge of the window for making electrical contact with one entire edge of the conductive layer in the window. An electrical isolation line 103 extends across the window transverse to the bus bar 102 and divides the conductive area of the window into two conductive regions 104 and 106. A bus bar 107 extends part way along the side edge of the window opposite from the full length bus bar 102 and makes electrical-contact with the conductive layer of the first-region 104. A second similar bus bar 108 extends the balance of the way across the window and makes electrical contact with the conductive layer in the second conductive region 106. Each of the bus bars extends beyond the edge of the window for makingelectrical contact with an external circuit.

FIG. 13 also illustrates schematically a typical external circuit connected to the bus bars of the window. A power supply 109 is connected to the two similar bus bars 107 and 108 Resistors 111 and 112 are also connected to the power supply. A first tap 113 is connected between the resistors 111 and 112 and a second tap 1 14 iszconnected to formed by the resistors 9 the bus-bar 10 2,that makes electrical; contact with both conductive regions 104 and -l06."The taps 1'13 and 114 may be connected to any conventional null balance detection circuitry as desired for-triggering analarr'n in response to unbalance of resistance. It' will be noted'that the window and external circuit illustrated in FIG. 13 are connected as a conventional bridge with the two conductive regions of the windowas adjacent arms of the bridge. Either or bother the resistors 1 11 or 112 can be variable for balancing the bridge, or balancing can be achieved in the additional circuits (not shown) to which the window may beconnectedj i t f- The two conductive regions of the wind'owwill both be subjected to similar temperature conditions and any changes in resistance in'the two regions willbe similar. Being in adjacent bridge arms, the resistance drift due to, temperature change balances out and no bridge unbalance results. It will be apparent that if desired the conductive layerin each of the conductive regions 104 and 106'can be subdivided by isolation lines extending between the bus-bars to anydesired extent'forenhancing sensitivity of the; window to penetration. j FIG. 4 illustrates in face view another embodiment of security window having an electrically conductive layer over most of the area of the window. In this embodiment, the conductive layer is subdivided into four conductivearea's46, 47, '48 and 49 by isolation lines 50. A v

sistance will be noted. As mentioned above, the conductive layerwithin the security window changes resistance somewhat with changing temperature. Similarly, stresses on the conductive layer which may begenerated by bending of the window, for example, may change resistance. When the conductive areas are interconnected as arms of a bridge such thermal-or stress changes in resistance do not cause false alarms; It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that if desired more than one window may be interconnected as arms of a resistance bridge and the conductive, areas may sufficiently balance to compensate for thermal changes and the like.-This is generally less desirable since-the thermal changes or changes in stress between two windows is usually of much greater magnitude than similar changes within two different areas of the same window.

It will also be apparent-that the resistance change detector 58 should beadjustable for resetting the alarm connected in series. Thus, as illustrated inthis embodi-,

ment, a plurality of isolation lines 61 extend between opposite edges of the security window and subdivide first bus bar Sl isin electrical contactalong-an edge-of the firstconductive area 46. A similar short bus bar 52 is in electrical contact with anedge of the other outside conductive area 49. A third bus bar 53 is in electrical contact 'with the edges of both of the remaining two conductive areas 47 and 4B spanning one of the isolation lines 50.,Along the. opposite edge of the security window from the first three bus barsis a fourth bus bar 54in electrical contact with the edges of the two con- ,ductive areas 46 and 47.; Another bus bar 55-on this same manner'as the window of FIG. 1 for enhanced sensitivity.

FIG. 5 illustrates schematically the interconnection .-of the conductive areascThe bus bars and'conductive areas of FIG. 4 are represented schematically with the same reference numerals bearing a prime in FIG. 5.

The two bus bars 51 and 52 are externally interconnected ata point 51 52'. This same piont is connected to asuitable power supply 57 which is inturn connected to .the center bus bar 53 "at apoint 53 in the schematic illustration of FIG. ,5. Electricalconne'ction is'made to the opposite bus bars54 and 55 at the points 54" and 55 leadingto a detector 58 of changes inthe electrical-resistance. The detector 58 can be connected for triggering an alarm 59 when a predetermined liminalchange in electrical resistance occurs in the bridge (conductive areas) 46', 47',

48', and 49'. a a t Since the four resistors or; conductive areas are connected as the four arms of a resistance bridge, any resistance changes occurring in all of the conductive areas will not unbalance the bridge and no net change in rethe area into a plurality of conductive areas'62. Electrical contact is made along a side edge of one of the outside conductive areas by a bus bar 63; Atab 64permits electrical connection .of this has bar to an external circuit. At the opposite end of the'firsticonductive area from the bus bar 63 is a second bus bar 65 which makes electricalcontact along the side edge of the first conductive area and also along the sideedge of the second conductive area adjacent the first. That is, the second bus" bar spans the isolation line 61 between the two adjacent conductive areas. Another bus bar 66 electri cally connects the opposite side edge of the second conductive area with the'side edge of the third conducti-ve area. These additional bus bars 65 and 66 do not have an external tab for electrical connection to circuits outside the window.

A similar series of additional bus bars connect adjacent conductive areas clear across the window. In the final conductive area'a bus bar 68 makes electrical connection to both the edge of the conductive'area and a tab 69 permitting electrical connection to an external circuit. Thus, all of the conductive areas within the window are electrically connected together in series. Clearly a penetration that extends through the vfull extent of one of theconductive areas will interrupt the continuous circuit and provide a substantially infinite increasein resistance.'Such an electrical connection is 1 not resettable from a remote location.

If desired a tab 70 may be provided on a centralbus bar for. making contact to "an external circuit thereby permitting half of the conductive areas to be in one arm of a bridge and the other half in another arm of a bridge for temperature and stress compensation. Such a series connected security window is very sensitive to small penetrations. The same effect can be obtained without the largenumber of bus bars by simply ending alternate isolation lines a substantial distance from each of the opposite edges of the window respectively. A pattern of isolation lines for a series-parallel connection of conductive areas can also be used.

[As mentioned hereinabove the security window is highly sensitive to penetrations that have a component extending in a direction parallel to the bus bars. If the interruption in the conductive layer is primarily in a direction between the bus bars, that is, for example, parallel to the isolation lines, little if any change in resistance is observed. Thus, for example, if the object of penetration of the security window is the passage of contraband, a narrow slit extending between the bus bars may be sufficient for the unlawful purpose without causing asufficient change in resistance to trigger the alarmThis possibility is effectively forestalled with a security window of the type illustrated in FIG. 7. t

As illustrated inthis embodimentat least the central portion of the security window has two spaced apart conductive'layersextending over most of the-area of the window. A first pair of bus bars 72 are provided along the opposite side edges of the security window in electrical contact with the edges of one of the conductive'layers. Orthogonal to this first set of bus bars is a second pair of bus bars 73 in electrical contact with the edges of the second conductive layer within the window. The isolation lines in the conductive layers between the opposed bus bars have been deleted from FIG. 7 for enhancing clarityof the drawing. It will be readily apparent that no penetration of the window can be made that-does not have a component parallel to one or the other of the two pairs of bus bars. lt is therefore substantially 'impossibleto penetrate such a window with anyreasonable size hole without triggering an alarm.

dow initially flat sheets of polyvinyl butyral for the interlayers are assembled in a sandwich and during the heat and pressure cycle of lamination this relatively soft material deforms so that the respective bus bar imbeds therein. The effect of plural layers for detecting penetration can also be obtained by depositing thin metal films on both faces of the carrier film and laminating that carrier in a window with bus bars in contact with both metal layers.

FIG. 9 illustrates in fragmentary cross section another embodiment of security window suitable for use in locations where customary access is almost entirely on one side of the window. This laminated structure has a glass ply 81 on one face, such as, for example, one quarter inch tempered glass. A polyvinyl butyral interlayer 82 is bonded to the glass. A carrier film 83 having a thin conductive metal layer (not shown) thereon is bonded to the plastic interlayer 82. A second interlayer 84 bonds the carrier film 83 to a relatively thick ply of transparent polycarbonate plastic 86. The exposed face of the plastic ply 86 is coated with a protective layer 87 such as chemically deposited silica, titania or the like,

I which affords a substantial degree of abrasion resis- The arrangement of bus bars-in the window illustrated in FIG. 7 is as simple as possible and, if desired,

arrangements such as illustrated in FIGS. 4 and 6 may abridge. There is a possibility, although remote, that penetration of both layers could cause compensating resistance changes in the two'layers when they are used as adjacent arms of .a bridge. The'two layers can be used as, opposite arms of the bridge so that penetration of both layers causes an increase in sensitivity.

FIG. 8 illustrates in fragmentary cross section a laminate security window having two conductive layers therein; In-this illustration successive layers are cut away to best shown the location of the bus bars. In this particular example the arrangement of successive layers is symmetrical from the center of the laminate, however, it will be apparent that asymmetrical arrangements are also suitable.

Each face of the laminated security window comprises a glass ply 75. A plastic interlayer 76 about 0.03

inch thick is bonded to each of the glass plys 75. A carrier film 77 of polyethylene terephthalate about 0.005 inch thick and having a thin conductive metal coating 78 thereon is bonded to each of the interlayers 76. Centrally located in the laminate is a third interlayer 79 which bonds the two carrier films together. One of the bus bars 72 is imbedded in one of-the plastic interlayers 76 so as to be in electrical contact with one of the conductive layers 78. The bus bar 72 is illustrated schematically rather than showthe corrugations of the preferred bus bar hereinabove mentionedpThe other bus bar 73 is imbedded in the opposite interlayer 76 so as to be in electrical contact with the other conductive layer 78. During fabrication of such a laminated wintance and protection against chemical attack on plastic.

Such an asymmetrical laminated security window may be used, for example, in an institution wherein the glass layer 81 is used on the inside where the inhabitants have access to the window. The plastic layer would be used on the outside where there is no regular day-today contact. Similarly in a store window or the like the glass layer may be employed on the outside with the plastic layer 87 on the inside where only store personnel may have access to it. This is desirable since the plastic ply is softer than the glass and can be scratched.

FIG. 10 illustrates a security window such as might be used for temporary purposes. In this embodiment a pair of carrier films 89 having thin conductive metal layers 90 thereon are bonded together with a plastic layer 91 which may be a polyvinyl butyral interlayer as herein-v above described or may be other suitable adhesive bonding. The relatively thick interlayer is not generally needed in such a situation since its ability to conform to the rigid glass and polycarbonate plys of the other embodiments is not a requirement. Care must be taken, of course, to insulate the two metal layers 90 from each other if both are used in active alarm circuits. Similarly the bus bars (not shown) making contact to the conductive layers 90 must be insulated. It will also be apparent that if desired a carrier film having a metal coating thereon can be adhesively bonded to a similar film which serves to protect the delicate metal layer from damage and a security window suitable for temporary use may be very inexpensively provided. Bus bars are needed to make contact with the metal layer. Such a security window made with thin plastic films has considerable flexibility and is light in weight making it quite suitable for temporary use. Such a lamination of plastic films with a conductive layer therein can be bonded on a window and connected to suitable detection and alarm circuits for forming a security window. Preferably the conductive layer in such a security window is scribed with electrical isolation lines and electrically connected in a bridge circuit in one of the manners hereinabove described.

. t I13 ,Thereis a distinctadvantagein the arrangement illustrated in FIG. 2 wherein the conductive layer 26 is separated from the tempered glass ply 23 by at least the interlayer 24 and, if desired,'the carrier film 25. The plastic isolates the conductive film from the glass layer so that if the glass is merely broken'most, if not all, of the conductive'layer remains-intact. It is a characteristic of tempered glass that'a break propagatesover the entire extent of the glass breaking it into a very large number of small fragments. If the conductive layer were on the glass or closely coupled thereto such breakage of the glass-would completelyruptu're the delicate metal layer and it would appear that penetration was being attempted. With the metal layer decoupled from the glass by a relatively soft resilient intervening plastic layer mere breakage of the glass does not disrupt the conductive film to more than aminor extent. Even if an alarm istic of the response to severance of the film. Thus, for

example,penetration of the security window by a high speed projectile will cause a large change in resistance as penetration occurs which can be detected by the AC amplification system. Thus the penetration can be de-- tected bythe rapid pulse of resistance change, even might be sounded when theternpered glass is broken the alarmlsystem can be reset to indicate when anat-' teniptis made to penetrate the window.

The resi "ance of theth'in metal film embedded inthe laminatedisecuritywindow is also-sensitive to strain. That is, as the film is strained, the resistancechanges. Thus, for example, when the conductive layer is located offfof a neutral axis of the cross section of the laminated window, a bending of the window will induce strain in the conductive layer and changeits' resistance. This discovery gives one an opportunity to employ the deformation of the window prior to. penetration for providing a'n'alarm signal; More particulary atransient change inresistnacecan be detected with a pulse or rateof, change greater than some predetermined mag-- nitude. p FIG. 11 illustratesin blockdiagram a system for ulitizing the strain sensitive properties of the conductive alarm. A'power supply 93 appli'esipower to the conductive metal layer in a security window 94. The excitation applied to the window by the power supply may be AC or DC, and may be either current or voltage as desired. The window 94 is also connected to an AC amplifier 96 with gain control 97; The AC amplifier may also have a band width control, if desired, for limiting the AC range amplified; The output of the AC amplifieris applied to a threshold detector 98 which applies an outof-limits signal toan alarm 99.

though the steady state resistance may not be significantlydifierentfrom theoriginal resistance. a t

It may be desirable to employ a'str ain sensitive detection-system asset forth in FIG. 11 with a penetration I sensing system as illustrated in FIG. 3. ln such an arrangement the input to the AC amplifier 96j'may be either'the output of the null balance bridge of FIG. 3 or the output of a DC amplifier 41 which may reduce gain requirements of the ,AC-amplifier 96.

'If desired, a continuous-surveillance 'monitor lfll may be connected to the output of the AC amplifier 96.

film in alaminated window for providing a security This continuous surveillance monitor may have a.visu al or aural output so that an attendant can perceive signal changes, such as, for example, due to someone'pounding on a security window. The continuoussurveillance monitor can also be some means for recording the output signal for review at a later time. 4

' A resistance bridge is of course not theonly way of detecting a'change in the resista nce of the conductive I layer. A simple and inexpensive technique-is illustrated in FIG. 12. As illustrated in this arrangement a voltage e, is applied to a resistor 102 connected to an input of an operational amplifier 103. A second resistor 104 is connected across the amplifier. The output .voltage 2 is proportional to the input voltage and the ratio of the resistance of resistor 104 to the resistance of resistor If someone should commence striking or otherwise deforming the window in order to effect penetration, the resultant time varying signal is, amplified. When the signal is within the frequency band of theAC amplifier and-beyond the preset threshold, an alarm will sound.

Such a system is also responsive to the rate of change of penetration through a window as represented by the changing' lfesistance. In an impact sensitive system one can use the'magnitude of the pulse of changing resistance to detect a penetration or 'attemptfat penetration.

If desired the rate of change or rise time of the pulse or pulsewidth can beselected for triggering an alarm. The circuitry fordetecting any such characteristic of chang ing resi'stanceis conventional. I

The sensitivity of the threshold detector 98 can be set so that the strain required to activiate the alarm 99 is a large fraction 'of the strain that would occur in the window .before'breakage. Gaincontrol 97 may effect this function. Thus, relativelyminor blowsona window which are far short of causing breakage can be ignored and apulse representing 'asufficien't'blow to be quite 102. The output voltage-is thus'quite sensitive to any change in the relative valuesof the twol'resistors-A conductive layer in a security window can be used for either of the two resistors in this schematic diagram, or if desired two conductive areas in a window could be used as both resistors 102 and 104 for temperature compensation. Theoperational amplifier can be either a single input amplifier, or can be a differentialamplifier with two inputs.

One can also use ohmmeter circuits or a variety of current or voltage comparison circuits for noting a change in resistance due to window penetration. It will also be noted that the resistance values can be digitized at any. point in the electrical .circuit' and digital techniques used fol-balancing, comparing andthe like. ,If the resistance of a conductive layeris digitized it can becompared to a digitalreference number. and the balance can be maintained by changing the referen'ce number. As much or as little sophistication as desired can be achieved with digital techniques for comparison, correction and avoidance of false alarms or tampering with the system. Many other arrangements will be apparentto one skilled in the art for detecting avariation in resistance of the security window.

Although limited embodiments of security window and alarm systemsassociated therewith have been described and illustrated herein, many modifications and variations will-be apparent to one skilled in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims the invention may be practiced otherwise than as's pecifically described.

What is claimed is:

1. A security window system comprising: a transparent electrically conductive layer extending over most of the areaof the window;

a set of bus bars in electrical contact with opposite edge portions of the conductive layer; means connectedto the bus bars for detecting an analog change in resistance of the conductive layer; and I means for providing an output signal in response to a detected change in resistance in excess of a predetermined magnitude.

2. A security window system as defined in claim 1 further comprising means for resetting the system after a change in resistance forproviding an output signal in response to a subsequent analog change in resistance.

3. A security window system comprising:

a transparentelectrically conductive layer extending over mostof the area of the window;

a set'of bus bars in electrical contact with opposite edge portions of theconductive layer;

means connected to the bus bars for detecting an analog change in resistance of the conductive layer;

means for providing an output signal in response to a detected change in resistance in excess of a predetermined magnitude;

means for resetting the system after a change in resistance for providing an output signal in response to a subsequent analog change in resistance; and

' means for recording cumulative changes in resistance.

4. A security window system comprising:

a transparent electrically conductive layer extending over most of the area of the window and divided into at least two conductive areas;

a set of bus bars in electrical contact with opposite edge portions of the conductive layer;

means connected to the bus bars for detecting an analog change in resistance of the conductive layer comprising means for detecting a change in'the relative resistances of the two areas; and

means for providing an output signal in response to a detected change in resistance in excess of a predetermined magnitude.

5. A security window system as defined in claim 4 wherein-the means for detecting comprises a bridge and the two conductive areas are in adjacent arms of the bridge.

6'. A security window system as defined in claim 1 wherein the means for detecting comprises a bridge and wherein the conductive layer is in one arm of the bridge. n r

7. A security window system comprising:

a transparent electrically conductive layer extending over most of the area of the window;

a set of bus bars in electrical contact with opposite edge portions of the conductive layer;

means connected to the bus bars for detecting an analog change in resistance of the conductive layer comprising a resistance bridge; and

means for providing an output signal in response to a detected change in resistance in excess of a predetermined magnitude; and wherein the conductive layer is divided into at least four conductive areas each in an arm of the bridge.

8. A security window system as defined in claim 1 comprising:

a frangible layer; and

a resilient layer isolating the electrically conductive layer from the frangible layer.

it. A security window system as defined in claim 1 wherein the electrically conductive layer is laminated between a pair of rigid face plies and including a resilient layer between the conductive layer and each of the rigid plies.

10. A security window system comprising:

a'transparent sheet; an electrically conductive layer extending over most of the area of the transparent sheet for making an analog variation in an electrical signal applied thereto in response to penetration of the transparent sheet; means for applying an electrical signal to the conductive layer; and

means connectedto the conductive layer for detecting a variation in electrical signal greater than a predetermined limit.

11. A security window system as defined in claim 10 further comprising means for resetting the system after a change in resistance for detecting a subsequent change in resistance greater than a predetermined limit.

12. A security window system comprising:

a transparent sheet;

an electrically conductive layer laminated within the transparent sheet and extending over most of the area of the transparent sheet for making an analog variation in an electrical signal applied thereto in response to penetration of the transparent sheet;

means for applying an electrical signal to the conductive layer; and

means connected to the conductive layer for detect ing a variation in electrical signal greater than a predetermined limit; and wherein the conductive layer is divided into at least two conductive areas and the means for detecting is connected thereto for detecting a change in the relative resistances of the two areas.

13. A security window system'comprising:

a transparent sheet;

an electrically conductive layer laminated within the transparent sheet and extending over most of the area of the transparent sheet for making an analog variation in an electrical signal applied thereto in response to penetration of the transparent sheet;

means for applying an electrical signal to the conductive layer; and

means connected to the conductive layer for detecting a variation in electrical signal greater than a predetermined limit; and wherein the conductive layer is divided into at least two conductive areas in adjacent areas in adjacent arms of a resistance bridge.

14. A security window system comprising:

va transparent sheet;

an electrically conductive layer laminated within the transparent sheet and extending over most of the 7 area of the transparent sheet for making an analog variation in an electrical signal applied theretoin v response to penetration of the transparent sheet;

' means for applying an electrical signal to the conductive layer; and a means connected to the conductive layer for detecting a variation in electrical signal greater than a predetermined limit; and wherein the conductive layer is divided into at least four conductive areas each in an arm of a resistance bridge.

15. A laminated security window system comprising:

an electrically conductive layer within the laminated window and extending over most of the area of the window; 7 means for making electrical contact with edge portions of the conductive layer for applying an elecsecond value to a third value.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4107672 *Jan 15, 1976Aug 15, 1978Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij B.V.Apparatus and method for detecting cracks in the heat-insulating lining of a container for cold liquids
US4228425 *Feb 6, 1978Oct 14, 1980Afg Industries, Inc.Tamper-proof transparent security plate
US4327359 *Aug 19, 1980Apr 27, 1982Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc.Glass breakage detectors employing piezoresistive devices
US4423412 *Sep 30, 1981Dec 27, 1983The Foxboro CompanyIndustrial process indicating/recording apparatus using stepping motor drive
US4580062 *Apr 21, 1983Apr 1, 1986Cosden Technology, Inc.Safety shield control device
US4785743 *Dec 18, 1986Nov 22, 1988U.S. Philips CorporationProtected room with an electrical interruptor and its application
US4852502 *Jul 16, 1987Aug 1, 1989Sven KlingbergSafety box for safeguarding documents and the like
US4860351 *Nov 5, 1986Aug 22, 1989Ibm CorporationTamper-resistant packaging for protection of information stored in electronic circuitry
US5117457 *Jan 24, 1990May 26, 1992International Business Machines Corp.Tamper resistant packaging for information protection in electronic circuitry
US5778629 *Dec 11, 1996Jul 14, 1998Howes; Stephen E.Impact resistant window
US5802783 *Dec 4, 1996Sep 8, 1998Bayha; Charles E.Hurricane resistant/security windows/doors
US5937611 *Jul 28, 1997Aug 17, 1999Howes; Stephen E.Method of making an impact resistant window
US6101783 *Oct 7, 1998Aug 15, 2000Howes; Stephen E.Impact resistant window
US6535126 *Dec 15, 2000Mar 18, 2003Ppg Industries Ohio, Inc.Electrochromic transparency incorporating security system
US7256692 *Dec 23, 2004Aug 14, 2007Lockheed Martin CorporationAnti-tamper apparatus
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Classifications
U.S. Classification340/550, 109/42, 52/306, 109/21, 52/786.11, 324/98, 346/17
International ClassificationG08B13/02, G08B13/04
Cooperative ClassificationG08B13/04
European ClassificationG08B13/04
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Feb 1, 1995ASAssignment
Owner name: SHAWMUT CAPITAL CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BARCLAYS BUSINESS CREDIT, INC.;REEL/FRAME:007338/0050
Effective date: 19950131
Feb 1, 1995AS06Security interest
Owner name: BARCLAYS BUSINESS CREDIT, INC.
Owner name: SHAWMUT CAPITAL CORPORATION 15260 VENTURA BLVD., S
Effective date: 19950131
May 7, 1990ASAssignment
Owner name: CALIFORNIA FEDERAL BANK, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SIERRACIN CORPORATION, A DE CORP.;REEL/FRAME:005315/0871
Effective date: 19900309
May 7, 1990AS06Security interest
Owner name: CALIFORNIA FEDERAL BANK
Owner name: SIERRACIN CORPORATION, A DE CORP.
Effective date: 19900309
Sep 29, 1980AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: SIERRACIN CORPORATION, 12780 SAN FERNANDO RD., SYL
Owner name: SIERRACIN CORPORATION, THE
Effective date: 19800919