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Publication numberUS3827591 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 6, 1974
Filing dateOct 18, 1971
Priority dateOct 19, 1970
Also published asCA959455A1, DE2151344A1
Publication numberUS 3827591 A, US 3827591A, US-A-3827591, US3827591 A, US3827591A
InventorsD Spelman, D Jones
Original AssigneeViscose Development Co Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tamper proof secondary closure device
US 3827591 A
Abstract
A tamper-proof secondary closure device and a method of applying said device to the neck of a bottle. The method comprises the steps of applying a layer of sensitive material to the neck of the nottle and then shrinking a secondary closure thereover, the arrangement being such that the sensitive material is visibly affected by the process of applying a solvent or softening agent to the secondary closure and subsequently attempting to remove it from the neck of the bottle.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Spelman et al.

TAMPER PROOF SECONDARY CLOSURE DEVICE Inventors: Dennis Gerald Spelman, Bromley Kent, England; David Thomas Jones, Ystalyfera, Swansea, Wales Viscose Development Company Limited, Croydon, England Filed: 0a. 18, 1971 Appl. No.: 189,914

Assignee:

Foreign Application Priority Data Oct. 19, 1970 Great Britain 49493/70 US. Cl 215/38 A, 53/42, 117/1, 156/86 Int. Cl B65d 41/24 Field of Search 156/84, 85, 86; 215/38 A; 117/1; 53/14, 42; 229/D1G. 12; 215/D1G. 6, 7

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 5/1920 Rochrig 53/41 Primary ExaminerGeorge E. Lowrance Assistant Examiner-Stephen Marcus Attorney, Agent, or FirmBrisebois & Kruger [5 7] ABSTRACT A tamper-proof secondary closure device and a method of applying said device to the neck of a bottle. The method comprises the steps of applying a layer of sensitive material to the neck of the nottle and then shrinking a secondary closure thereover, the arrangement being such that the sensitive material is visibly affected by the process of applying a solvent or softening agent to the secondary closure and subsequently attempting to remove it from the neck of the bottle.

25 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures TAMPER PROOF SECONDARY CLOSURE DEVICE This invention relates to a tamper-proof secondary closure device and to a method of applying such a device to the neck of a bottle.

It is well known to place a tube of shrinkable material over the primary closure of a bottle in such a way that, after the tube has been shrunk into position, it acts as a deterrent to tampering with, or pilfering of, the contents. These secondary closures can be made from either celulose, which shrinks when moisture is lost, or from a heat shrinkable plastics material.

The disadvantage of such known tamper-proof secondary closures is that it is possible, although difficult, to remove them without detection, in particular by immersing the closures in a solvent or softening agent such as hot water which causes them to swell sufficiently to enable them to be subsequently removed from the necks of the bottles to which they are applied.

According to the present invention there is provided a tamper-proof secondary closure device, for application to the neck of a bottle, comprising a layer of sensitive material adapted to be applied to the neck of a bottle and a secondary closure adapted to be shrunk thereover, the arrangement being such that the sensitive material is visibly affected by the process of applying a solvent or softening agent to the secondary closure and subsequently attempting to remove it from the neck of the bottle.

Preferably, the secondary closure is provided with a transparent panel through which, in use, the layer is visible.

In one preferred embodiment, the layer is soluble in water.

In another preferred embodiment the layer is insoluble in water and carries a water sensitive transfer print.

In yet another preferred embodiment, the secondary closure is made of a material which may be shrunk by the evaporation of a solvent contained in the material. In this case the layer is arranged to be soluble in said solvent.

In still another embodiment, the secondary closure is made of a heat shrinkable material and the layer is soluble in a solvent capable of softening and swelling the heat shrinkable material.

Further according to the present invention, a method of applying a tamper-proof secondary closure to the neck of a bottle is provided.

The invention will now-be described in greater detail, by way of example, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a cross-section through a bottle neck showing a first embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a side elevation of the arrangement of FIG.

FIG. 3 is a cross-section through a bottle neck show ing a second embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 is a top plan view of the arrangement of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a cross section through a bottle neck showing a third embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 6 is a side elevation of the arrangement of FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is a cross-section through a bottle neck showing a fourth embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 8 is a side elevation of the arrangement of FIG.

FIG. 9 is a cross-section through a bottle neck showing a fifth embodiment of the invention; and

FIG. 10 is a side elevation of the arrangement of FIG. 9.

Referring to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows a bottle neck 1 closed by a primary closure such as a cork 2. A water soluble strip of material 3 extends across the top of the bottle neck 1 and cork 2 and down opposite sides of the bottle neck. A shrinkable secondary closure 4 made of cellulosic material covers the arrangement of bottle neck 1, cork 2 and strip 3. The secondary closure 4 is insoluble and shrinks on the loss of moisture. FIG. I shows the closure 4 in its unshrunken position and FIG. 2 shows the closure after it has been shrunk to conform to the contours of the bottle neck I. The secondary closure 4 is provided with a transparent panel 5 (see FIG. 2) which is so positioned that, when the closure 4 is shrunk into position, the soluble strip 3 is visible therethrough. The strip 3 is made of. hydroxyethyl cellulose which has the property of resisting ordinary cold water wetting, as would be experienced from rain, but would dissolve partially or wholly in hot water or due to long immersion in cold water. Similar substances which could be utilised are carboxy methyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol. Thus, visual evidence of any tampering with a bottle closed with this tamper-proof secondary closure is afforded as these are the conditions which a thief would be expected to use to remove the secondary closure and get at the contents of the bottle. The strip 3 may, advantageously, form a duty stamp or similar type of seal. It is also possible to reinforce the adhesion of the secondary closure 4 to the neck of the bottle means of a proprietory adhesive such as those containing polyvinyl acetate, such adhesives being resistant to solution in water.

FIGS. 3 and 4 show an arrangement very similar to that of FIGS. 1 and 2. A bottle neck 11 is closed by a primary closure 12. The soluble strip 3 of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2 is, however, replaced in this embodiment by a soluble disc 13 which overlies the mouth of the bottle neck and the primary closure 12. A cellulose secondary closure 14 provided with a transparent panel 15 covers the arrangement of bottle neck 11, primary closure 12 and disc 13 and is then shrunk by moisture loss to conform to the contours of the bottle neck 11. In all other respects this arrangement is identical with, and has similar advantages to, the arrangement of FIGS. 1 and 2. Moreover, the same... combinations of insoluble and/or unsoftenable adhesives can be used to reinforce the adhesion of the secondary closure 14 as were outlined above with respect to the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2. Furthermore, it is also possible to utilise a soluble secondary closure 14 in combination with an insoluble/unsoftenable adhesive of the type mentioned above in connection with the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2.

A variation of the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2 and FIGS. 3 and 4 is to use a secondary closure material which shrinks by the evaporation of some other solvent than water which is contained in the material. Such a material is polyvinyl chloride in combination with the solvent acetone. In such a case the strip 3 or disc 13 must be made of a substance, for example cellulose acetate, which is soluble in acetone. If the adhesion between such a secondary closure and the neck of a bottle is to be reinforced as envisaged in the alternatives proposed above for the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 2 and FIGS. 3 and 4, an insoluble adhesive such as polyurethane adhesive is advisable.

FIGS. 5 and 6 show another variation of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2. In this case the secondary closure 24 is in the form of a ring of cellulosic material. This ring, when shrunk onto the neck 21 of a bottle and over a primary closure 22, holds a strip 23 in such a position that the latter is visible through a transparent panel 25 (see FIG. 6). Here again similar tamper-proof advantages accrue and also a similar combination of insoluble/insoftenable adhesives can be utilised with the insoluble ring 24. Again a soluble/softenable ring could be used with an insoluble/unsoftenable adhesive as in the previous embodiments.

FIGS. 7 and 8 show an arrangement including a bottle neck 31, a primary closure 32, a strip 33, which extends across the top of the bottle neck 31 and primary closure 32 and down the opposite sides of the bottle neck, and a cellulose secondary closure cap 34. The strip 33 is insoluble but carries a water-sensitive transfer print of the type commonly used to produce childrens toys known as transfers. This water-sensitive transfer print comprises an insoluble ink which adheres to the strip 33 by means of an adhesive which is soluble or softenable by hot water or long immersion in cold water. The transfer print is prepared by printing transferable material onto a strip of paper to produce an identifiable picture or legend. When the cellulose cap 34 dries, it shrinks and conforms to the shape of the bottle neck 31 to hold the printed transfer. in a position where it is visible through a transparent panel 35 in the cap 34.

If the secondary closure cap 34 is immersed in water the adhesive holding the ink of the transfer print in position dissolves or softens so that part of the ink transfers to the inside of the closure 34. When an attempt is made to remove the swollen closure by sliding it off the bottle neck 31, the transfer print will be distorted or even destroyed. Thus, it will be impossible to replace the closure 34 after such tampering without this fact being obvious as immediate visual evidence will be presented that the bottle has been tampered with.

Obviously the transfer print carried by the strip 33 could be replaced by a transfer-printed disc similar to the disc of the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4. In this case the transparent panel 35 would be positioned in the top of the closure 34.

FIGS. 9 and show yet another variation of the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2. In this embodiment the secondary closure cap'44'is made of heat shrinkable material such as polyvinyl chloride. This cap 44 when shrunk by heat, onto the neck 41 of a bottle and over a primary closure 42, holds a sensitive strip 43 in such a position that the latter is visible through a transparent panel 45. The strip 43 is made of a material such as cellulose acetate, which is soluble in a solvent such as acetone, which would tend to swell the closure 44 sufficiently for it to be removed from the neck 41 of the bottle. Other heat shrinkable materials suitable for this embodiment are described in British Patent Specification No. 1,045,324. I

An alternative to the last described embodiment is to reinforce the adhesion of the heat shrinkable closure 44 by means of an adhesive, for example a polyurethane adhesive, which is not soluble in, or softened by, the type of solvent mentioned above.

Another alternative is to print the strip 43 with an ink for example Coates Thermaflex, which is soluble in, or softenable by the type of solvent mentioned above, so that the ink smudges or disappears on immersion therein. It will be apparent that a combination can be arrived, by those skilled in the art to combine a secondary closure and a sensitive layer to meet the conditions whereby the softening agent can be one that also softens the ink.

In each of the above described embodiments the secondary closures may carry printed matter drawing attention to their tamper-proof properties. Also. of course, each of the described secondary closures may be provided with perforations or a tear-off strip to enable legitimate access to the contents of the bottle.

Although each of the above described embodiments has referred exclusively to the use of tamper-proof secondary closures for bottles, it will be apparent that such closures could be utilised for orifices other than necks of bottles.

It will be apparent that the provision of the transparent panels 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 in the above described embodiments will be unnecessary if the secondary closures 4, 14, 24, 34 and 44 are made of a transparent material.

Although most of the embodiments described above refer to the use of a shrinkable cap as the secondary closure it will be obvious that a shrinkable ring could also be used.

The above described embodiments have been given by way of example only, and it will be apparent that other combinations of materials, solvents etc. could be used.

What we claim is:

l. A tamper-proof secondary closure device, for application to the neck of a bottle, comprising a shrinkable secondary closure, which is expansible by the application of a solvent or a softening agent, and a layer of sensitive material provided within, and visible externally of, said secondary closure, said layer being said solvent or softening agent whereby a visual indication of tampering is afforded.

2. A device as claimed claim 1, in which said secon- I dary closure is provided with a transparent panel through which said layer is visible.

3. A device as claimed in claim 1, in which said layer of sensitive material is water-sensitive.

4. A device as claimed in claim 3, in which said layer is soluble in water.

5. A device as claimed in claim 3, in which a strip or disc of soluble material provides said layer and said secondary closure is insoluble in water.

6. A device as claimed in claim 5, in which said secondary closure is made of cellulosic material which shrinks on loss of moisture.

7. A device as claimed in claim 5, in which said strip or disc is soluble in hot water but insoluble in cold water.

8. A device as claimed in claim 1, in which said secondary closure is made of a material which may be shrunk by the evaporation of a solvent contained in the material.

9. A device as claimed in claim 8, in which said layer is soluble in said solvent.

10. A device as claimed in claim 8, in which said secondary closure is fixed to said neck of said bottle by means of an adhesive unsoftened by, or insoluble in, said solvent.

11. A device as claimed in claim 8, in which said layer is fixed to said neck of said bottle by means of an adhesive unsoftenable by, or insoluble in, said solvent.

12. A device as claimed in claim 11, in which said secondary closure is fixed to said neck of said bottle by means of an adhesive unsoftenable by, or insoluble in, said solvent.

13. A device as claimed in claim 1, in which said secondary closure is made of a heat-shrinkable material and said layer is soluble in a solvent capable of softening and swelling said heat-shrinkable material.

14. A device as claimed in claim 13, in which said secondary closure is attachable to said neck of said bottle by means of an adhesive unsoftenable by, or insoluble in, said solvent.

15. A device as claimed in claim 13, in which said layer is printed with an ink which is soluble in said solvent and which smudges or disappears on immersion therein.

16. A device as claimed in claim 13, in which said layer is printed with an ink insoluble in said solvent but adheres to said layer by means of an adhesive softenable by, or soluble in, such a solvent.

17. A tamper-proof secondary closure device for application to the neck of a bottle, comprising a shrinkable secondary closure which is expansible by the application of a solvent or softening agent and a layer of material which is insoluble in water and carries a transfer print, said layer being provided within and said print being visible externally of said secondary closure, and said print being soluble in said solvent or softening agent whereby a visual indication of tampering is afforded.

18. A device as claimed in claim 17, in which the ink of said transfer print is insoluble in water and is bonded to said layer by means of a glue which is softenable by, or soluble in, water.

19. A tamper-proof secondary closure device, for application to the neck of a bottle, comprising a shrinkable secondary closure, which is expansible by the application of a solvent or a softening agent and an insoluble layer, carrying a water-sensitive transfer print, provided within, and visible externally of, said secondary closure, said transfer print being reactive with water dary closure, said secondary closure being provided internally with adhesive means for fixing said secondary closure to said neck of said bottle, said adhesive means being softenable by, or soluble in, hot water but unsoftenable by, or insoluble in, cold water, said layer being soluble in hot water whereby a visual indication of tampering is afforded.

21. A method of applying a tamper-proof secondary closure device to the neck of a bottle comprising the steps of applying a layer of sensitive material to the neck of the bottle and then shrinking a secondary closure thereover, said layer being visible externally of said secondary closure and being soluble in a solvent or softening agent which is capable of causing said secondary closure to swell, whereby a visual indication of tampering is afforded.

22. A method as claimed in claim 21, in which said secondary closure is fixed to said neck of said bottle by means of an adhesive, and is provided with a transparent panel through which said layer is visible.

23. A method as claimed in claim 22, in which said adhesive is softened by, or soluble in, hot water but unsoftened by, or insoluble in, cold water.

24. A method as claimed in claim 21, in which said secondary closure is fixed to said neck of said bottle by an adhesive unsoftenable by, or insoluble in, water and is provided with a transparent panel through which said layer is visible.

25. A method of applying a tamper-proof secondary closure device to the neck of a bottle comprising the steps of applying a layer of sensitive material to the neck of a bottle, shrinking a secondary closure thereover and fixing said secondary closure to said neck of said bottle by means of an adhesive which is softenable by, or soluble in, hot water but unsoftenable by, or insoluble in, cold water, said layer being visible externally of said secondary closure and being soluble in water hot enough to cause said secondary closure to swell,

whereby a visual indication of tampering is afforded.

l 1" l I I

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1339370 *Nov 7, 1918May 4, 1920Roehrig Bernard FMethod of capping bottles
US1647489 *Nov 7, 1925Nov 1, 1927Du Pont Cellophane Co IncContainer decoration
US2079757 *Dec 18, 1936May 11, 1937Berk Sol KTear-off cap
US2227682 *Jan 25, 1939Jan 7, 1941Sylvania Ind CorpMethod of making striped pellicles
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4000824 *Jul 24, 1975Jan 4, 1977Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyTape closures
US4004705 *Jun 12, 1975Jan 25, 1977Masaaki FujioCapsule or seal carrying a certificate stamp or the like therein
US4018640 *May 14, 1976Apr 19, 1977Owens-Illinois, Inc.Decorative neckband label for a bottle
US4505399 *Jun 21, 1984Mar 19, 1985Weiner Robert CTamper-indicating device and method
US4544073 *Jan 30, 1984Oct 1, 1985Bristol-Myers CompanyBottle-overcap combination
US4641362 *Oct 25, 1984Feb 3, 1987C. Muller & Associates, Inc.Protective dispensing assembly for ultrapure liquids
US4652473 *Dec 10, 1984Mar 24, 1987Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing CompanyTamper-resistant packaging tape
US4661188 *Oct 21, 1985Apr 28, 1987Owens-Illinois, Inc.Method of applying a plastic label to a container
US4691835 *Feb 4, 1986Sep 8, 1987Mueller Martin LTamper-evident sealed container and tamper-evident tube and bands and apparatus and method of making and using same
US5868264 *Sep 18, 1997Feb 9, 1999Fleming Packaging CorporationFormed and decorated seal
US6286999 *May 11, 1999Sep 11, 2001Pactiv CorporationTamper-evident reclosable bag
US6419391May 17, 2001Jul 16, 2002Pactiv CorporationReclosable bags having a tamper evident stepped member
US6439770May 17, 2001Aug 27, 2002Pactiv CorporationReclosable bags having a tamper-evident retaining member extending through a slider
US6575625Jul 27, 2001Jun 10, 2003Pactiv CorporationReclosable bags having a removable member encapsulating a slider
US6663283May 18, 2001Dec 16, 2003Pactiv CorporationReclosable bags having a tamper-evident member extending over a zipper proximate to a slider
US6712509Mar 21, 2002Mar 30, 2004Pactiv CorporationReclosable bag having tamper-evident member attached to body panels along a line of weakness located below the rib and groove profiles of the bag zipper
US7008106Nov 7, 2002Mar 7, 2006Pactiv CorporationReclosable bag having tamper-evident member removable from the bag along a line of weakness located below the bag zipper
US7156248 *Jul 4, 2001Jan 2, 2007Pechiney CapsulesOvercap closures with rolled apron
US20130026129 *Jul 24, 2012Jan 31, 2013Oscar LavaqueCapsule for bottlenecks formed by an adhesive disc and heat-shrinkable sleeve, a process for in-line inclusion of said capsule line, and a machine for forming said capsule by said process
WO2000040474A1 *Dec 29, 1999Jul 13, 2000Clark David WShield for bottle and method
WO2004018315A2 *Aug 20, 2003Mar 4, 2004Catherine BouthiauxDevice for the physical securing of a bottle, such as a wine or spirits bottle
Classifications
U.S. Classification215/246, 156/86, 53/442, 428/916, 53/410, 53/488, 215/251
International ClassificationB65D41/24, B65D41/62
Cooperative ClassificationB65D41/24, Y10S428/916, B65D41/62
European ClassificationB65D41/24, B65D41/62
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Feb 24, 1986AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: VISCOSE CLOSURE LIMITED, FLEMING WAY, CRAWLEY, WES
Effective date: 19850722
Owner name: VISCOSE DEVELOPMENT COMPANY LIMITED, THE
Feb 24, 1986ASAssignment
Owner name: VISCOSE CLOSURE LIMITED, FLEMING WAY, CRAWLEY, WES
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:VISCOSE DEVELOPMENT COMPANY LIMITED, THE;REEL/FRAME:004515/0488
Effective date: 19850722