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Publication numberUS3828203 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 6, 1974
Filing dateJul 12, 1973
Priority dateMar 24, 1970
Publication numberUS 3828203 A, US 3828203A, US-A-3828203, US3828203 A, US3828203A
InventorsBelson R, Palombo G
Original AssigneeHoneywell Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ramped-step signal generating circuit
US 3828203 A
Abstract
A high speed incremental web transport system especially suited for a high speed printer application includes two motors with velocity feedback driven from a common controller in accordance with a computer originated movement request. Incremental position transducers allow precise repetitive spacing and positional stability of the motor shafts. Differential tension to be created during printing periods is obtained by controlling motor current. Synchronization control for skip type movements prevents a build-up of positional error.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Belson et al. [4 Aug. 6, 1974 RAMPED-STEP SIGNAL GENERATING 3,359,433 12/1967 Thauland 307/255 C C 3,649,851 3/1972 Cohen 307/255 [75] Inventors: Ross A. Belson, Natick; Gastor A.

Palombo, Chelmsford, both of Mass. Primary ExaminerStanley D. Miller, Jr. Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Ronald T. Reiling; William [73] Asslgnee. Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn. F. White q [22] Filed: July 12, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 378,466

Related US. Application Data [57] ABSTRACT [60] gg j g fi 3; EQ 532; high speed incremental web transport system espe- 2 Est Z "3'23; cially suited for a high speed printer application inare a eludes two motors with velocity feedback driven from [52] U S Cl 307/228 307/227 328/181 a common controller in accordance with a computer 328/186 originated movement request. Incremental position transducers allow precise repetitive spacing and posi- {g i' gg aggggg tional stability of the motor shafts. Difi'erential tension 307/261 227 7 to be created during printing periods is obtained by 186 6 controlling motor current. Synchronization control for skip type movements prevents a build-up of positional [56] References Cited error UNITED STATES PATENTS 9 Claims 5 Drawing Figures 3,309,618 3/1967 Harris et al. 330/69 .l' 0 +Vc 91 109 119 1 117 l I 125 105 I 1 a 137 I 27 l 1 133 I 103 129 Vcc 111 7 l 1 a l VOLTAGE Fig 2.

POSITION TRANSDUCER POSITION TRANSDUCER SHEET 1 BF 2 PHASE COMPARATOR 1 v aunt II. 0 OLQQJOOOQOOFOOTOII 0e 00 Fig? 1.

3 7 8 A w A- R a o c R Lm w W A E E EA '5 E mN VR MR S D L I EE A OANH W LN RN 3 PR U C 9 F. T I W M 8 m 8 T m EWT W% EL.

: g I I L COMPUTER PATENTED AUG 74 SHEET 2 0F 2 Fig 4.

TIME(MS) RAMPED-STEP SIGNAL GENERATING CIRCUIT This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 202,031, filed Nov. 24, l97l, now abandoned, which was a division of application Ser. No. 22,235, filed Mar. 24, 1970, and now U.S. Pat. No. 3,644,806.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to web transport systems. More specifically, the invention relates to a high speed paper transport system for use in printing out information from a computer.

The vast amount of printed output generated by todays high speed computers has created a demand for ever faster printer devices. Traditionally, these devices print a line and then advance the paper one or more lines and print another line. Ideally, consecutive lines should be identically spaced with characters, all of which are not simultaneously printed, in a straight line. To speed operation, each line must be printed and the paper transported between printed lines as rapidly as possible.

One traditional approach to computer print-outs has been to use a-cylindrical rotating drum of type font above the paper, in conjunction with a set of selectively activated hammers behind the paper to strike the paper against a marking ribbon in order to impress the shape of the character on the drum upon the front of the paper. The rotating drums usually have one row for each character with the identical character in each hammer position. The drum is continually rotated at high speed. Selected print hammers are activated to print all like characters in a given line simultaneously. To prevent character smearing and to have different characters aligned, the paper must be stopped and held during the printing operation. Thus, the basic operation of the apparatus is to move the paper to a new line, stop, and retain the paper precisely in place while the type drum is allowed to revolve at least enough so that all desired characters have passed under the print hammers.

The traditional approach to moving the paper from line to line has been a clutch and brake system or a singlemotor driving an intricate arrangement of gears and belts which link two or four multiple toothed tractors over which the paper is drawn. In order to obtain good print quality, it is necessary to hold the paper precisely in place under tension during the printing operation.

To accelerate the paper between print lines, the tractors which pull the paper under tension must overcome any contact friction between the paper and a guide surface contacting the paper. This puts additional tension upon the paper. Since tension above a certain critical value will tear the paper, the tension needed to hold the paper taut during printing, plus the necessary acceleration tension must remain below this critical tearing value. Therefore, the tension to hold the paper taut during printing may have to be lower than actually desired.

Moreover, the tension can only be adjusted initially and varies with the mechanical inaccuracies introduced by the various system linkages.

The large inertia of the tractors, with the associated gears and belts, in addition to friction on the paper from the guide surface, requires a large size motor to achieve rapid paper movement.

Prior art printer systems encounter difficulty in moving the paper accurately and achieving and maintaining an accurate paper position.

Also, for normal printing operations only one direction of paper movement is required. Certain other types of desired output (e.g. graphs) would be greatly facilitated if a printer could run backwards as well as forwards. Mechanical backlash in the gears and belts, and paper holding mechanizations have heretofore permitted only one direction of paper movement.

It is an object of the present invention to overcome the foregoing problems and disadvantages. It is a further object to provide an improved web transport systern.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides an improved positioning control system through the use of two separate motor means with velocity feedback to each motor means to control the two web carrying tractors. The two motor means are driven from a common velocity function generator which, in response to a given computer movement request, generates a velocity waveform to accomplish the desired movement.

According to another feature of the invention, each motor means is also coupled to a position transducer which is selectively connected in a feedback configuration for precise and positive stop position placement of the rotating portion of each motor means.

According to another feature of the invention, means responsive to the torque generated by the motor means when the web is not moving adds a signal to at least one of the motor means to provide tension of any desired quantity.

According to still another feature of the invention, in order to prevent a build-up in positional difference between the two rotating portions because of inaccuracies of the velocity measuring tachometers, a comparison of the position transducer signals is made and used to augment the velocity command to at least one of the motor means. Preferably, each motor means includes a motor and a drive amplifier. Preferably, each rotating portion includes a shaft.

The invention may be embodied as a basic velocity servo system with three auxiliary control loops activated under predetermined conditions. The basic system includes two amplifiers for driving the two motors, with two paper carrying tractors and a tachometer coupled to each motor. Both amplifiers, in addition to their respective tachometer signal, also receive a common command from a velocity function generator.

According to a feature of the invention, the velocity function generator upon receipt of a paper movement request from a computer, provides a velocity waveform which each amplifier and motor combination can closely follow. The polarity of the velocity waveform causes the motors to run in either a forward or reverse direction.

According to another feature of the invention, the position transducers are each of the multiple roll type to produce a null at each possible desired stopping location for the motor shaft and tractors that move the paper. Switch means apply the position signals to the motor means when the final position is reached. Preferably, the switch means maintains the application of the position signals until the next desired paper movement request is received by the velocity function generator and acted upon.

According to still another feature of the invention, the torque responsive means measures the current provided by .the amplifiers to each motor and a tension control signal is provided to one of the motor-amplifier combinations to keep a constant current different between the two motors. Since current is proportional to the torque provided by the motor, a given current difference between the two motors means that a constant tension is provided to the paper web carried between the tractors.

These and other features of the invention are pointed out in the claims. The foregoing summary will become clear and additional modifications will suggest themselves from the following detailed description when read in light of the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an elevation showing two motors coupled to web-carrying tractors with a tachometer and position transducer also coupled to each motor shaft.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing a system embodying features of the invention.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram detailing the velocity function generator in FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is an electrical schematic of the ramp generator of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 shows some typical velocity waveforms from the velocity function generator in FIG. 2.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT In FIG. 1, two electric motors, 1 and 3 drive respective shafts 5 and 7 on which are mounted web carrying tractors 9, 11, 13, and 15. These tractors have radially extending projections 17 which engage with holes 18 in a paper web 19. The paper web 19 is usually horizontally perforated into pages 20 of a length sufficient to accomodate about ninety print lines. The first printed line of a page is known as the head-of-form.

Coupled to the motors l and 3 are position transducers 21 and 23 of the magneto-resistive type with multiple poles to provide a multiple null cyclical output for each motor revolution. Two tachometers 25 and 27 are connected to the motor shafts 5 and 7 and provide an output indicative of motor, and hence paper-carrying tractor, velocity.

In FIG. 2, a computer 31 which furnishes the information to be printed originates a request for a desired paper movement. The request is communicated in a digital form over lines 33 to velocity function generator 35. The velocity function generator 35 examines the direction and amount of movement requested and generates an appropriate velocity waveform on line 37 for accomplishing this movement in an optimal manner. The velocity waveform moves between predetermined velocity levels along carefully controlled inclined ramps (see FIG. 5). The slope of the ramp is chosen in order that the motors l and 3 with their associated amplifiers 39 and 41 respectively will be able to continuously achieve velocitiesessentially equal to that commanded by the velocity waveform. Line 37 is connected to amplifiers 39 and 41 through respective summing junctions 43 and 45 which serve to sum together various signals such as the velocity feedback signals provided by tachometers 25 and 27 and the velocity waveform on line 37.

The position transducers 21 and 23 are coupled to the motors 1 and 3 respectively and their output signals are connected through switches 47 and 49 to the summing junctions 43 and 45 respectively. The switches 47 and 49 respond to a decrement or line counter in the velocity function generator 35 to remain open during signals which induce normal motion. The switches 47 and 49 simultaneoulsy close in response to signals from the counter in the velocity function generator. Closing of the switches creates a position loop for precisely holding the tractor at a desired final location. The switches 47 and 49 are simultaneously opened at the start of a paper movement during a signal from the function generator 35 that again induces motion. The switches 47 and 49 may for example comprises FET transistors connected with their respective paths of major current flow (i.e. source to drain) between transducer 21 and summing junction 43 and between transducer 23 and summing junction 45 respectively. The velocity function generator 35 controls the control electrodes.

Position transducer 21 is also connected to the velocity function generator 35 by a line 50 and serves to provide an indication of distance moved. The velocity function generator 35 responds by providing appropriate lower levels of commanded velocity as the motors 1 and 3 approach the final desired position. The signal on line 50 is processed by the velocity function generator 35 to provide an internal signal indicative of a null being traversed. This internal signal is used to decrement the internal line counter (see FIG. 3).

To prevent the mechanical inaccuracies of tachometers 25 and 27 from causing a relative position difference between the two motor shafts 5 and 7 during a long movement of paper, such as the skipping of several pages, the essentially sinusoidal cyclical signals from position transducers 21 and 23 are fed into squaring amplifiers 51 and 52 respectively. The squaring amplifiers 51 and 52 amplify and clip the sinusoidal input so as to produce a square wave output in phase with the sinusoidal input. The outputs of squaring amplifiers 51 and 52 are passed to a phase comparator 53 which provides an output indicative of the phase difference between the leading edges of the squaring amplifier outputs. The output of phase comparator 53 passes to either line 55 or 57 depending upon which squaring amplifier output edge is leading. The signals on lines 55 and 57 are each applied to both summing junctions 43 and 45 with opposite polarities. The squaring amplifiers may be composed of amplifiers followed by clipping circuits. They may then have further amplification of the clipped signal.

If position transducer 21 indicates that motor 1 is physically in advance of the position of motor 3 as indicated by position transducer 23, phase comparator 53 produces an output on line 57 proportional to the indicated phase difference between position transducers 21 and 23. This signal on line 57 provides an additional signal to summing junction 45 to augment the velocity waveform signal on line 37. The signal at summing junction 43 is treated as a negative signal and thus subtracts from the velocity waveform provided by line 37.

This causes motor 1 to slow down and motor 3 to speedup such that the outputs of position transducers 21 and 23 are brought into synchronism. The tachometers 25 and 27 are accurate enough such that the positional difference build-up between the two motors 1 and 3 for a short, low speed paper movement does not require correction.

Two motor-current measuring resistors 63 and 65 are connected to a summing junction 67 which provides the difference therebetween to an amplifier 69 whose output is compared with a preset manually adjustable tension reference voltage source 71 by a summing junction 73 and the difference therebetween provided to tension control amplifier 75 whose output is connected to summing junction 43 through switch 77. Switch 77 may also be composed of an FET transistor corresponding to switches 47 and 49. Switch 77 closes and opens in coincidence with switch 47 such that tension is only supplied when the two motors 1 and 3 are stopped. Switches 47, 49, and 77 are all controlled by line 79 from the line counter in the velocity function generator 35. Thus, tension is released before paper movement commences. This tension control loop operates to keep a fixed difference in current through the two motors 1 and 3 when they are stopped. This assures constant tension throughout the printing operation.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of the internal structure of the velocity function generator 35. Computer 31 produces a digital request signal on lines 33 indicative of the number of print lines the paper 19 is to move. These signals are received by request logic unit 81 which interprets the request signal from computer 31 and produces a number representative of the print lines to be traversed. This number is stored in line counter 83 which makes this number available to a level generator 87 over lines 85. A non-zero number in the line counter 83 produces a signal on line 79 to open switches 47, 49, and 77. When the number is zero, the signal on line 79 will close the switches. Level generator 87 is responsive to the digital number on lines 85 to produce discrete voltage levels on line 89 dependent upon the range of the number indicated by lines 85.

For example, in an actual embodiment of the invention, when the number in line counter 83 is one or two,

the level generator 87 produces a voltage on line 89 sufficient to drive the motor-amplifier combination at a low velocity of about -30 inches per second. If the number in line counter 83 is typically between three and seven, then level generator 87 produces a voltage on line 89 sufficient to drive the motor-amplifier combination at a velocity of about 70 inches per second. If the number in line counter 83 is above seven, then level generator 87 produces a voltage sufficient to cause a velocity of about 100 inches per second.

Thus ramp generator 91 has an input of discrete voltage levels which are dependent upon the number in line counter 83. In response to the discrete levels on line 89, ramp generator 91 produces an output on line 37 in which the abrupt level changes on line 89 are connected by ramps of controlled slope. The signal on line 37 is that actually supplied to summing junctions 43 and 45.

Position transducer 21 is connected by line 80 to a null detector 82. Null detector 82 is responsive to the null crossings of the position transducer output so as to generate a signal capable of decrementing line counter 83. Thus, one cycle of output from position transducer 21 which is equivalent to a distance of one print line being traversed will decrement the number in line counter 83 by one. Thus, line counter 83 maintains the current count of print lines yet to be traversed.

FIG. 4 is an electrical schematic diagram of the ramp generator 91. Equal and opposite supply voltages are supplied at terminals 101 and 103. Zener diodes 105 and 107 in conjunction with resistors 109 and 111 serve to establish substantially constant voltages at the points between the resistors 109 and 111 and the diodes 117 and 133 respectively.

Lead 123 connects the collectors of transistors 121 and 131, the series combination of capacitor 135 and resistor 137, and the input of a buffer amplifier 139. The buffer amplifier 139 prevents leakage of charge stored in the capacitor and the amplifier output is the velocity waveform on line 37. With a quiescent signal level on line 115, zener diode 117 acts in conjunction with resistor 119 and transistor 121 to establish a constant current through resistor 119 and into lead 123. Diode 125 provides temperature compensation for the base emitter junction of transistor 121. Similarly, zener diode 127 acts in conjunction with resistor 129 and transistor 131 to require a constant current from lead 123. Diode 133 serves to temperature compensate for the base emitter junction of transistor 131.

The current set by zener diode 117 to flow through transistor 121 into lead 123 is essentially equal to that set by zener diode 127 to flow from lead 123 through transistor 131. Thus in conjunction with the quiescent level on line 115, transistors 121 and 131 cooperate to pass a preset level of current between the positive and negative voltage supplies. Therefore, no current is supplied to or drawn from capacitor 135 and the voltage on lead 123 remains constant.

Line 37 is connected to input terminal 141 of highgain amplifier 113. When the signal on the amplifier 113 input lines 89 and 141 are substantially equal, output line 115 will be at its quiescent level. Such a condition is indicative of the fact that the voltage on line 37 is equal to the discrete voltage levels provided on line 89 by level generator 87.

When the paper web is stationary, it is indicative that there is a zero voltage level on line 37, capacitor 135, and on line 89. When a movement request is generated by computer 31, level generator 87 changes the zero voltage level on line 89 to a non-zero level. Therefore, high-gain amplifier 113 causes output line 115 to assume a level other than the quiescent level. For example, if the voltage on line 89 goes from zero volts to some positive voltage value, then the signal on line 115 goes negative. This negative voltage is sufficient to cutoff transistor 131. Zener diodes 105 and 107 establish voltages that allow the maximum voltage swings on line 115 to positively cut-off transistors 121 and 131. However, transistor 121 will not be affected and will continue to act as a current source. Since the current through transistor 121 into lead 123 can no longer flow through transistor 131 and resistor 129 to the negative source, it must flow into the series combination of capacitor 135 and resistor 137.

The constant current into capacitor 135 creates a linearly increasing voltage on line 123. The negative voltage on line 115 continues to hold transistor 131 cut-off until the linear increase in voltage across capacitor 135 eventually produces a voltage level from buffer amplifier 139 equal to that present on line 89. Then line 115 returns to its quiescent value and the current through transistor 121 again flows through transistor 131 and produces no further change in the voltage on capacitor 135. Thus line 37 has changed from zero volts to a positive voltage value by means of a controlled linear ramp. This controlled ramp can be followed by the amplifiermotor combination without saturation of the transport servo system.

Resistor 137 in series with capacitor 135 acts to put a small voltage step at the start of the ramp on line 37 by virtue of the current through the resistor. There is no corresponding voltage step at the end of a ramp because of the voltage feedback to amplifier terminal 141. This improves operation of the servo system by providing an increased signal at the beginning of a velocity change operation which serves to overcome the natural lag associated with the transport servo system.

Should the voltage level on line 89 have gone from a zero to a negative value, or from a more positive to a less positive value, a correspondingly opposite sequence would occur. The voltage on line 115 would go positive and cut off transistor 121 causing transistor 131 to pull current out of capacitor 135. This constant current drain from capacitor 135 creates a linearly decreasing voltage on line 123. This linear decrease in voltage continues until the voltage on line 37 is equal to the new level established on line 89.

FIG. shows some typical velocity waveforms produced on line 37 for various desired movement distances. Curve 151 shows the velocity waveform generated for a movement of one print line. Waveform 153 shows the velocity waveform generated for a movement of six print lines. Waveform 155 shows the velocity waveform produced for a movement of sixteen print lines.

The following example will serve to illustrate the overall system performance. Assume motors l and 3 are stopped. Therefore, the velocity function generator 35 has a zero level output on line 37. Switches 47 and 49 are closed so that position transducers 21 and 23 are connected to the respective summing junctions 43 and 45. In addition, switch 77 is closed thus providing a tension signal to summing junction 43.

Position transducer 23 is located at a null by virtue of the feedback connection and position transducer 21 is slightly offset from null because of the tension control signal provided by amplifier 75. This tension signal is such as to maintain a fixed difference, determined by the preset tension reference voltage 71, between the currents in resistors 63 and 65.

Now if computer 31 issues a request over lines 33 to velocity function generator 35 for a desired number of print lines to be traversed, the following steps will occur. After receipt of the request by the request logic unit 81, the computer request is interpreted and the number of lines to be traversed is placed in line counter 83. This immediately causes level generator 87 to produce a non-zero level on line 89 and thus ramp generator 81 starts producing a ramp on line 37. Once a nonzero number exists in line counter 83, switches 47, 49, and 77 will open and motors l and 3 by virtue of the velocity feedback loop will assume a velocity consistent with the velocity waveform on line 37. Assuming that the computer 31 requested a long skip, for example 16 print lines, then the signals from position transducers 21 and 23 will be processed by the squaring amplifiers 51 and 52 and phase comparator 53 to produce a corrective output on line 55 or 57 if necessary.

As position transducer 21 indicates a print line traversed by virtue of a null crossing detected by null detector 82, line counter 83 will be decremented and eventually cause level generator 87 to produce a lower voltage level on line 89. Ramp generator 91 will then cause line 37 to linearly approach this new commanded voltage level. Motors 1 and 3 continually closely follow the velocity waveform on line 37. For a requested movement of 16 print lines in the forward direction, the motor velocity would substantially have the shape of waveform in FIG. 5.

When the desired final position has been reached, line 37 will have returned to zero volts and switches 47, 49, and 77 are again closed. Thus, position transducers 21 and 23 hold motors 1 and 3 precisely in place while a constant tension is applied by the maintainance of a fixed current difference through resistors 63 and 65.

The summing junctions are composed of known types of adding circuits which where necessary include inversion inputs or outputs so that inputs may be added or subtracted as described.

The synchronizing loop, including elements 21, 23, 51, 52, 53, 43, and 45, allows the maintainance of equal velocity for the two tractors despite the inaccuracies of the tachometers and high motor speeds. It does this by comparing the position transducer signals and generating a velocity correction signal for the motor means in response to the compared signals.

To prevent undue burdening the description with matte. within the ken of those skilled in the art, a block diagram approach has been followed with a detailed functional discription of each block and specific identification of the circuitry it represents. The individual engineer is free to select elements and components from his own background or from available standard references.

Although the invention has been described with respect to a high-speed printer application, its extension is readily apparent to other web movingsystems. In fact, the invention is applicable to any multiple motor system in which corresponding shaft alignments must be maintained.

From the foregoing discussion it will be apparent that numerous modifications, departures, substitutions and equivalences may now occur to those skilled in the art, all of which fall within the true scope and spirit of the present invention.

What is claimed is:

1. A signal generator for producing a step signal having ramps between successive step levels, said signal generator comprising:

means for generating only a step signal having a plurality of successive step levels wherein each step level is a discrete voltage level;

means for generating linear ramps between the sue-- cessive step levels of said step signal, said ramp generating means comprising:

two equal constant current sources of opposite polarity, each connected to a common junction;

control means, responsive to each successive step level change for selectively opening only one of said current sources at a time, said control means having an inverting input and a non-inverting input, said inverting input being connected to said step signal generating means;

a capacitor with a first terminal connected to the junction of said current sources and a second ter minal of said capacitor connected to a reference potential so as to charge or discharge depending on which current source is selectively opened by said control means; and

a feedback path for feeding back a signal indicative of the voltage charge on said capacitor, said feedback path connected to said non-inverting input of said control means whereby the signal indicative of the voltage charge is not inverted through said control means.

2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the first constant current source comprising:

isolating and switch means, responsive to said control means, for disconnecting the first current source from the junction between current sources when the signal from said control means is of a first polarity; and the second constant current source comprises:

isolating and switch means, responsive to said control means, for disconnecting the second current source from the junction between current sources when the signal from said control means is of a second polarity.

3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the said control means is a control amplifier;

said current sources are connected between equal and opposite supply voltage sources; and

said reference potential comprises a first terminal of a resistor having a second terminal which connects to zero volts.

4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein each of said current sources further comprises a resistor with a first terminal connected to a respective one of said supply voltage sources; differential voltage source means, reference to said respective supply voltage source, and connected to said isolating and switch means, said isolating and switch means being operative to connect said differential voltage source means to a second terminal of said resistor and for connecting said second resistor terminal to said junction in response to said control amplifier.

5. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein said differential voltage source means comprises a zener diode;

said isolating and switch means comprise a single transistor; and

said control amplifier is connected to both of said transistors through respective resistors.

6. The apparatus of claim 5 wherein said feedback path comprises a buffer amplifier connected to said capacitor to provide a signal representative of capacitor voltage to said control amplifier.

7. A signal generator for generating a step signal having ramps between successive step levels, said signal generator comprising:

means for generating a step signal having a plurality of successive step levels wherein each step level is a discrete voltage level; and

means for generating linear ramps between the successive step levels of said step signal, said ramp generating means comprising:

a first constant voltage source and a second constant voltage source of opposite polarity to said first constant voltage source;

a capacitor;

a first constant current path connecting said first constant voltage source to said capacitor, said first current path comprising a first switching transistor for switching said current path on or off;

a second constant current path connecting said second voltage source to said capacitor, said second current path comprising a second switching transistor for switching said second current path on or off;

a differential amplifier having an inverting and a non-inverting input wherein said inverting input receives discrete voltage levels from the step signal generated by said step signal generating means, said differential amplifier has an output which is connected to the control electrodes of said first and second switching transistors, and said first and second transistors are alternately conductive in response to the polarity of the signal present on the single output of said differential amplifier which causes only one of said switching transistors to be switched on; and feedback path connected to the capacitor for feeding back a signal indicative of a capacitor voltage to said non-inverted feedback signal indicative of capacitance voltage and the inverted input of discrete changes.

8. The signal generator of claim 7 wherein the first and second current paths and the feedback path are all commonly connected to a first terminal of said capacitor and a second terminal of said capacitor is connected through a resistor to a zero voltage potential.

9. The signal generator of claim 8 wherein said feedback path comprises a buffer amplifier connected to said first terminal of said capacitor.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION PATENT NO. 3,323,203 DATED August 6, 1974 INVENTOMS) 1 Ross A. Belson and Gaston A. Palombo It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Pate are hereby corrected as shown below:

Page 1, the second inventor s name should read -Gaston A. Pa1ombo--.

Signed and sealed this 24th day of June 1975.

(52211.) Attest:

C. MARSHALL DANN RUTH C. MASON Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer and Trademarks

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4002927 *May 22, 1975Jan 11, 1977Sony CorporationComplementary FET pulse control circuit
US4422044 *Nov 17, 1981Dec 20, 1983The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of EnergyHigh precision triangular waveform generator
US5754012 *Oct 7, 1996May 19, 1998Micro Linear CorporationPrimary side lamp current sensing for minature cold cathode fluorescent lamp system
US5818669 *Jul 30, 1996Oct 6, 1998Micro Linear CorporationZener diode power dissipation limiting circuit
US5825223 *Jul 30, 1996Oct 20, 1998Micro Linear CorporationTechnique for controlling the slope of a periodic waveform
US5896015 *Jul 30, 1996Apr 20, 1999Micro Linear CorporationMethod and circuit for forming pulses centered about zero crossings of a sinusoid
US5965989 *Jul 30, 1996Oct 12, 1999Micro Linear CorporationTransformer primary side lamp current sense circuit
US6339349 *Feb 2, 2000Jan 15, 2002National Semiconductor CorporationMethod and circuit for comparator-less generation of ramped voltage having controlled maximum amplitude
US6344980Nov 8, 1999Feb 5, 2002Fairchild Semiconductor CorporationUniversal pulse width modulating power converter
US6366067Jun 30, 2000Apr 2, 2002Intel CorporationVoltage regulator for reducing EMI
US6469914Oct 4, 2001Oct 22, 2002Fairchild Semiconductor CorporationUniversal pulse width modulating power converter
US8188682Jun 22, 2007May 29, 2012Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.High current fast rise and fall time LED driver
Classifications
U.S. Classification327/126, 327/132, 327/137
International ClassificationH03K6/00, H03K4/02, H03K4/00
Cooperative ClassificationH03K6/00, H03K4/02
European ClassificationH03K4/02, H03K6/00