US 3828542 A
Effect yarns having an irregular and twisted surface formed from at least two components having different physical properties, at least one of which is a thermoplastic material which are intermittently bonded to form the effect. These effect yarns are produced by heating the yarns to soften at least one component and twisting and untwisting the softened yarns.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Boutonnet et al.
1451 Aug. 13, 1974 NOVEL EFFECT YARNS AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING THE SAME Inventors: Alexandre Boutonnet, Dommartin;
Georges Clavelet; Gilbert Morieras, both of Lyon, all of France Assignee: Societe Rhodiaceta, Paris, France Filed: Nov. 18, 1971 Appl. No.: 200,104
Foreign Application Priority Data Nov. 18, 1970 France 70.41663 us. 01 57/140 BY, 57/157 TS, 161/175 1111. c1; D02g 3/04, D02g 1/02 Field of Search... 57/157 MS, 140 BY, 157 TS,
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 9/1 61 Mayner 57/140 R 10/1962 l-leberlein et a1. 57/140 R 3,061,998 11/1962 Bloch 57/140 BY 3,251,181 5/1966 Breen et a1 57/140 R 3,472,017 10/1969 Nakayama et al 57/140 BY 3,498,043 3/1970 Moffett, Jr. et a1 57/140 R 3,553,953 l/l97l Ponson 57/140 R 3,616,167 10/1971 Gosden 57/140 BY X FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,045,990 10/1966 Great Britain 57/157 R Primary Examiner-John W. Huckert Assistant Examiner-Charles Gorenstein Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Sherman and Shalloway ABSTRACT Effect yarns having an irregular and twisted surface formed from at least two components having different physical properties, at least one of which is a thermoplastic material which are intermittently bonded to form the effect. These effect yarns are produced by heating the yarns to soften at least one component and twisting and untwisting the softened yarns.
13 Claims, 15 Drawing Figures PATENTED AUG 1 31974 SHEU 1 [IF 3 NOVEI. EFFECT YARNS AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING THE SAME The present invention relates to an effect yarn and a process for producing such a yarn.
There are a number of prior art processes for obtaining yarns having a high twist by winding, using a single or double twist spindle. However, throwing is a slow process and the production speeds are lowered if a higher twist is the desired. It has also been proposed to manufacture false twist yarns having high elasticity at greater speeds. However, in these processes yarns having high bulk and/or high elasticity are obtained.
The cohesion of the filaments which comprise a yarn can be increased by various processes, especially by mechanical or pneumatic means. However, these processes generally produce yarns having insufficient compactness for certain applications.
Furthermore, yarns having a high residual twist have been obtained by various processes such as twist accumulation, twist packing and pneumatic false twisting. Here again it is difficult to obtain really compact yarns having the appearance of a monofilament.
The process of the present invention provides a multi-filament yarn with an irregular surface and having a twisted appearance. The multi-filament yarn has at least two filaments, each filament has at least two consitutents with different softening temperatures and/or degradation temperature, at least one component being thermoplastic, so that at least some of the filaments are bonded to one another at least at some points along the length of the yarn, in order to provide the surface of the yarn with helical portions of random length, direction and pitch.
The process of the present invention generally comprises feeding a multi-component yarn through a heating zone and then passing the heated yarn through a false twister to twist and untwist the yarn.
It is therefore a primary object of the present invention to provide a process for producing fancy effect yarns.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a fancy effect multi-filament yam which is compact and appears to be monofilament yarn.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide compact multi-filament yarns having an uneven surface and a twisted appearance.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a multi-filament yarn wherein the yarn comprises filaments having different thermal and degradation characteristics.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a multi-filament yam wherein the filaments are intermittently bonded to each other.
his a still further object of the present invention to provide a process for producing multi-filament effect yarns by heating the multi-filaments and subsequently twisting and untwisting the yarns.
Still further objects and advantages of the effect yarns and process for producing the same of the present invention will become more apparent from the following more detailed description thereof.
The multi-filament effect yarns of the present invention comprise at least two filaments having components with differing physical properties, these filaments being intermittently bonded to each other and presenting the helical appearance of random length, direction and pitch.
The present invention also provides a process for obtaining an effect yarn comprising heating a multifilament yarn, each filament having at least two components of different softening temperatures and/or degradation temperatures, at least one of said components being thermoplastic to a setting temperature at least equal to the softening temperature of the constituent having the lowest softening temperature, twisting the heated yarn and untwisting the twisted yarn.
The multi-filament yarn of the present invention may be a yarn formed of filaments having different properties, which filaments may or may not be thermoplastic polymers or a yam formed of at least two identical filaments, each filament having at least two components, arranged coaxially or non-coaxially, such as in a sideby-side relation, sheath-core, etc. when sheath-core filaments are used, the softening temperature of the sheath must be less than the core.
Furthermore, this yarn can contain filaments which possess different physical characteristics or properties, for example elongation, tensile strength or shrinkage, which gives the yarn an additional fancy effect, such as improved bulk. The yarn can consist of continuous filaments or discontinuous filaments such as spun fibres, rovings or ribbons.
Generally, at least a part of at least some of the filaments are welded to one another within a given section of yarn. According to a particular embodiment of the invention, at least a certain number of strands are welded together only at certain points spaced along the length of the yarn and define intermittent free portions which produce an effect. These free portions can be broken by passing the yarns over an abrasive surface, blade, grinding surface, etc., and thus form a yarn having a spun yarn" appearance.
The novel yarns and process for producing the same will be more readily understood with reference to the following illustrative drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a device for the manufacture of a yarn according to the invention, wherein the false-twisting treatment is carried out continuously.
FIG. 2 is a further embodiment of a device for carrying out the process according to the invention with a second heat treatment, after the false-twisting treatment which is carried out continuously.
FIG. 3 diagrammatically represents a device for carrying out the process wherein the false-twisting treatment is carried out discontinuously.
FIGS. 4 to 15 represent yarns obtained in accordance with the examples of carrying out the process according to the invention.
As shown in FIG. 1, a yarn l is drawn from a cop 2 and successively passes over a hook 3, a directionchanging guide 4, a tension pulley 5 and a first feed device 6. The yarn then passes through a heating element 7 and then through a false-twist spindle 8, over a second feed device 9 and over a guide 10 before being wound up on a bobbin 11 by a conventional winding system.
The arrangement shown in FIG. 2 is similar to that in FIG. 1, except that the yarn passes downstream of the false-twist spindle 8, through a second heating element 12 before being wound up.
According to FIG. 3, the yarn l3 drawn from a bobbin 14 which freely rotates is given a certain twist, and then passes over a balloon guide 15 and then over a heating plate 16. The yarn is thereafter wound up on a bobbin 18 while being guided by a guide 17 by a conventional reciprocating winding system. Subsequently, the yarn may be untwisted by a similar unwinding step or other conventional twisting process.
The setting temperatures of heating elements 7 and 12 generally can vary from 150 to 300C and preferably is regulated at a temperature at most equal to a temperature which does not significantly affect the textile characteristics of the constituent having the highest softening temperature.
Although the process may be conducted continuously or discontinuously, preferably, the twistingsetting-untwisting operation should be carried out continuously as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
It is possible to obtain a yarn according to the process of the present invention which possesses certain specific effects or characteristics such as flexibility, elasticity, appearance and handle, by varying the composition of the yarn and the treatment conditions. Thus, the heat treatment is generally applied to the yarn continuously, for example, by passing the yarn over a heating plate or through an oven. However, where it is desired to achieve a special effect, a localized heat treatment at various points can be achieved by means of a device for intermittent contact with a heating element.
It is also possible to vary the characteristics of the yarn, for example, the handle, by subjecting it continuously to a more or less rapid cooling between the heat treatment and the twisting-untwisting device. Advantageously, a second heat treatment can be carried out downstream of the twisting-setting-untwisting operation as shown in FIG. 2 so as to increase the fancy effect of the yarn, especially to improve its bulk.
Furthermore, the yarn according to the invention can be subjected to any other customary treatment for the purpose of modifying its characteristics for special applications. Thus, this yarn can be subjected to a treatment which allows the free portions, which appear according to a special form of the invention, to be broken, for example, by sanding, abrasion and the like.
The process according to the invention produces yarnsat an advantageous industrial cost, these yarns being perfectly suitable for various applications such as woven fabrics, voile and the like.
Filaments suitable for use in forming the effect yarns of the present invention include thermoplastic fibers such as those produced from polyamides, such as polyhexamethylene adipamide, poly(e-caprolactam), polyhexamethylene sebacamide, poly (9-aminononanoic acid), poly( ll-aminoundecanoic acid), poly lauric lactam, copolymers of any of the above polyamides, polyesters such as those produced by condensing a glycol such as, ethylene, propylene, diethylene, dipropylene or butylene glycol with an acid or anydride such as adipic acid, azelaic acid, terephtalic acid or phthalic anhydride, e.g., polyethylene terephtalic, polyolefins such as polyethylene, propylene, etc., vinyl polymers such as polyvinyl chloride, polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylonitrile, etc.
The process and product of the present invention will now be illustrated by means of the following specific examples which are for illustration only and not to be taken as limiting the scope of the present invention. In
the following examples, all parts and percentages are by weight and all temperatures are in degrees centigrade.
EXAMPLE 1 A coaxial bi-component yarn of 190 dtex/32 filaments is treated in accordance with the process shown diagrammatically in FIG. 1. Each filament comprises in the weight ratio of /20:
i. a copolyamide containing 60 percent of polyhexamethylene adipamide and, 40 percent of poly(ecaprolactam) having a melting point of C, forming the sheath of the yarn; and
ii. polyhexamethylene adipamide having a relative viscosity of 36 and melting point of about 260C, forming the core of the yarn.
The yarn passes through an oven heated to 235C at a speed of 27 m/minute and then into a conventional mechanical false-twist spindle rotating at 50,000 revolutions per minute; the yarn then has a theoretical twist of about 1,800 tums/meter.
The yarn is wound at a speed substantially the same as the speed of travel of the yarn through the oven.
The yarn thus obtained has the appearance of a single filament yarn, thefilaments being tightly stuck to each other, its appearance being illustrated in FIG. 4.
EXAMPLE 2 A bi-component yarn identical to that of Example I is treated in accordance with the same process under the following working conditions:
220C 28 m/minute 28,000 revolutions/minute 1,000 turns/meter FIG. 5 illustrates the yarn obtained, which is less compact than Example 1 since it is of lower twist, but the filaments in it are again stuck to one another.
EXAMPLE 3 EXAMPLE 4 The same yarn as in Example 1 is subjected to the following working conditions:
240C. 41 m/minute Oven temperature Speed of travel through the oven Speed of rotation of the spindle Theoretical twist of the yarn 74,000 revolutions/minute 1,800 turns/meter The yarn obtained according to this example has a more irregular surface than that obtained in Example I and its appearance is illustrated in FIG. 7.
EXAMPLE 5 The same yarn as in Example 1 is treated, but in accordance with the process shown diagramatically in FIG. 2, and under the following conditions:
240C 59 m/minute Oven temperature Speed of travel of the yarn through the oven Speed of rotation of the spindle Theoretical twist of the yarn 74,000 revolutions/minute 7 1,250 turns/lmeter EXAMPLE 6 The same yarn as in Example 1 is used and is treated in accordance with the process shown diagramatically in FIG. 2, under the following conditions:
210C. 4l m/minute 74,000 revolutions/minute Temperature of the lst oven Speed of travel of the yarn Speed of rotation of the spindle Temperature of the 2nd oven Theoretical twist of the yarn 2 I 5C. L800 turns/meter The yarn obtained in this example shows free portions which are shorter than in the preceding example, as is illustrated by FIG. 9.
EXAMPLE 7 The same procedure as in the two preceding examples is applied to the same yarn as in Example 1, under the following conditions:
215C. 41 m/minute Temperature of the 1st oven Speed of travel of the yarn through the oven Speed of rotation of the spindle Temperature of the 2nd oven 210C Theoretical twist of the yarn 1,800 turns/meter 74,000 revolutions/minute The yarn obtained in this example has a very small number of very short free portions and its appearance is illustrated in FIG. 10.
EXAMPLE 8 To obtain a fancy effect yarn, the yarn obtained according to Example 4 is passed over an emery-covered surface which abrades the yarn and gives it the appearance shown schematically in FIG. 11.
EXAMPLE 9 In order to manufacture a pile yarn, the yarn obtained according to Example 5 is passed over a grinding wheel and a yarn of the appearance shown in FIG. 12 is obtained.
EXAMPLE EXAMPLE l l The yarn obtained in Example 7 is treated by means of an abrasive surface and the yarn illustrated in FIG. 14 is obtained.
EXAMPLE 12 A yarn identical to that of Example 1 is treated discontinuously by the process illustrated in FIG. 3, and given a Z-twist of 1,250 turns/meter, and is then passed over a heating plate at a temperature of 240C. at a speed of 7 meters/minute and wound up.
In a second phase, it is untwisted in the S-direction by 1,250 turns/meter and a yarn having the appearance shown schematically in FIG. 15 is obtained.
EXAMPLE 1 3 Using the procedure of Example I, the following sets of filaments are treated to form multi-filament yarns:
a. side by side polyethylene terephtalate and polypropylene terephthalate;
b. side by side polyacrylonitrile, and polyvinyl chloride; and
c. sheath, polyhexamethylen adipamide and core,
Each of the above noted yarns has a compact effect substantially as shown in FIG. 4.
What we claim is:
1. A multi-filament yarn having an irregular surface and a twisted appearance, comprising at least two filaments, each filament having at least two components, each component having different softening temperatures, degradation temperatures or both, at least one of said components being thermoplastic, at least some of said filaments being bonded to each other at various points along the length of said yarn, the surface of said yarn having helical portions of random length, direction and pitch.
2. The yarn of claim 1, wherein said components are side-by-side.
3. The yarn of claim 1, wherein said filaments are coaxially formed of two different components in a sheathcore relationship, the sheath having a lower softening point than the core.
4. The yarn of claim 1, wherein a part of at least some of said filaments are bonded to each other at spaced intervals along said yarn.
5. The yarn of claim 1, wherein at least some of said filaments are bonded together only intermittently along the length of said yarn, and define free portions between these points which produce an effect.
6. The yarn of claim 5, wherein at least some of said filaments in said free portions are broken.
7. A process for obtaining an effect yarn comprising heating a multi-filament yarn having at least two filaments, each filament having at least two components having different softening temperatures, degradation temperatures or both, said filaments having at least one thermoplastic component, to a setting temperature at least sufficient to cause bonding of the component having the lowest softening temperature and insufficient to affect the textile characteristics of said component having the highest softening temperature, twisting said yarn and untwisting said yarn.
8. The process of claim 7, wherein said yarn is rapidly cooled after said heat treatment and prior to said untwisting treatment.
. 12. The process of claim 7, wherein the process is discontinuous.
13. The process of claim 7, wherein said twisting and untwisting is imparted by a false-twist spindle.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent NO D t d August 13,
Inventor(s) BOUTONNET, ET AL.
It is certified that error appears in the above identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Please change the assignment information to read as follows:
-- Assignees: Rhone-Poulenc-Textile, S.A. Paris, France.
Signed and Scaled this twenty-third D a 0f September I 9 75 [SEAL] .o
RUTH C. MASON C. MARSHALL DANN Arresting Officer I (mnmissimu'r 0f Iarenls and Trademarks