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Publication numberUS3828663 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 13, 1974
Filing dateNov 17, 1971
Priority dateNov 17, 1971
Publication numberUS 3828663 A, US 3828663A, US-A-3828663, US3828663 A, US3828663A
InventorsPoplinski C
Original AssigneePoplinski C
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Compactor for use in compacting and discharging loose material
US 3828663 A
Abstract
Disclosed is a compactor for loose material such as garbage, including a compacting chamber having a feed opening and a discharge opening; an outwardly tapering discharge funnel; gate means operable for closing and opening the discharge opening; a hydraulic ram operable to compact the loose material in the chamber when the gate is closed and to expel a major portion of the compacted material when the gate is open; means for selfcleaning the gate and means for controlling the operation of the gate and of the ram.
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United States Patent 1191 [111 3,828,663 Poplinski 1451 Aug. 13, 1974 COMPACTOR FOR USE IN COMPACTING 3,368,478 2/1968 c161 100/245 x AND DISCHARGING LOOSE MATERIAL 3,541,949 11/1970 0161 1. 100/295 x 3,604,345 9/l97l Boje IOU/295 X Inventor: Charles Poplmskl, 48 Urban 3,625,l38 12/1971 Shinn et al 100/295 x Ave., Long Island, NY. 11590 3,695,172 10/1972 Cleary et a1. 100/269 [22] Filed: 1971 Primary Examiner-Billy J. Wilhite [21] Appl. No.: 199,549

ABSTRACT [52] US. Cl 100/42, 100/49, 100/53, Disclosed is a pactor or loose material such as 100/218, 100/245, 100/249, 100/269 R, garbage, including a compacting chamber having a loo/295 100/232 feed opening and a discharge opening; an outwardly [51] Im. Cl ..B30b1/32,B30b 15/32 pe g discharge funnel; g means perable for [58] Field 61 Search 287/103 R; 100/245, 249, closlng and p g the discharge p g; a y

100/29 S, 269 R, 250, 218, 53, 49, 98, 233, 42 he ram operable to compact the loose material in the chamber when the gate isclosed and to expel a major [56] R f r Cit d portion of the compacted material when the gate is UNITED STATES PATENTS open; means for selfoleaning the gate and means for 365,364 6/1887 Catchings 287 103 R commnmg the Operatlon of gate and of the l,l l0.283 9/1914 Beaston 100/249 19 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures PATENIEDAUBIBW 3,828,663 sum 3 or 3 MATEmAL FLOW THVHNG cAM MOTOR MONFTOR $1 3 z MA\N SWITCH I l I O HYDRAUUC OR 3 PNEUMAT \(3 A PUMP Kv OPERATED GATE uMm SWWCH A13 /HYDRAUL\C PUMP c 1* SWWCH I STARTER AM y *2 ;\P RAM EXTENDED :5 M RA RETRACTED #1; GATE OPEN fiW ATE CLOSED V CAM DRWEN- CONTROL SOLENONDS T\M\NG SW\TCH FOR HYDRAUUC POWER DEVICES 74/1 65 Pas/770M F UR W4) VALVE' COMPACTOR FOR USE IN COMPACTING AND DISCHARGING LOOSE MATERIAL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to a compacting device for loose material and, more specifically, to a compactor for garbage which is capable of continuously compacting and discharging into bags in short operating cycles a flow of loose garbage accumulated in city apartment buildings, or processed by commercial truck compactors, for example.

There have been known garbage manipulators where the loose garbage is directed into a receptacle and steered therefrom by means of a ram through a discharging passage into a garbage receptacle. The disadvantage of such prior art manipulators is in thefact that only a negligible compacting occurs during the steering of the loose objects through the discharging passage. Moreover, the taking up of the fed garbage by the ram was susceptible to disturbances, especially when an irregularly shaped or oversized object jammed the flow in the feed opening of the chamber.

It is therefore an object of this invention toovercome the disadvantages of prior art garbage manipulators.

More specifically, an object of this invention is to provide a compactor which compacts the incoming loose material to a predetermined, uniform density.

Another object of this invention is to provide a compactor which makes it possible to additionally compress the compacted package, thereby utilizing in the most economical manner the storage space of a garbage bag.

A further object of this invention is to provide a compactor which prevents clogging even if heterogeneous loose material is processed.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a great efficiency.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, the above objects are attained by providing a compacting chamber structure which has a feed opening and a discharge opening spaced apart from the feed opening, a gate movable in a plane for opening and closing the discharge opening and having means for self-cleaning the guiding grooves of the gate, operating means operable to compact at an adjustable pressure the loose material in the chamber to a predetermined density when the gate is closed and, respectively; to discharge the major portion of the compacted material through the discharge opening when said gate is subsequently opened. The operating means never passes beyond the plane of movement of the gate so as the rear end of the compacted material after discharge will be positioned near the plane of movement of the gate. The operating means is preferably a reciprocating hydraulic or pneumatic ram having on its upper part a tooth-like projection for separating oversized objects jammed in the feed opening of the compacting chamber. The gate is also controlled hydraulically or pneumatically by means of a programming switch in response to the movements of the hydraulic or pneumatic ram.

After the ram expels the compressed material from the chamber and starts back some of the material moves back slightly. It is folded and compacted with the bottom of the gate when'the gate comes down and the ram comes forward. The material held under the gate is again compressed at 90 to the gate and the ram folding it once more on the next approach.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING For a better understanding of the invention together with other and further objects and advantages thereof, reference is made to the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:

FIG. 1 isa sectional side view of an embodiment of the garbage compactor according to this invention;

FIG. 2 is a front view of a section of the garbage compactor of FIG. 1 taken along the line A-A;

FIG. 3 is a front view of another section of the compactor of FIG. 1 taken on the line BB; and

FIG. 4 is a simplified schematical diagram of an electrical programming device for controlling the operation of the hydraulic or pneumatic devices in the compactor of this invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION With reference to FIG. 1, there is shown a compacting chamber 8 having a feed opening 81, a discharge opening 82, a bottom 84, and an operating opening 83 for operating means. The feed opening 81 is preferably located on top of the compacting chamber 8 and communicates with a chute 9 for feeding the loose material; the discharge opening 82'is situated in a lateral wall of the chamber 8 opposite the operating opening 83. The bottom 84 of the compacting chamber 8 is leveled with the bottoms of the discharge and operating openings and it is extended beyond the operating opening 83 into a housing 34 for a hydraulic ram 3, as it will be explained later. In the plane of the discharge opening 82, a gate blade 7 is arranged for vertical movement in two upright guiding grooves 6 which are made preferably in the base of the funnel 10. To prevent the guiding grooves 6 from being clogged by the passing material, the grooves 6 terminate at a certain distance above the bottom 84 and the curved lower part 72 of the gate blade 7 projecting beyond the lower ends of grooves 6 is somewhat spaced apart from the base of the funnel 10, so that the resulting lateral steps 71 on the gate blade 7 can always expel the dirt which might accidentally enter the grooves 6. Similarly, to back up the gate blade 7 in its closed position the bottom of the funnel 10 is provided with ribs 85 arranged in a spaced relation one to another adjacent the plane of movement of the gate blade 7. The ribs 85 insure a sufficient backing up of the blade 7 when the latter is in its closed position and the spaces between the ribs can be swept clean by the passage of the compacted material. The ram 3 is preferably made in the form of an elongated box 3 which is supported on rollers 31 for movement across the compacting chamber 8 in the direction of the discharge opening 82.

According to one feature of this invention, the sweep of the reciprocating ram 3 is such as to enable the reinforced front plate 33 thereof to come to within approximately half an inch from the plane of movement of the gate blade 7 during the expelling position when the gate blade 7 is open.

According to another feature of this invention, the

upper portion of the ram 3 converges towards the feed opening 81, thus forming a tooth-like projection,

whereas the corresponding upper portion of the chamber 8 diverges towards the chute 9 (FIGS. 2 and 3). in this manner, the ram 3 can effectively cut off or releases oversized objects jammed between the chute 9 and the chamber 8. The lower portion of the box-like ram 3 corresponds substantially in shape to the lower portion of the chamber 8 and the ram 3 in its expelling position extends over theentire length of the chamber 8 but it does not enter the discharge opening 82. The gate blade 7 and the ram 3, with an adjustable pressure relief valve, are operated preferably by ahydraulic sys tem consisting of a hydraulic pump and a motor supplying hydraulic pressure through an adjustable pressure relief valve to two three-position four-way center tandem valves.

When the first valve is activated by an electrical signal it then advances the main ram cylinder to compress the material. When the signal stops the valve returns to a central position thereof and the oil flows through a center tandem port to the second valve. The solenoid of the second valve is then energized to shift the valve and activate the cylinder that opens the gate and then stop in the open position. The oil then momentarily flows through bothopen tandem ported valves back to the tank. The main ram cylinder valve is then again activated and the main ram continues to move forward to the end of the stroke ejecting the compressed material from the machine into the side compression area and eventually into the bag. The valve is then de-energized and the ram stops.

The gate valve is then energized to close the gate and the ram valve is energized to return at the same time. They then come to a complete rest with the gate down and the ram back awaiting the next cycle.

The hydraulic device 4 for driving the ram 3 is, with advantage, mounted within the interior of the box-like ram 3 and its piston 41 is terminated with a pushing boss 42 which is coupled to the front plate 33 of the ram 3. For this purpose, a bracket 43 is connected to the inside wall of the front plate 33 and it is provided with a U-shaped slot in which an end pushing boss 42 of the piston 41 is removably supported. 3 means of this arrangement, the compactor can be set up or dismantled in a considerably reduced time.

As shown in FIG. 4, the actuation of hydraulic devices 4 and 5, thus the operation of the entire compactor, is controlled by an adjustable electrical programming device 12, which comprises a material flow monitor including a monitoring photocell, an amplifier A and a switching relay; a timing cam driven by a motor to actuate in adjustable time intervals five switches; a hand operated main switch for the motor. of a hydraulic pump energizing the hydraulic devices 4 and 5; a starter for the motor of the hydraulic pump; a key operated switch having an of and an auto-operative position; and control solenoids for controlling the actuation of respective hydraulic devices of the compactor.

The sequence of operative steps of the compactor is as follows:

- gate blade 7 is in its closed position in the discharge opening 82; the main switch for the hydraulic pump motor is closed, and the key operated switch is turned from its of position to the "autooperative position;

- provided thatthe photocell of the material flow monitor attains its dark condition, signalling a sufficient load in the compacting chamber, the released signal activates via an amplifier A, a switching relay which in turn starts the motor for the time programming cam, thereby initiating the first working cycle, including the following sequence of working steps:

Upon the photo cell sensing a dark condition and the presence of material in the container, the amplified signal closes a relay completing the circuit to the hydraulic or pneumatic pump, disengages the timing motor brake and starts the timing motor. The first cam then engages the first timing microswitch to send the'ram 3 forward at a predetermined pressure in the pneumatic or hydraulic cylinder toachieve an adjustably set density and then stops. The timing motor continues to rotate the bank of five cams till it engages the fourth timing microswitch to open the gate and the second microswitch to continue the ram forward to the end of the stroke to expel the material into the side compacting area to further reduce the volume and increase the density of the discharged material.

It also moves the material one step closer toward placing it into the disposable bag. Then cams 3 and 5 engage assigned timing microswitches 3 and 5 to move .the gate down and the ram 3 back to the starting position for a new cycle. The ram 3'never passes beyond the compression plate and gate so that it will never have to cut garbage material or such matter. All mate rial that is lodged on the upper edge of the ram 3 and does not enter the discharge chamber is then transferred to the bottom of the chamber 8 when the gate 7 comes down. New loose material then can fall in front of the ram or be forced there by the gate. This feature will repeat until all such material will make an angular turn without being cut. The arrangement eliminates the need of excessive pressure or cutting knives or edges that would be required if the ram itself passed the bottom of the gate.

In the meantime the flow of waste material refills the compacting chamber and the flow monitor transmits a starting signal and the next working cycle is automatically repeated. The time of a cycle may be set, for example, for forty seconds.

I wish it to be understood that I do not desire to be limited to the exact details of construction shown and described, for obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art. For example, it has been found that the machine operates flawlessly even if the backing ribs are removed from the funnel 10.

Having thus described the invention, what I claim is as follows:

l. A compactor for use in compacting and discharging loose material comprising, in combination a compacting chamber structure having a feed opening for receiving said material and a discharge opening spaced apart from said feed opening,

gate means movable on a plane for opening andclosing said discharge opening,

operating means operable to compact in a first compacting direction the loose material in the chamber to a predetermined density when the gate means is closed and respectively to discharge the compacted material out of the compacting chamber through said discharge opening when said gate means is subsequently opened to the extent that the rear end of the compacted material after the discharge operation will be positioned in the compacting chamber and within the plane of movement of said gate means,

said gate means being arranged and adapted to hold and compact the compacted material in a second compacting direction substantially askew to the compacting direction of said operating means when said gate means is moved to close said discharge opening.

2. A compactor according to claim 1 wherein said feed opening is located at the top of said compacting chamber and said discharge opening in a lateral wall of said chamber, and said gate means being movable in the plane of said discharge opening.

3. A compactor according to claim 2' wherein said operating means includes a ram communicating with said compacting chamber opposite said discharge opening and being arranged for reciprocating movement through said compacting chamber to a close proximity of the plane of said discharge opening.

4. A .compactor according to claim 3 wherein the length of said ram corresponds at least to the length of said compacting chamber in the direction of movement of said ram. 7

5. A compactor according to claim 3 wherein a portion of said ram facing said feed opening has a converging configuration.

6. A compactor according to claim 3 further com prising hydraulic means for driving said gate means and said ram respectively.

7. A compactor according to claim 6 further com prising programming switch means operatively connected to said hydraulic means for controlling the actuation of said gate means and of said ram according to a predetermined program.

8. A compactor according to claim 6 wherein said hydraulic means includes a hydraulic piston and cylinder systems connected to said ram and to said gate blade, respectively.

9. A compactor according to claim 8 further comprising a pushing bracket connected to the front interior of said ram, said pushing bracket having a U-shaped slot for removably coupling the piston of said hydraulic piston and cylinder system.

10. A compactor according to claim 3 wherein said ram means is movable on rollers.

11. A compactor according to claim 3 wherein said operating means includes pneumatic drive means for driving said gate means and said ram, respectively.

12. A compactor according to claim 1 further comprising an outwardly tapering funnel connected to the periphery of said discharge opening.

13. A compactor according to claim 12 wherein the outside periphery of said funnel is arranged for supporting an inlet portion of a garbage'bag.

14. A compactor according to claim 1 wherein said gate means includes a pair of upright guiding grooves arranged near said discharge opening, a gate blade disposed for upright movement in said grooves, the lower ends of said grooves terminating at a distance from the bottom of said discharge opening to permit selfcleaning of the path of said gate blade.

15. A compactor according to claim 14, wherein a lower portion of said gate blade in the closed position projecting downwardly beyond the lower ends of said grooves is spaced apart from the walls of said discharge opening whereby the resulting lateral steps on the gate blade expel any material that may have accumulated in said grooves.

16. A method of cyclically compacting loose material within a compacting chamber having a discharge opening and a gate arranged for covering and uncovering the discharge opening comprising the steps of a. closing said gate b. feeding said material into said chamber c. compacting said material in said chamber in a first compaction direction by subjecting it to a predetermined pressure against said closed gate d. releasing the compacting pressure and e. subsequently opening said gate and f. pushing the compacted material through said discharge opening out of said chamber to the extent that at least a portion of the compacted material after the discharge operation will be positioned in said chamber and within the path of movement of said gate g. compacting at least a portion of the compacted material in a second compaction direction substantially askew to the first compaction direction by closing said gate against said compacted material.

17. A method as claimed in claim 16, further comprising a step of compressing concentrically said compacted material during its passage through said discharge opening.

18. A method as claimed in claim 16, further comprising the step of cleaning said discharge opening by the passing compacted material.

19. A method according to claim 16 further comprising the step of monitoring the feed rate of said material into the chamber whereby said steps of compacting, pressure releasing and uncovering said discharge opening are carried out in a predetermined timed relationship.

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4099457 *Nov 1, 1976Jul 11, 1978Ab CentralsugMethod for discharging refuse
US4145824 *Mar 13, 1978Mar 27, 1979Watson William DSnow compactor
US4334466 *Sep 2, 1980Jun 15, 1982Spiegelberg Delvin AHigh pressure hay rebaler
US4729301 *Nov 27, 1985Mar 8, 1988Mosley Machinery Co., Inc.Horizontal baling apparatus
US4745856 *Jan 29, 1987May 24, 1988Bakker David PHydraulic refuse compactor with channel guided compactor blade
US4841853 *Aug 31, 1987Jun 27, 1989Wallace DisposalApparatus for compacing garbage and salvage
US5125331 *Oct 27, 1989Jun 30, 1992Wood Kevin LDevice to crush and extract oil from oil filters
US5322009 *Jan 25, 1993Jun 21, 1994Rowland RetrumApparatus for metered infeeding, compacting as required, and pumping to elevated pressure tough long-stranded material of little fluidity, such as raw feathers
US5336843 *Dec 7, 1992Aug 9, 1994John ZimmerProcess for compacting normally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in sealed tubular members
US5988028 *Jul 7, 1997Nov 23, 1999Putzmeister AktiengesellschaftProcess for conveying thick matter containing preshredded scrap metal or similar solids
US6158313 *Oct 8, 1999Dec 12, 2000Putzmeister AktiengesellschaftProcess for conveying thick matter containing preshredded scrap metal or similar solids
US6837158Feb 3, 2003Jan 4, 2005Edwin K. SimpsonBaler with resilient-wheeled platen
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DE4105138A1 *Feb 20, 1991Aug 27, 1992Andre GroenePress for compacting packaging waste - has pre-compacting ram on top of main ram which is also fitted with serrated edge cutter
Classifications
U.S. Classification100/42, 100/49, 100/232, 100/269.18, 100/249, 100/245, 100/295, 100/218
International ClassificationB30B9/30, B30B9/00
Cooperative ClassificationB30B9/30, B30B9/3096
European ClassificationB30B9/30R, B30B9/30