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Publication numberUS382977 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 15, 1888
Filing dateMay 16, 1887
Publication numberUS 382977 A, US 382977A, US-A-382977, US382977 A, US382977A
InventorsAlbert Harmel
Original AssigneeSociete Haemel Feeees
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 382977 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

(No Model.) v 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.


APPARATUS FOR DYEING. No. 382,977. Patented M y 15, 1888* I INVENTOR: WITNESSE w wamr WW.

By his Aflomeys,

(No Model.)

' INVENTOR: WITNESS meow!- 11mm.

/% k By his Afzarneys.

2 Sheets-Shet 2.

Patented May 15 1888.



sPncn-mA-rrorr forming part of Letters Patent No. 382,977, dated May 15, 1888.

Application filed May 16, 1887. Serial No. 238,295. (No model.) Patented in France May 29, 1886, No. 176,245; in Englaud August 21. 1886, No. 10,718; in Belgium September 8, 1886, No. 74,488; in Germany September 23, 1886. and in Spain January To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, ALBERT HARMEL, a citizen of the French Republic, residing in Valdes-Bois, near Warmeriville, France, have in- 5 vented certain new and useful Improvements in the Dyeing of Combed lIVool and other Fibers, of which the following is a specification.

This invention is the subject of patents in France, dated May 29, 1886, No. 176,245; in Belgium, dated September 8,1886, N 0. 74,488; i g (ireat Britain, dated August 21, 1886, No. 10,718; in Germany, dated September 23, 1886,

and in Spain, dated January 22, 1887.

The object of this invention is to provide I means for accomplishing mechanically the dyei n g of wool or other fibrous substances in tops ,'(c alled in French bobines) or rolls of the sliver or roving as it comes directly from the combing operation, and also for subjecting it without removal from the machine to all the preparatory operations, such as gall-steeping, burnishing, rinsing, scouring, &c. To this end the tops are placed in separate receptacles, which should conform to them in shape and 2 which are made with imperforate sides and foraminous top and bottom. These receptacles are placed in the bath of dye-liquor, and are moved therein in such manner as to--cause a current of the liquor 'toflow through them 7 o longitudinally, either continuously in one direction or alternately in opposite directions, and under a slight pressure sufficient to insure its penetration into all parts of the wool. Thus a uniform circulation of the dye through 5 the fiber is insured without the employment of sufiicient force to cause the, liquid to form special channels for itself through the fiber,

as has been found to be the case heretofore in systems of dyeing where a forced circulation 40 of the liquor has been maintained by means of a pump. My process thus insures the uniform and homogeneous coloring of the .wool and avoids felting it, so that the necessity for re;

combing is obviated, and consequently the loss by conversion into noils or short wool due to recombing is avoided. The tops are by pref erence subjected to the operations of mordanting, rinsing, dyeing, and rinsing by successive manipulations in the same receptacle,

jury to the fiber is avoided. I It is essential to employ receptacles for th tops or other fibrous mass which shall have imperfqratesides in order to confine the flow of the liquor to one direction and prevent lat eral and irregular currents through the mass, which would result in unequal dyeing. The top and bottom of the receptacles are made perforated or foraminous in order to hold the, fibrous matter in place while permitting free passage ofthe liquor.- I In dyeing according to my method I prefer, to employthe special mechanism for manipu- -lating the receptacles which I have invented. I his apparatus the receptacles are mounted on a rotating frame, and are thereby passed into and out of or back and forth in. the liquor in a suitable vat. I construct the machine in two ways. According to one construction the receptacles are freely suspended from a revolving frame, while in the other construction they are rigidly connected to the frame. In either case the action of the revolving frame causes the receptacles to move in or through v the dyeing-liquid, and the latter is thereby 75 caused to circulate through the receptacles and" to permeate the wool-tops or other mass of fiber confined therein.

In the accompanying drawings, Figuresl and 2 illustrate an apparatus constructed wit-hi 8;-

flexibly suspended or pivoted receptacles, the former view being an end elevation and-the latter a vertical longitudinal mid section. Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate the other construction of machine,.where the receptacles are rigidly connected to the revolving frame, Fig. 3 being a vertical longitudinal mid-section and Fig. 4 atransverse section cut in the plane of tags. line 4 4 in Fig. 3. y I will first describe the construction shown; .in'Figs. 1 and 2. Let F designate a vat or tank for containing the dye or other liquid to the actionv of which the material under-treatmentis to be subjected. A shaft, A, is rotativel y mounted in bearings E E at opposite ends of the vat, and carries a. frame, 13, consisting of cross'arms fixed rigidly to it.

whereby handling and labor are saved and j Q G are the several foraminous receptacles for containing the wool-tops, these receptacles geing pivotally connected to the rotative frame Each receptacle 0 is provided with pivotal studs a a, projecting from its opposite sldes, and these studs are engaged by the bearings b b, formed on the ends of the cross-arms the latter in place.

which are passed through holes in the sides of the receptacles just beneath thev upper flanges, f, thereof, and which pass through holes in vertical arms 62 d, which project upward from the perforated covers 0 c. The receptacles G C are so constructed the when filled with a top the latter is at the lower portion of the receptacle, and the pivotson which the receptacles are mounted are considerably above the center of gravity of the receptacles when the latter are thus charged, so that the receptacles maintain always a vertical position, being freely suspended from their pivotal axes. The letters D D designate the wool-tops or other mass of-fiber in the several receptacles.

The receptacles O are of such height that when the cover '0 is fitted in against the wooltopgD there is left a considerable space or basrn,-h, above it. This space constitutes a cup-or reservoir for holding liquid, which is filled therewith each time the receptacle is lowered into the bath, and runs out therefrom by percolating down through the mass of fiber when the receptacle is lifted out of the liquid.

' The. depth of this basin or reservoir h should be proportioned according to the amount of pressure required to cause the liquid to flew through the fibrous mass with the desired rapldlty, being made deeper when the receptacle is designed to contain a top of greater density or height.

' Theshaft A is turned through the medium of a worm-wheel, O, which is fixed to it, and

with which engages a worm or screw, G, on a short shaft carrying fast and loose pulleys H H. At each revolution of the shaft A the upperrchamber or basin, h, of each receptacle 0 becomes filled with the liquid in the vat F while the receptacle is immersed in the liquid, and as by the continued rotation the recepta- .cle is lifted out ofthe liquid the portion thereof confined in the upper basin, h, drains out through the perforated cover 0' into and through the mass of fiber in the lower part of the receptacle, and escaping through the perfora-ted bottom'c drips back into the vat. Upon the further movement of the frame the receptacle descends into the liquid on the opposite side,

at'which time the liquid is forced up through the perforated bottom a and through the mass of fiber and re-enters the upper reservoir, h. Thus at each revolution of the shaft there is set up in each receptacle a circulation of the dyeing-liquid through the mass of fiber, first in one direction and then in the other.

H designates one of'a set of preparatory vats or tanks which are supplemental to the vat F, and in which the several liquids for dyeing, gall-steeping, rinsing, &c., may be prepared and stored. The several vats H are closed at the top, and into each a steam-pipe, 4, leading from a pipe, V, projects, being fitted with a valve, 5. When it is desired to transfer the liquid from any one of the tanks H to the vat F, an outlet-valve, g, in the bottom of the tank is opened and steam is turned into the tank by opening the valve 5, whereupon the liquid is expelled by the pressure of the steam (after the manner ofa monte-jus) through the valve 9 and through-a pipe, G, into the vat I32. The pipe G leads to the vat F at one end, and at its other end it terminates in a valve or faucet, I. This faucet is for the purpose of emptying the tank H, in order to wash itcut. When the vat F is to be emptied, a valve, In, is opened, and the liquid flows out through this valve and through a pipe, 1', into a gutter or channel, M, which passes over the tops of the several vats H H, and the liquid is directed into whichever tank may be desired by opening a valve, Z, leading from the gutter into that tank.

Although it is preferaple to make the wooltops cylindrical and to fit them into cylindrical receptacles, yet it w'ill be understood that the tops may be o other shapes and the shape of the receptacles be correspondingly altered. For fibrous matter that is not wound into a top or roll or ball the receptacles may be of any suitable shape.

I will now describe the construction illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4. In this apparatus the rotary frame B, carrying the several receptacles C O, is arranged wholly within the vat F. The frame B consists of a bar of cross-shaped section formed with journals A A at its opposite enrls, which journals are lowered into bearings E E formed in the opposite ends of the tank. T0 the frame B are bolted a number of plates or flanges, n 'n, the outer portions of which are of annular form, and inelose, respectively, the several receptacles O O, which arethus fixed rigidly to the frame B. .Each receptacle has a perforated bottomjc, and a perforated cover, 0, which fits into the receptacle. The charge of fibrous matter (represented at D) isplaced on the bottom 0, the cover 0 is placed against the top of-the charge, and a spiral spring, S, is arranged to press the cover against the fibrous matter with a ten sion, which may be ad glsted as desired by meansof a screw, T. us; the wool-top or IIC other fibrous charge is confined between the -perforated bottdin and top with a yielding pressure, so that all movement is prevented.

The frame B, carrying the several receptatom of the vat F, leads from the main steam pipe V, and serves to conduct steam into the l quid 1n order to maintain the bath at any desired temperature, the admission of steam being controlled by a valve, 7.

There are one or several reservoirs H for preparing and storing the liquids to be used in the vat F, and each tank H communicates bya valve, 9, in its bottom, with a tube, G, which leads to a monte-jus, N, its communira'ion therewith being controlled by a valve, a. At the opposite end of the tube G is an outlet-valve, I,which permits of emptying the tanks. The monte-jus N is employed for the purpose of effecting the transfer of the liquids from either of the tanks H to the vat F, or vice versa. A steam pipe, 4, leads from the pipe V and enters the top of the vessel N of the monte-jus, being controlled by a valve, 5, add the top of the vessel is provided with anfair valve or vent, 6. From the bottom'of the ves sel N there leads an outlet-pipe, 1,which communicates through a three-way valve, X,wilh two discharge-pipes, Y and Z, the former of which empties into the vat F, and the'latter of which communicates with the gutter or channel M, which leads over the series of tanks H H and communicates with each tank through a valve, 3. From the bottom of the vat F an outlet-pipe leads into the vessel N, being con; trolled by a valve, W. In order to fill the vat F from either of the tanks H H, the outlet-valveg of the tank from which the liquid is to be drawn is opened and the valve m isopened, whereupon the liquid flows through the tube G into the vessel N, Errhich .it fills. The valve m is then closed, the three-way valve X is turned to establish communicution between the pipes 1 and Y, and

the steamvalvc 5 is opened, whereupon the V steam entering the vessel N forces out the liquid therein through the pipes 1 and Y into the vat F. This operation is repeated as many I times as maybe necessary in order to give the desired depth of liquid in the vat F.

In order to empty the vat F, the valve W is opened, thereby drawing off enough liquid from the vat to fill the vessel N, whereupon the threewvay valve X is turned to establish communication between the pipes l and Z, and the steam-valve 5 is opened. thereby expelling the liquid from the vessel N through the pipes 1 and Z into thc'gutter M, from which it is admitted into either tank H by opening the valve thereof. This operation is repeated as many times as may be necessary to draw off all the liquid from the vat F. v

. The operation is as follows: Then the wooltops have been placed in the cylinders C G and submitted to. the action of the springs S and screws T, and when the dyeing-liquid has been suitablyprepared in one of the tanks H, this liquid is transferred by means of the monte-jusN to the vet F in the manner already described, the operations of the montejufs being repeated as many times as are requisite to attain in the vata depth ofliquid such as is considered necessary for commencing the operation. The frame B, carrying the receptacles O G, is then set in rotation either to the right or left and at such speed as is considered most/suitable for the successful treatmentof the wool. During this rotation the recepta- 'cles G O continually displace the liquid in' the .of the rotative movement of the apparatus the bath is subjected to continual agitatiomwhich keeps it ina homogeneous condition and prevents any deposit of the suspended-matters on the wool the latter being, as it were, continually washed, and the dyeing-liquid being incessantly agitated and being at no time in re pose, there is no tendency to precipitation.

If preferred, the operation may be effected by turning the apparatus during half the time in one direction and during the other half of the time in the opposite direction. The action might/thus be made more uniform throughout all the length of the tops.

When the operation is thought to be terininated, which may be ascertained by stopping the rotation and taking out and examining one of the tops, the dyeing-liquid is drawn off from the vat F by means of the monte-jns N,

in the manner already described. After thus emptying the vat the apparatus may be again After this operation has continued for a.

put in motion during a suitable time in order to partially dry the woolby means of thefrota tive movement.

{The montejus N and -.its accessories, by

means of which the liquids are transferred from the tanks, H to the vat F, or rice versa, may be substituted by any other suitable apparatus for effecting such transferrence of the liquids-such, for example, as a Gifford injector or any suitable arrangement of pumps; -or the same result may be partially accomplished by arranging the respective tanks at diiferent levels in orderthat the liquid may flow from one to another by its own weight. Thus in Fig. 2. the tank H is shown on alower level than the vat F, in order that the liquid may [low from the vat into the tank.

This arrangement may be reversed, so that the liquid will flow naturally from the tank to the vat in order to fill the latter. q

I may employ one. or-several reservoirs H,

H, andin the latter case the'respectivexresen .voirs may be employed to contain the separate preparatory solutions or baths. The respec;

i-ve baths having been used once may be re generated, in order to be used again, by an additionvto them of the dyeing materials.

The apparatus, whether constructed as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 or as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, may be constructed to contain as many tops as may be desired by providing it with a proportional number of receptacles C O. The number of receptaclesO O which may be placed around the circumference of the frame by which they are carried may vary. 1 have shown four in the drawings; but it will be more advantageous to employ six, as thus the length of the vat F may be reduced for agiven number of receptacles, and consequently less of the liquid will be employed. To the same end the bottom of the vat may be rounded. in this case there will also be an economy in the steam for heating the bath. Any mechanism whatever may be provided for revolving the frame'Rc-arrying the receptacles G O,in either direction or in alternatelyopposite directions. This rotation may be accomplished by hand instead, of by power.

It will be understood that a liquid may be transferred from one reservoir H to the vat F, and after the tops have been treated therewith this liquid may be drawn ofl' from the vat, the tops drai ned, and another liquid from some other tank H may then be transferred to the vat F for the further treatment of the tops, so that the latter maybe treated with two or moreliquids successively without'being disturbed or removed from the receptacles O 0. Thus they may first be treated with a mordant, then with a rinsing-1iquor,then with the dye-liquor, and subsequently again with a rinsing-liquor. It is obvious that instead of thus changing the liquors in one vat the frame 13, carrying the receptacles O C, may be transferred bodily from one vat containing one liquor to another vat containing a different liquor.

What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is the following defined novel features, substantially as hereinbefore specified, namely:

1. The improved mechanism for mechanical dyeing, consisting of the combination of a vat for containing liquid, a rotatable frame journaled withinsaid vat, and a series of receptacles for inelosing the fibrous matter carried by said frame, each of said receptacles having imperforate sides and foraminous ends, said ends being located within the receptacle, whereby open mouthed chambers having closed sides and perforated bottoms are formed at both ends of the receptacles at all times when the mechanism is in operation.

2. The improved mechanism for mechanical dyeing, consisting of the combination of a vat for containing liquid, a rotatable frame 'journaled within said vat, and a series of receptacles for inclosing the fibrous matter to be treated carried by said frame, each receptacle having imperforate sides and foraminous ends between which the fibrous matter is confined, one of said foraminous ends being removable and adjustable, whereby the fibrous matter I may be inserted in the receptacle and securely retained therein.

8. Theimprovcd mechanism for mechanicaldyeing, consisting of the combination of a vat for containingliqnid, a rotatable frame journaled within said vat. and a series of receptacles for inclosing the fibrous matter, eachjournaled in said frame,thejournals ofeach of said receptacles being above its center of gravity, and each of said receptacles having imperforate sides and foraminous ends, the upper foraminous end being located below the rim of the receptacle, whereby an open mouthed chamber is formed at the upper end of the receptacle.

In witness whereof I have hereunto signed my name in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.




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