|Publication number||US3830621 A|
|Publication date||Aug 20, 1974|
|Filing date||Jul 23, 1973|
|Priority date||Jan 31, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3830621 A, US 3830621A, US-A-3830621, US3830621 A, US3830621A|
|Original Assignee||Lectro Static Magnetic Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (50), Classifications (27)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 F02b 75/12, BOlf 3/20, F02m 27/04 Miller 1 Aug. 20, 1974 PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR  Field of Search 123/119 E, l, 32 R; EFFECTING EFFICIENT COMBUSTION 261/74, 75; /100, 3; 317/4; 204/309; Inventor: Doyle H. Miller, Corpus Christi, 210/222 243; 335/209 306; 1 10/72; Tex. 431/356, 253
 Assignee: Lectro-Static Magnetic Corporation,  References Cited Corpus Chm", UNITED STATES PATENTS  Filed: July 23, 1973 3,059,910 10/1962 Moriya 317/4 X 3,110,294 11/1963  PP 91913811431 3,116,726 l/1964 Kwartz 123/119 E 3,177,633 4/1965 McDonald, Sr. l23/ll9 E 'f v Apphcat'on Data 3,266,783 8/1966 Knight 123 119 E 1 1 commuatlon-m-part 9 S 2 9 31, 3,349,354 10/1967 Miyata 335 306 x 1972, abandoned, whlch 1s a continuatlon-m-part of 561. N0. 13,136, Feb. 20, 1970, abandoned, which is FOREIGN PATENTSOR APPLICATIONS a continu ion-in-p r o r- Nos. 758,565, p 9, 714,015 8/1954 Great Britain 123/119 12' 1968, abandoned, and Ser. No. 731,369, May 21, 1968 abandoned" Primary ExaminerWendell E. Burns 521 US. Cl 431/356, 55/3, 55/100,  ABSTRACT /72,123/1, 123/32 R, 123/119 E, 204/309 261/1 261/74, 261/75 335/209 Means for effectmg a more effic1ent oombusnon by- 335/306 43l /253 causing the oxygen fed to the combustlon zone to be 51 1111. C1. F23d 21/00, F02b 75/10, B030 1/14, a magnet State' 16 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PAIENTEDMJBEBIW 3 M 3.030.621
ssmwz v 'INVENTOR.
v DOYLE, H. MILLER ATTORNEY PAIENTEBAIIRZOIQH I 3.830.621 2&2
FIG). I I
HQVENTCR. DOYLE H. MILLER BWWRQ Ill 7/ ///7( fies &s'? I i ATTORNEY PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR EFFECTING EFFICIENT COMBUSTION The present application is a continuation-in-part of co-pending U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 222,095 filed Jan. 31, 1972, which was a continuation-in-part of U.S. Patent application Ser. No. 13,136 filed Feb. 20, 1970, which was a continuation-in-part of U.S. Patent application Ser. No. 758,565 filed Sept. 9, 1968 and of U.S. Patent application Ser. No. 731,369 filed May 21, 1968, all four applications now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to method and apparatus whereby combustion processes may be efficiently conducted. In recent years one of the greatest problems facing the public is the elimination of air pollution, a
great deal of which is due to the exhaust from various combustion processes. The most troublesome of these seem to be those wherein a hydrocarbon fuel is combined with oxygen and burned such as the combustion processes taking place within gasoline engines, diesel engines, gas turbines, jet engines, boiler burners and the like. It has been recognized that the pollution arising from these combustion processes is due largely to incomplete or inefficient combustion but as yet a practical and economical method of increasing combustion efficiency has not come forth. In addition to contributing to pollution, incomplete combustion is also undesirable in that it increases fuel consumption and generally reduces mechanical life of the apparatus in which the combustion takes place due to the formation of undesirable carbon deposits.
SUMMARY It is thus an object of the present invention to provide an economical and relatively simple method and apparatus for increasing the efficiency of combustion processes. It is also an object of the present invention to provide a means whereby pollution of the atmosphere from the exhaust of combustion processes may be reduced. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a'means whereby an automobile internal combustion enginemay be modified in order to render it more efficient and release less pollutants than before. Additional objects will become apparent from the following description of the present invention.
i These and other objects are accomplished by the present invention which in one of its aspects is an improvement in a combustion process wherein combustion of a mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a fuel is effected in a combustion zone,which improvement comprises treating said oxygen-containing gas by passing it through the south pole section of a magnetic field such that the oxygen in said oxygen-containing gas entering said combustion zone is in the south pole magnetic state. In another aspect the present invention is an apparatus wherein'combustion of a mixture of fuel and an oxygen-containing gas is effected in a combustion zone, said apparatus having oxygen-containing gas in- :take means, means to supply fuel and said oxygencontaining gas'to said combustion zone, and magnetic field means to act upon the oxygen in said oxygencontaining gas to cause the oxygen entering said combustion zone to be in a south pole magnetic state. The placing of the oxygen-containing gas in a south pole magnetic state may be accomplished prior to its being mixed with the fuel. The present invention is applicable to practically any combustion process, from that taking place in incinerators to that taking place in jet engines. It is most applicable and beneficial when applied to processes using a carbon-based fuel including coal, paper, wood and the like, but it is most applicable to those utilizing normally liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon fuels,
such as kerosine, gasoline, natural gas, butane and diesel oil.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES FIG. 1 shows, partly in section and partly diagramatically, an internal combustion engine modified in accordance with the present invention.
FIGS. 2 through 6 illustrate an air cleaner for a combustion engine modified in accordance with the present invention. FIG. 5 is a top view of the air cleaner of F 1G.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings, FIG. 1 illustrates a 4-cycle or 4-stroke cycle internal combustion engine together with means for a fuel supply and an exhaust. The engine has an engine cylinder block 10 which includes cylinder 11 in which piston 12 is disposed for reciprocatingmovement. The walls of cylinder 11, the crown of piston 12, and the upper inside face of cylinder block 10, together define a combustion zone of chamber 13. A spark ignition means, spark plug 14, in the upper inside face of cylinder block 10 extends into the combustion chamber.
On one side of and included within engine block 10 is an exhaust passage 15 which has an opening to combustion chamber 13 which opening is closed by exhaust valve 16. On the opposite side of the engine is an inlet passage 17 through which a fuel mixture is supplied to combustion chamber 13 as controlled by inlet valve 18.
Inlet passage 17 is openly connected with an inlet manifold 19 which itself is connected with carburetor 20. Atop the carburetor 20 is an air cleaner assembly having a filter housing 21 and an air inlet tube 22 extending therefrom. Around the exterior of air inlet tube 22 is wound a wire coil 23 both ends of which are connected to a power supply 24 such that current passing through coil 23 sets up a magnetic field. The coil 23 is wound and the current supplied thereto in such a man ner that the south pole of the magnetic field is downstream of the inlet tube relative to the north pole, as indicated by the letters N and S. Although the leads to coil 23 are shown as being connected to its own power supply 24, in the usual automobile engine this would be accomplished by grounding one lead and connecting the other to the autos power supply.
The operation of the embodiment of FIG. I is as follows. Air which contains about 21% by volume of oxygen enters air inlet tube 22 as shown by the arrow and passes therethrough to filter housing 21. By virtue of having passed through the magnetic field set up by coil 23, the oxygen in the air entering filter housing 21 will be in a south pole magnetic state and will remain in that state until combustion as hereinafter explained. It is emphasized that the oxygen is in the south pole magnetic state as contrasted with a north pole magnetic state since the advantages of the present invention are attained only when the oxygen is caused to be in the south pole magnetic state. Whether the oxygen in the air is in a north pole or is in a south pole magnetic state after having passed through a magnetic field can easily be determined by holding an ordinary compass near the conduit through which such oxygen is flowing. If in the desired south pole magnetic state, the needle of the compass which normally points to the North Pole of the earth will be deflected toward and point to the conduit containing the oxygen. In the usual automobile internal combustion engine which has no wire coil 23 as shown in FIG. 1, the oxygen entering the filter housing through the inlet tube will not be in a magnetic state and thus will not cause a deflection of a compass needle since it is in neither a north pole nor a south pole magnetic state.
Back to the operation of the embodiment of FIG. 1, the air entering through filter housing 21 then passes to carburetor wherein it is combined with atomized and/or vaporized fuel, e.g., gasoline, in the usual manner. From the carburetor the fuel mixture passes to the inlet manifold 19 and thence inlet passage 17. The oxygen in the fuel mixture will still be in the south pole magnetic state and will remain so until combustion is effected as hereinafter explained.
At the proper time in the combustion cycle and with the proper opening and closing of inlet and outlet valves 18 and 16, the fuel mixture will pass from inlet passage 17 to combustion chamber 13, be ignited by spark plug 14 and after combustion the exhaust gases will exit through outlet passage l5.
From the foregoing it may be seen that operation of an internal combustion engine in accordance with the present invention differs from the usual only in that the oxygen entering the combustion chamber is in a south pole magnetic state. However, the combustion which is accomplished according to the manner of the present invention will differ from that ordinarily accomplished in that the efficiency of combustion will be greatly enhanced with greater conversions of the hydrocarbon fuel to carbon dioxide and the like. Also, another notable difference is that the exhaust gases leaving the combustion zone through exit passage 15 will be in a north pole magnetic state. That is to say the needle on an ordinary compass will be deflected away from these exhaust gases. The exhaust of the usual automobile operating without the magnetic field of the present invention will not noticeably deflect a compass needle at all. This is also true of an exhaust where the oxygen entering the combustion zone has been put in a north pole magnetic state (such as by reversing the positions of the poles in the magnetic field of FIG. I) and, as has been pointed out before, putting the oxygen in a north pole magnetic state does not increase combustion efficiency.
It is believed that one contributing factor for the present invention s reduction of pollution is that the exhaust from a combustion process is in a north pole magnetic state as hereinabove explained. Accordingly, it may sometimes be convenient'to not only place the oxygen entering the combustion zone in a south pole magnetic state by use of a magnetic field but also to pass the exhaust gas from the combustion process through another magnetic field which will tend to even more cause the exhaust to be in a north pole magnetic state. The enhancement of the north pole magnetic state of the exhaust is accomplished in the opposite manner of causing the oxygen feed to be in the south pole magnetic state and will not be gone into in detail at this point.
FIG. 1 represents a 4-cycle reciprocating internal combustion engine, but the present invention is applicable to any internal combustion engine, either 4-cycle or 2-cycle, and either those fired by spark ignition means, such as spark plug 14 or those fired by compression such as the diesel engine. As is well known, the diesel engine differs from that shown in FIG. 1 mainly in that the air and the fuel are supplied by separate means to the combustion chamber and in that ignition is effected by compression instead of a spark ignition means. That is the air is first supplied to the combustion chamber and compressed so as to cause the temperature thereof to rise sharply, and then the fuel is supplied to the hot compressed air so that combustion is effected. The present invention is not only applicable to the reciprocating internal combustion engines, but is also applicable to the types having a rotary piston, such I as the Wankel engine.
The apparatus of FIG. 1 represents only one means of causing the oxygen to be in the south pole magnetic state. Another way that the oxygen may be fed to the combustion zone of an ordinary internal combustion engine is illustrated in FIG. 2. In this figure as well as in succeeding FIGS. 3 through 6, the engine itself is not illustrated as operation thereof remains the same regardless of the manner of causing the oxygen to be in a south pole magnetic state. FIG. 2 illustrates an embodiment whereby the air cleaner assembly housing, when manufactured of a ferrous metal, can itself become the source of the magnetic field. All that is necessary is to connect point 25 onthe outer end of air inlet tube to ground and connect a point 26 on the filter housing, preferably a point on the opposite side of the filter housing from the inlet tube, with a source of current. It is pointed out the above connections are proper even for cars which have a positive ground system as do many cars made outside the US. Back to FIG. 2, the connection of the air cleaner assembly as shown will cause the magnetic field to be set up with the north and south poles thereof in the position indicated by the letters N and S. Thus as the air passes downwardly (air flow being indicated by the arrows) to the carburetor, the oxygen therein will be in a south pole magnetic state.
Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. 3 which has an air filter 27 connected to carburetor 28 by means of a ferrous metal tube 29, the air flow being indicated by the arrows. The tube 29 is connected to air filter 27 and carburetor 28 by flanges 30 and 31 which by proper insulation material (not shown) serve to electrically insulate ferrous tube 29 from the air filter and the carburetor. A point 32 on the upstream end of ferrous metal tube 29 is connected to ground and a point 33 downstream of the ground connection is connected to a source of current (not shown). A magnetic field is thus set up with the north and south poles thereof in the regions indicated by the letters N and S. In practically any existing engine where the air supply flows through a ferrous metal duct (either before or after being filtered) a magnetic field can be set up therein by the method shown in FIG. 3. The points of electrical connection to the tube must, however, be axially removed from each other, that is must be upstream and downstream from each other, and preferably are on opposite sides of the duct as is shown in FIG. 3. If the electrical connections are merely made on opposite sides of the duct but at the same point along the axis of the tube, the benefits of the present invention will not be accomplished as a proper magnetic field will not be set up.
Most internal combustion engines on todays automobiles have an air cleaner assembly setting atop the carburetor which contains a dry filter. cartridge and one manner of modifying such in accordance with the present invention is shown in FIGS. 4 and 5. As pointed out before FIG. 5 is a top view of the air cleaner of FIG. 4 with the cover of the air cleaner removed. Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, an air cleaner assembly having a circular bottom section 34 and a circular cover 35 is constructed such that a doughnutshaped dry cartridge-type air filter 36 may be clamped there between. Circular bottom section 34 contains an opening 37 which fits over and openly connects the inside of the air cleaner assembly with the usual carburetor (not shown) such that outside air passes through the filter 36 and then downwardly to the carburetor through opening 37 as indicated by the arrows. Also contained within the air cleaner assembly is a funnel-shaped or cone-shaped coil 38 which increases in diameter from thetop to the bottom thereof. As may be seen the bottom of the coil is of a diameter substantially that of the inside of filter 36 such that this bottom coil is as far removed from opening 37 as possible. Contained on coil 38 are rubber washers 39 which prevent contact of the coil with and electrically insulate it from the other parts of the filter assembly although this may also be accomplished by coating the coil with an insulating material. In operation of this device upper end 40 and lower end 41 of the coil will be connected to a power supply so as to cause a magnetic field to be set up due to current passing down the coil. The direction of the coil winding and the direction of the current flow therethrough will be such that the south pole of the magnetic field is at upper end 40 and the north pole is near the lower end 41. In the usual U.S. manufactured automobile having a 12 volt negative ground system, this is accomplished by having the coil clockwise wound with lower end 41 thereof being connected to ground and the upper end 40 thereof being connected to the automobiles power supply, these connections not being shown. At first glance it appears that such an arrangement would not impart south pole magnetic state to the oxygen in the air going downwardly through opening 37 but it has been found that such is accomplished since the arrangement tends to place the south pole of the magnetic field near the center of the air cleaner assembly and the north pole near the periphery thereof. Although the coil in FIGS. 4 and 5 is placed within the air filter 36, it could also be placed outside thereof or acutally embedded therein.
FIG. 6 represents another particular embodiment whereby the air cleaner assembly of an internal combustion engine is modified to cause the oxygen passing therethrough to be in a south pole magnetic state. Referring to FIG. 6, an air cleaner assembly which normally is mounted above a carburetor, contains a ferrous metal air inlet tube 42 and an air filter housing 43 which are connected to and electrically insulated from each other by flange 44. A point on the outer end of inlet tube 42 is connected to ground as shown and a point 45 downstream of and on the opposite side of the tube therefrom is connected to a power supply (not shown). The oxygen in the air entering inlet tube 42 is thus caused to be in the south pole magnetic state upon passing to the carburetor and thence to the combustion zone in the same manner as that embodiment shown in FIG. 3.
All of the foregoing embodiments have involvedcausing the oxygen in the air to be put in a south pole magnetic state prior to being mixed with the fuel. This is preferred-and the easiest manner to convert an existing enginebut it is pointed out that the oxygen fed to the combustion zone may be put in a south pole magnetic state after being mixed with the fuel. All that is required is that the oxygen be in the south pole magnetic state at the time of combustion. For example, a device may be placed between the carburetor and intake manifold which causes the oxygen in the fuel mixture to be converted to the south pole magnetic state. FIG. 7 illustrates the general configuration of a device that may be utilized between a carburetor and the intake manifold so as to cause the oxygen to be in a south pole magnetic state. Of course, it could also be utilized at other points. Referring to FIG. 7, it has been found that a piece of ferrous metal shaped as shown, that is, with a discontinuous or unclosed loop 46 having one end thereof projecting outwardly therefrom in a projection 47, if connected properly to a power supply will set up a magnetic field the south pole of which is within the loop and the north pole of which is outside the loop near the projection 47. This is accomplished in a 12 volt negative ground system by connecting the outer end of the projection 47 to ground and connecting the end of the loop 48 not projecting outwardly to a power supply. The cross-sectional area of the ferrous metal utilized will depend on its desired placement and could, for example, be circular (such as when made of an iron rod) or rectangular (such as when made from a fiat iron bar). At any rate, such a device as shown in FIG. 7 may be placed such that the loop surrounds the conduit through which the oxygen passes so as to cause the oxygen to be in a south pole magnetic state. It will usually be most convenient to mount or embed the loop in a plate or collar which may be inserted at the desired positionsuch as between a carburetor and an inlet manifold.
The device shown in FIG. 7 does not have to be formed from bar stock but for some applications may even be formed from thin sheet metal such as the device shown in FIG. 8. Such a device is particularly useful for actually clamping around a long pipe or conduit having an oxygen-containing gas flowing therethrough.
As may be seen, FIG. 8 like FIG. 7 has a discontinuous loop 46, one end of which projects outwardly therefrom in projection 47. The outer end of projection 47 is grounded and a point 48 at or near the nonprojecting end of the loop is connected to a power supply (not shown). Of course, the device of FIG. 8 could be embedded within a collar for easy mounting and could be manufactured in two or more pieces which when clamped together would give the desired shape and effect.
In the devices of FIGS. 7 and 8, the reversal of the direction of current flow therethrough will cause the north pole to be within the loop and the south pole outside thereof. With the north pole within the loop these devices become useful for application to the exhaust from a combustion process as mentioned above.
The foregoing described embodiments have all utilized electromagnets but permanent magnets may also be utilized, and are preferred, in the present invention. In fact, in a combustion apparatus which does not have a power supply connected thereto or have a generator in connection therewith, permanent magnets such as bar magnets may be utilized. Thus, an ordinary 2-cycle gasoline engine such as found on a lawnmower or outboard motor engine may be modified in accordance with the presentinvention by use of permanent magnets. All that is involved is mounting one or more bar magnets such that the south pole end extends into or near the air intake while the north pole of the bar magnet is as far removed from the air inlet as possible. In other words the south pole section of the permanent magnet should be nearest the oxygen-containing gas passing through the air inlet and the north pole section should be as far away as possible, such as where the north pole section extends radially outward. For example, FIG. 9 illustrates a collar 49 having bar magnets 50 embedded therein and projecting radially from opening 51. As may be seen the south pole of the bar magnets extends up to and is in close proximity with opening 51 while the north pole of the bar magnets is removed from opening 51. Air flowing through opening 51 would thus assume a south pole magnetic state. If the magnets were reversed, air flowing through opening 51 would assume a north pole magnetic state. Although only two magnets are shown in FIG. 9, there could be bnly one magnet present or there could be more than two present.
In operating according to the present invention it has been found that the most efficient combustion is effected when the magnetic field utilized to treat the oxygen has a magnetic field strength of about 5,000 to 10,000 Gauss although it can vary over an extremely wide range, 'for example, from 1,000 to 20,000 Gauss and higher. In an ordinary automobile engine with the type device shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, this will require only about I to 5 amps which is less than many car radios draw. It is emphasized that the range of 5,000 to 10,000 Gauss is the magnetic field strength desired when the oxygen does not become de-Gaussed before entering the combustion zone. In many apparatuses, depending, of course, on the treatment received by the oxygen after being put in the south pole magnetic state, the magnetic field strength must be at a higher Gauss filter section in order to have the oxygen at the proper level when it reaches the combustion chamber.
The strength of the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is constant under most conditions but the field strength may be controlled in an electromagnet such as those in FIGS. 1 through 8 by varying the amount of current flow. The control of the current flow is usually accomplished, for example, by placing a potentiometer in the circuit, preferably in the lead which goes from the electromagnet to ground. For example, in FIG. 2, the potentiometer is most conveniently placed between point 25'and ground.
The foregoing discussion has been limited to reciprocating internal combustion engines such as the 4-cycle and the 2-cycle engines found in most of todays automobiles since that is where the present invention is presently most advantageous. However, the present invention is by no means limited to such internal combustion engines and can certainly be utilized to great advantage in any combustion process wherein a hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen are combined and combustion of this mixture effected. For example, the present invention is very useful in rockets, gas turbine or other jet engines and serves to increase the combustion efficiency of such engines. .Iet engine as used herein is used in a generic sense to include any engine whereby expanding hot gases from a combustion zone are used as reaction forceswhether to actually produce a forward thrust by exiting through a narrow opening and/or by turning a turbine which in turn mechanically drives other parts. Referring to FIG. 10, there is illustrated a typical gas turbine or turbojet engine having a compressor section 52, combustion chamber 53, and turbine section 54. In the ordinary operation of this engine air enters the front, passes through the compressor section 52 where it is compressed and then goes into combustion chamber 53 where, after mixing with fuel such as kerosine fed through fuel line 55, combustion takes place. The hot expanding gases then exit through and drive the turbine 54 and in some cases also pass through an afterburner (not shown). When modified according to the present invention the air entering the combustion zone would first be passed through one or more magnetic fields in order that the oxygen therein would be in a south pole magnetic state. This can be accomplished for example by setting up a proper magnetic field at the entrance of the engine through the use level since it may be de-Gaussed to some extent before of coil 56 and also by the use of coil 57 at the entrance to the combustion chamber. These coils must, of course, be connected to a source of current which is not illustrated. When a magnetic field is set up at the entrance of the turbojet engine such as by coil 56, it is pointed out that the substantial de-Gaussification of the oxygen occurs as it passes through the compressor section and thus the strength of the magnetic field must be adjusted accordingly. If an after burner is present in the jet engine the oxygen entering the combustion zone thereof can also be placed in a south pole magnetic state in accordance with the present invention so as to achieve more efficient after-burning. Jet engines, including ram jets, pulse jets, rockets, turbojets and other gas turbines, modified in accordance with the present invention have increased combustion efficiency and thus contribute less to pollution of the atmosphere than do the usual jet engines. Fuel consumption of the jet engines will also be enhanced.
' The present invention may be applied to combustion processes other than the combustion process taking place within an engine, for example, to the ordinary burners found in heaters and boilers and to the combustion which takes place in the regeneration section of a fluid catalytic cracking process. In this latter-type "process a feed such as gas oil is contacted in a reactor section with a fluidized bed of hot, finely-divided catalyst causing the feed to be cracked to the desired components. such as gasoline. A small portion of the hot catalyst used in the reactor section (usually a finelydivided clay) as a source of heat is continuously withdrawn and passed to a regenerator section in order that the catalyst may be regenerated. After regeneration the catalyst is cycled back to the reaction zone. Regeneration is needed not only to reheat the catalyst but also to burn off carbonaceous deposits which are formed on the catalyst in the cracking process of the reaction section. These carbonaceous deposits generally consist of elemental carbon plus various hydrocarbon tars. The regeneration of the catalyst is the combustion process which the present invention enhances, the combustion taking place when the preheated air fed to the regeneration section is first treated. such that the oxygen therein is a south pole magnetic state then more efficient regeneration is accomplished and also equipment fouling is reduced.
FIG. 11 illustrates a burner 58 constructed in accordance with the present invention. The burner 58 consists of a cylindrical housing 59 having a closed end 60 and an open end 61. A feed line 62 extends through closed end 60 so as to feed a fuel gas such as natural gas. Air enters burner 58 through openings 63 in the cylindrical housing and then most of the air along with the fule gas passes through a Venturi 64 where the two are thoroughly mixed. Venturi 64 is constructed of a ferrous metal and is concentrically suspended within cylindrical housing by spider 65 and is also electrically insulated therefrom although such insulation is not illustrated. Some of the air entering openings 63 does not pass through the Venturi but instead passes through the concentric space between the housing and the Venturi. Upon exiting the Venturi thoroughly mixed, burning or combustion of the fuel gas-air mixture occurs in the combustion zone at or near open end 61 as indicated by flame front 66. In accordance with the present invention a point on the downstream end and also a point on the upstream end of the Venturi 64 is connected to a power supply 67 in a manner similar to the devices of FIGS. 3 and 6 such that a magnetic field is set up by the current passing through Venturi 64. The current flow is such that the north pole of the magnetic field is near the upstream end of Venturi 64 (as indicated by the letter N). Since the air and fuel gas mixture passes through the south pole section of the magnetic field after it passes through the north pole section, the oxygen exiting the Venturi will be in a south pole magnetic state and will remain so until the time of combustion. By the term oxygen-containing gas as used herein is meant any gas which contains the necessary oxygen to support combustion. Such may be pure oxygen, air, oxygen-enriched air or any other mixture of oxygen with other gases. For economical reasons air is the usual source of oxygen for a combustion process.
It is recognized that various prior art processes have disclosed the use of magnetic fields in combustion processes. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,349,354 to Miyota, U.S. Pat. No. 3,110,294 to Nyman, U.S. Pat.
No. 3,266,783 to Knight and British Patent Specification No. 7 l4,0l5 to Sabetay all disclose the use of magnetic fields in combustion processes. However, the present invention is simpler in operation than the methods and apparatus disclosed in such reference in that the present invention may be used to treat the oxygencontaining gas alone before being mixed with the fuel while the foregoing references deal only with treating the fuel-air mixture. Further the foregoing references all call for the use of an applied electrical potential, that is the fuel-air mixture is subjected to the influence of an electric field, sometimes also referred to as an electrostatic field. The present invention does not require and may be operated without the treatment of either the oxygen-containing gas or the fuel prior to combustion by use of an electric or electrostatic field. Thus an apparatus of the present invention may be much more simple in nature than those of the prior art since no means is needed for subjecting the oxygencontaining gas or fuel to an electric or electrostatic field prior to combustion.
EXAMPLE The exhaust from an eight cylinder, 4-cycle gasoline automobile engine was analyzed for the presence of various combustion products and then the same automobile engine was modified according to the present invention by use of an apparatus as shown in FIG. 4 and the exhaust once again analyzed. In the modified engine the current carried through the coil was about 3 amps causing the oxygen entering the combustion chambers to be in the south pole magnetic state. The field strength of the magnetic field was about 10,000 Gauss. Both tests were conducted with the engine at 600 RPM. The results of the exhaust analysis are shown in the following table.
As may be seen from the foregoing greater combustion efficiency was attained when the engine was modified in accordance with the present invention as evidenced by the fact that a greater amount of oxygen was consumed and more carbon dioxide was produced with the modified engine.
What is claimed is:
1. In a combustion process wherein combustion of a mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a fuel is effected in a combustion zone, the improvement which comprises treating said oxygen-containing gas prior to mixing it with said fuel by passing said oxygencontaining gas through the south pole section of a magnetic field such that the oxygen in said oxygencontaining gas entering said combustion zone is in the south pole magnetic state, and without subjecting the said oxygen-containing gas or fuel entering said combustion zone to the influence of an electric or electrostatic field prior to combustion.
2. The process of claim 1 wherein said combustion process takes place in an internal combustion engine.
3. The process of claim 2 wherein said combustion process takes place within a reciprocating 4-cycle or 2-cycle internal combustion engine and is effected by a spark ignition means, wherein said oxygen-containing gas is air and wherein said fuel is a normally liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel.
4. The process of claim 2 wherein said internal combustion engine is a diesel engine wherein the combustion is effected by compression and wherein said fuel is a normally liquid hydrocarbon.
5. The process of claim 1 wherein said combustion zone is the regeneration section of a fluid catalytic cracking process and said fuel is the carbonaceous residue on the fouled catalyst.
6. The process of claim 1 wherein said magnetic field strength is within the range of about 5,000 to 10,000 Gauss.
7. The process of claim 1 wherein said combustion process takes place within a jet engine.
8. The process of claim 1 wherein the exhaust from said combustion process is additionally passed through the north pole section of a magnetic field in order to enhance the north pole magnetic state of the exhaust gases exiting said combustion process.
9. In an apparatus wherein combustion of a mixture of fuel and an oxygen-containing gas is effected in a combustion zone,
a. oxygen-containing gas intake means,
b. means to supply fuel and said oxygen-containing gas to said combustion zone, and
c. magnetic field means to act upon the oxygen in said oxygen-containing gas before being mixed with said fuel so as to cause the oxygen entering said combustion zone to be in a south pole magnetic state, said apparatus having no means for subjecting the said oxygen-containing gas or fuel to the influence of an electric or electrostatic field prior to combustion.
10. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said apparatus is an internal combustion engine having means to supply a mixture of vaporized or atomized fuel and said oxygen-containing gas to said combustion zone, wherein said combustion zone is a combustion'chamber having a spark ignition means therein to ignite the fuel mixture supplied thereto, and wherein said oxygencontaining gas is air.
11. The internal combustion engine of claim 10 wherein said magnetic field means is located in conjunction with said oxygen-containing gas intake means.
12. The internal combustion engine of claim 11 wherein said magnetic field means is a permanent magnet having the south pole section thereof nearest the oxygen-containing gas passing through said intake means and having the north pole section thereof extending radially outward therefrom.
13. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said apparatus is a jet engine.
14. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said apparatus is a gas turbine engine having a compressor section for compressing said oxygen-containing gas supplied by said intake means and a turbine section driven by the hot gases exiting said combustion zone.
15. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said apparatus is a diesel engine having separate means for supplying said oxygen-containing gas and for supplying vaporized or atomized fuel to said combustion zone, said combustion zone being an enclosed combustion chamber wherein combustion is effected by compression.
16. The apparatus of claim 9 wherein said apparatus isafurnace.
-' 3 13 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. ga g gzl Dated August 20, 1974 ,InVen'tOI-(S) Doyle H. Miller It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below: 5
In Figures 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 11 of the drawings, the letter "N" each occurrence, should read "3"; and the letter "S", each occurrence, should read "N".
0n the cover page .in the representative drawing which is a reproduction of Figure 9, the letter "N", both occurrences, should read "S"; and the letter "S", both occurrences, should read "N".
Signed and sealed this 29th day of April 1975.
- (SEAL) 'Atteet:
, c'. MARSHALL DANN RUTH C. MASON Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer and Trademarks jg gg UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE ,OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3 30 21 Dated August 20, 197 4 Inventor) Doyle H. Miller It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
In Figures 1, 2; 3, 7, s, 9 and 11 of the drawings, the letter "N" each occurrence, should read "5"; and the letter "5'', each occurrence, should read "N".
On the cover page .in the representative drawing which is a reproduction of Figure 9, the letter "N", both I occurrences, should .read "S"; and the letter "S", both occurrences, should read "N".
Signed and sealed this 29th day of April 1975.
- (SEAL) Attest:
' C. MARSHALL DANN RUTH C. MASON Commissioner of Patents Attest ing Officer and Trademarks
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|U.S. Classification||431/356, 261/74, 123/1.00R, 123/539, 261/1, 431/253, 261/75, 110/345, 335/306, 210/222, 335/209, 123/1.00A|
|International Classification||F02C3/20, F23C99/00, F02M27/04, F02B3/06, F02B75/02, F02B1/04|
|Cooperative Classification||F02B2075/027, F02B3/06, F02B1/04, F02C3/20, F23C99/001, F02M27/045|
|European Classification||F23C99/00F, F02M27/04M, F02C3/20|