US 3831032 A
The radiodiagnostic apparatus is composed of a radiodiagnostic table of reduced size which is easy of access for a young patient, to which table a support is attached which holds a carrier plate for the patient through the medium of mechanical devices enabling said plate to translate and rotate in relation to the table, the plate axis remaining substantially parallel to the table and the plate being provided with means to hold the patient in position.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 Putod [4 Aug. 20, R974 TOMOGRAPHIC AND X-RAY 2,656,469 10/1953 Laur 250/446 PHOTOGRAPHHC DIAGNOSTIC 3,215,834 11/1965 Tayman 250/451 APPARATUS FOR PEDIATRIC 3,545,739 12/1970 DAvignon 250/446 EXAMINATION FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS  Inventor: Rene Putod, Paris, France 1,431,357 1/1966 France 250/446 I ll  Assignee: Compagnie Generale De Radiologie, 2'808 8/1961 Germany 250,447
P F ans rance Primary Examiner--William F. Lindquist Flledi Mali 1973 Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Cushman, Darby & 21 Appl. No.: 339,858 Cushma 30 Foreign Application Priority Data  ABSTRACT Mar. 15, 1972 France 72.08925 The radiodiagnostic apparatus is composed of a radiodiagnostic table of reduced size which is easy of access  US. Cl 250/447, 250/451, 240/456, for a young patient, to which table a support is at- 250/490 tached which holds a carrier plate for the patient  Int. Cl. G01n 23/04 through the medium of mechanical devices enabling  Field of Search 50/444, 47, said plate to translate and rotate in relation to the ta- 250/448, 449, 450, 451, 456, 490 ble, the plate axis remaining substantially parallel to the table and the plate being provided with means to  References Cited hold the patient in position.
UNITED STATES PATENTS 4 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures 1,980,848 11/1934 Cass 250/45l PATENTEB AUG 2 01874 sum 2 5 TOMOGRAPI-IIC AND X-RAY PHOTOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSTIC APPARATUS FOR PEDIATRIC EXAMINATION The present invention relates to radiodiagnostic apparatus and is concerned, more particularly, with an apparatus of this kind designed for the examination of children from birth up to the age of around years.
Radioscopic or radiographic examinations of young children cannot easily be carried out with conventional examination tables, on the one hand because of the dimensions of these tables compared with those of the patient being examined, and the extreme difficulty of immobilising such a young patient on a table intended for adults, and on the other hand because such examinations frequently require a great variety of angles of incidence necessitating orientations of the patient difficult to obtain with this kind of equipment.
It is well known to equip conventional radiodiagnostic tables with accessories which facilitate the examination of small patients, although these do not improve the performance of such a table.
One object of the present invention is to avoid the aforesaid drawbacks by using a radiodiagnostic apparatus of novel design making it possible to employ a wide range of radiological techniques controlled remotely or in proximity of the patient being examined, whilst at the same time enabling the doctor to remain in close contact with the patient.
In accordance with the invention, the radiodiagnostic apparatus intended for pediatric applications, is composed of a radiodiagnostic table of reduced size which is easy of access for a young patient, to which table there is attached a support which holds a carrier plate for the patient through the medium of mechanical devices enabling said plate to translate and rotate in relation to the table, the plate axis remaining substantially parallel to the table and the plate being provided with means to hold the patient in position.
The invention will be better understood and other of its objects and features rendered apparent from a consideration of the ensuing description and the attached drawings given by way of example, in which:
FIGS. 1, 2 and'3 respectively illustrate elevational, lateral and plan views of an embodiment of a radiodiagnostic apparatus in accordance with the invention;
FIG. 4 illustrates an elevational view of the device shown in FIG. 1 orientated vertically to enable lateral transverse tomography to take place in this position;
FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 respectively illustrate plan, elevational and side elevational views of a more detailed form, of a patient support system in accordance with the invention, for carrying out the functions indicated in FIGS. 1 to 3.
In all these Figures, similar elements have been designated by the same reference numbers.
In FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the device in accordance with the invention has been shown in the horizontal position. It is fixed to the floor 1 by means of a horizontal plate 2, screws 3 and two feet 4 and 5. This device essentially comprises a rectangular frame 6, a vertical plate 7 fixed to the rear of the frame 6 and integral with a toothed sector 8, making it possible to pivot the frame about a horizontal axis perpendicular to its longitudinal axis and materialised by two pivots 9 and 10 located in bearings formed respectively in the rear 4 and front 5 feet. The pivot 9 is integral with the toothed sector 8 and the pivot 10 with the frame 6 through the medium of an intermediate component 11. The pivoting of the device is controlled by an electric motor 12 whose stator is assembled upon the rear feet 4 and whose rotor is integral with an endless screw 13. Said endless screw 13 meshes with a first gear 14 fixed to a shaft 15 passing through the rear foot 4 and carrying, on the other side thereof, a second gear 16 meshing with the sector 8. The toothed sector 8 can be replaced, preferably, by a limb of semicircular form which is provided upon its external periphery with a stretched chain engaging with a gear fixed to the shaft 15 and surrounded by two pulleys. This kind of drive system makes it possible to pivot the device between a vertical position such as shown in FIG. 4, and an angled position.
At the front, the frame 6 has a protective apron 17 and at the top it carries a stretched sheet of plastic material 18 to protect the patient and the mechanical components located inside the frame.
At the rear of the frame 6, there is attached the assembly carrying the casing 19 of the X-ray tube, and the diaphragm 20. This supporting assembly comprises a first column 21 which is motorised to pivot about a first spindle 22 providing a first horizontal axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the frame 6 and preferably located in the plane of the film F, and a second column 23 assembled on the frame 6 in order to be able to pivot about a second spindle 24 providing a second horizontal axis parallel to the first one and likewise located in the plane of the film. The first and second axes 22 and 24 are situated symmetrically relatively to the centre of the frame 6. The free ends of the two columns 21 and 23 are coupled together by means of a first transverse arm 25 whose two ends are respectively mounted to pivot about a third 26 and a fourth spindle 27 carried by the respective ends of the columns 21 and 23, thus forming a first deformable parallelogram with the rear member of the frame 6.
The drive of the first motorised column 21 is effected through a second toothed sector 28 fixed thereto and engaging with an endless screw 29 attached to the rotor of an electric motor 30 whose stator is secured firmly to the frame 6 by means of the vertical plate 7 (or the sector 8 in the absence of such a plate).
The casing 19 of the X-ray tube is carried by one of the ends of a substantially horizontal branch 31 of an L-shaped arm whose other substantially vertical branch 32 is articulated by its free end to a conventional tomography rod or lever 33 through a second rigid arm 34 parallel to the first arm 25. The junction between the two branches 31, 32 of the tube-holder arm, is articulated on a fifth spindle assembled at the centre of the first arm 25 in order to form a second deformable parallelogram composed of the latter itself, the vertical branch 32, the second arm 34 and the tomography boom 33, so that the central ray of the X-ray beam is directed, during a tomography operation, towards the centre of the film which has to carry out a homothetic motion in relation to said source.
The tomography rod 33 is also articulated to the fourth spindle 27 of the column 21 and to a sixth spindle 35 which is displaceable perpendicularly to the plane of the film and defines the plane of tomography. This spindle 35 is mounted on a block 36 on the one hand engaging in a first slide 37 integral with the frame 6 and perpendicular to the plane of the film F and on the other hand engaging with a threaded shaft 38 driven by a motor 39 which controls the displacement of the block 36 along the slide 37. At its end, the spindle 35 carries a second slide 40 journalled thereon and containing an opening perpendicular to the spindle 35 for the insertion of the rod 33. The other end of the tomography rod 33 contains an oblong opening 41 in which there engages a roller 42 fixed to an X-ray film handling device (cassette holder) 43 through the me dium of an arm 44. The device 43 comprises a rectangular opening 45 for the insertion of cassettes containing the X-ray film, and is mounted on a pair of rails or slides 46 enabling its displacements in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the frame 6.
This kind of design of the tube-holder system, selector and tomography rod, makes it possible to take radiographic pictures of a layer substantially parallel to the film plane and whose position within the body is determined by the position of the axis of the spindle 35. The design of the patient supporting system which will be described hereinafter making reference to FIGS. 1 to 4, where it has been illustrated highly schematically, constitutes the main feature of the present invention.
The patient support system comprises a support device 47 (FIG. fixed to the frame 6 and terminating in a fork 48, the two legs of which are disposed parallel to the plane of the film F in order, by means of two pivots 49 and 50 which are coaxial with one another, to define an axis perpendicular to said plane. The pivots 49 and 50 carry an elongated frame 51 of U-shaped cross-section which can pivot about said axis. This pivoting is controlled by an electric motor 52 which produces rotation of an arm 53 carrying at its end a roller 54 arranged between a pair of slideways 510 assembled on the bottom edge of said elongated frame 51. The stator of the motor 52 is fixed to the rectangular frame 6 so that rotation of the arm 53 in the anticlockwise direction causes the elongated frame 51 to pivot about the axis defined by the pivots 49 and 50, bringing it from a position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the frame 6, towards a position perpendicular to said axis. The elongated frame 51 in turn carries a hollow elongated component 55 of substantially rectangular crosssection, arranged inside same in order to be displaceable longitudinally in relation to the frame 51. This displacement, guided by the frame 5ll, can be produced by a conventional rack drive (not shown in the (Figure) where the drive motor is located in a chassis 560 and a pinion coupled to the rotor of the drive motor, meshes with the rack which is fixed to the component 55 for example. A less expensive solution, using a chain stretched between the two ends of the component 55 and engaging with the pinion of a motor fixed to the frame 51, could be utilised.
The two opposite ends of the component 55 respectively carry two arms 56 and 57 which can pivot about an axis parallel to that of the component 55. This axis can take the form of a shaft driven by a motor (not shown in the (Figure).
The free ends of the arms 56 and 57 respectively carry supporting plates 58 and 59 perpendicular to the plane of the film F and each comprising drive devices (this will be explained in more detailed fashion in the description relating to FIGS. 5 to 7), assembled inside housings 60 and 61 fixed to the plates 58 and 59. These drive devices comprise respective outputs in the form of the shafts 62 and 63 which can rotate about their own axes and can likewise be displaced parallel to the bottom edges (adjacent the film) of the plates 58 and 59.
The shafts 62 and 63, in turn, carry a rigid patient support plate 64 (preferably made of X-ray quality wood or of a synthetic material transparent to X-rays) having its lateral edges provided with a series of notches which facilitate the immobilization of the patient (a baby for example) bandage wound around both the patient and the plate and retained by the reentrant notch portions by means of a belt 65 of the plate. The ends of the plate edges 64 are provided with rigid components 66 for attachment to the shafts 62, 63.
In FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, the apparatus in accordance with the invention has been shown in a position in which the patient can be displaced or tomography operations carried out parallel to the longitudinal axis, whilst FIG. 4 illustrates the support system in a position in which it is possible to take photographs of and to carry out transverse tomography operations on the patient, by placing him perpendicularly to the axis of the frame 6. The inclination of the apparatus in relation to the horizontal and the orientation of the support plate 64 by its rotation about the axis of the shafts 62 and 63, make it possible to take radiographs at different angles of incidence, something which would be impossible with a conventional apparatus.
FIGS. 5, 6 and 7 illustrate in a more detailed fashion the patient support system in accordance with the invention.
In FIG. 5, a partially cutaway plan view of one embodiment of the invention has been shown, and in FIG. 6 a partially cutaway elevationa l v iew, also sectioned at its righthand side along the line BB, whilst FIG. 7 shows a side elevation with the protective casings 60 and 6H removed.
In these Figures, there can be seen the support device 47 carried by a cross-member 600 fixed to the frame 6, the fork 48 and the pivots 49 and 50 fitted to the ends of the legs 48 of said fork in order to carry the elongated frame 511 so that the latter can pivot about the axis defined by said pivots. The elongated frame Sll serves as a guide or slideway for the axial displacement of the elongated hollow component 55. The pivoting of the elongated frame 51 is controlled by the motor 52 through the medium of a reduction gear 521 (fixed to the cross-member 600) whose slow speed output shaft 522 (FIG. 6) carries one end of the arm 53 whose other end in turn carries the roller 54 inserted between rectangular blocks 510. 510 secured to the frame 51. The underside of elongated component 51 forming a slideway for said roller is equipped on its back face with a rack 51 meshing with a pinion 561 driven by a motor 562 (FIG. 5) through the medium of a reduction gear 563, the whole being covered by a casing 56. This drive makes it possible to modify the position of the component in relation to the frame 51 in order to axially displace the patient in relation to the exposure field.
The elongated component 55 comprises, internally, a first shaft 522 passing through it, the ends of which are respectively connected to the arms 56 and 57 supporting the patient carrier plate 67 (which differs from the plate 64 shown in FIG. 3 and will be described hereinafter). This first shaft 552 is rotated by a first motor 553 assembled inside the component 55, through the medium of the gearing 554.
The elongated component 55 likewise comprises a second shaft 555 passing through it, and parallel to the first one, which is driven by a second motor 556 through gearing 557. The rotational motion of said second shaft 555 is transmitted through a pair of bevel gears 558 to a threaded shaft 559 (FIG. 7) engaging with a nut or threaded component 580 coupled to the mechanism which displaces (translational motion) the patient carrier plate 67 in directions perpendicular to the axis of the patient.
This pair of bevel gears 558, which could equally well be replaced by a transmission system comprising an endless screw meshing with a gear, is housed in a protective casing 561 (FIG. 6) which can pivot about the second shaft 555 and may contain a bearing or location (not shown) to pass the threaded shaft 559.
The mechanism of controlling the rotation of the plate 67 is fixed to a rigid chassis or carriage 581 in the form of a flat plate which can slide in a pair of slideways 582 and 583 fixed to the plate 58 and parallel to the bottom edge thereof. The nut 580 is articulated about a pivot fixed to said chassis 581 in order to be able to control the lateral displacement of the shaft 62 (or 63) in different positions of the arm 56 which latter can pivot about the axis of the first shaft 552. Said plate 581 carries furthermore a motor 584 driving an endless screw meshing with a gear 586 to the shaft 62. Said shaft 62 is provided at its end with a device 620 (FIG. 6) (FIG. 5) for the detachable connection of the patient carrier plate 67 which will be described hereinafter.
To enable the patient carrier plate 67 to be moved towards or away from the film plane (not shown in FIG. 5, 6 and 7) the arms 56 and 57 fixed to the first shaft 552, are respectively articulated at their free ends to pivots 565 and 575 respectively assembled to the top parts of plates 58 and 59. In order for these plates 58 and 59 at all times to be orientated in the same manner in relation to the film plane F, whatever the position of the support plate, there have been respectively added to the arms 56 and 57 auxiliary arms 566 and 576 of the same length as the former and parallel to them, the ends of which auxiliary arms are respectively articulated to the elongated component 55 and to the support plates 58 and 59, in order thus to form two deformable parallelogram linkages.
The patient support plate 67 shown in FIG. 5 differs from that 64 of FIG. 3 since it comprises a portion in the form of a plank or board 68 bordered (at a distance of around a fingers breadth) by two members 69 in the form of a slideway for the assembly of bets, handholds etc.. to retain and immobilise the patient who, in this case, will be older (between) 2 and 4 years old for example).
As explained hereinbefore, the device for dismountably securing the support plates has been designed to make these plates easy to exchange. To this end, they each comprise the same quick fitting systems composed of components 620 and 630 each having two recesses preferably disposed symmetrically vis-a-vis the axis defined by the shafts 62 and 63, into which recesses there are inserted on the one hand the fixed studs 641 and 642 and on the other the retractable studs 643 and 644 which are held in position by springs. These patient carrier support plates all have the same length but their widths and shapes differ to accord with the size of patient they are intended for. The availability of several plates which can be rapidly positioned and fitted, makes it possible to prepare patients in advance and thus to reduce the time wasted between examinations.
It will be seen that with this apparatus, as described thus far, it is possible to orient the patient being examined, in any desired manner in relation to the beam. It is possible, in particular, to take a profiled shot whilst leaving the patient in a horizontal attitude as shown in FIG. 4. To obtain this configuration, it is first of all necessary (with the table 6 horizontal) to position the elongated component 55 (see FIG. 3), by translating it along the elongated frame 51, in the extreme lefthand position considering the Figure, in order to arrange that the arm 57 and the housing 61 do not strike the column 21 during the orientation of the plate. The elongated frame 51 then undergoes a rotation about the axis 49 as a consequence of which the longitudinal axis of the plate, whilst remaining parallel to the table 6, is placed perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of said table. The table 6 is then inclined until it is vertical (FIG. 4) but the plate can be maintained horizontal by controlling the motor 584 (FIG. 7) which rotates the support 620 (FIG. 5) through the medium of the shaft 62. This rotational movement of the plate in relation to the table 6 is made possible despite its size, because of the fact that the plate can be moved away from the table 6 by inclining the links 56 and 57 using the motor 556. (FIG. 5).
The positioning of the plate in relation to the beam is effected by controlling the motor 562 (FIGS. 5 and 6) which is responsible for translating the plate in the direction of its axis, and by controlling the motor 556 (FIG. 6) which controls the translation motion in a perpendicular direction. The distance between the plate and the table (and consequently between the plate and the film plane) is controlled by the motor 553 which controls the orientation of the arms 56 and 57. Finally, the orientation of the plate is regulated by the motor 584 (FIG. 7) which causes the plate to rotate about its longitudinal axis.
This apparatus is therefore perfectly suited for the examination of small patients, ranging from the newborn to children of 4 to 5 years old. Two support plates have been illustrated, one 64 (FIG. 3) of which is provided for newborn infants, this plate having a small width and being provided with notches for the positioning of retaining bandages or belts, whilst the other 67 (FIG. 5) is wider and has longitudinal attachment bars. These plates are easily detachable so that plates of different shapes and sizes can be used provided that they have the same length and have the same quick-fit systems.
What is claimed is:
1. A radiodiagnostic apparatus, particularly for carrying out pediatric X-ray examination, comprising:
a fixed base having substantially vertical members integral therewith;
table shaped means pivotably mounted on said vertical members for being tilted about a first horizontal axis from a horizontal position to at least a vertical one, said table-shaped means having a longitudinal and a transverse axis;
means for movably carrying X-ray film mounted within said table-shaped means for displacements of said film in parallel to said longitudinal axis and within a film plane defined by the film in position for exposure;
an X-ray source including a tube for emitting an X-ray beam originating from a focal spot and mounted within a casing;
means for movably mounting said X-ray source on said table-shaped means for said focal spot to be displaced along a circular arc, said X-ray source mounting means including:
a first parallelogram made up from:
a first and a second column having one of their ends pivotably mounted to one side of said table-shaped means for respectively pivoting about a second and a third horizontal axis, spaced symmetrically to and parallel with said transverse axis and both intersecting a line parallel to said longitudinal axis thereof; and
a first arm member respectively hingedly connecting together the other ends of said first and second columns; and
a second parallelogram made up from:
a second arm member secured integrally to said X-ray tube casing in parallel to the center ray of said X-ray beam and having one end pivotally attached to the middle of said first arm member;
a tomography rod hinged with one of its ends to the junction of said first column and said first arm member and slideably engaged in a first slideway pivotally mounted on a spindle displaceable along a line perpendicular to said film plane and intersecting with said second axis, the other end of said rod being coupled to said X-ray film carrying means for controlling the displacements thereof; and
a third arm member respectively hingedly connecting the other end of said second arm member to said tomography rod for permanently aiming the center ray of said beam to the center of the film in its exposure position; and
means for supporting a patient including:
a supporting plate having a longitudinal axis and two ends;
a pair of first shafts respectively attached to said ends of said plate in alignment with siad plate axis;
a pair of intermediate mounting members respectively displaceably and rotatably carrying said first shaft pair for their displacement in directions parallel to the film plane and for rotation about said plate axis;
a pair of further arm members perpendicular to said plate axis respectively articulatedly carrying said pair of mounting members;
an elongated member having an axis parallel to said plate axis and two ends for respectively rotatably carrying said further arm member pair, the rotation of said further arm members about an axis parallel to said plate axis resulting in displacements of said supporting plate substantially perpendicularly to the film plane;
a frame member forming a second slideway slideably carrying said elongated member for displacements of said plate in the direction of its longitudinal axis; and means for pivotably mounting said frame member on said table-shaped means allowing the independent pivoting thereof about an axis perpendicular to said film plane, said perpendicular axis being so located that, when said frame member is being pivoted, said supporting plate is being moved from a first position where its longitudinal axis is parallel to that of said table-shaped means to a second position where said plate axis is parallel to said transverse axis thereof, said first and said second column being so spaced relatively to each other as to let said supporting plate and said elongated member pass therebetween, whereby enabling said apparatus to also carry out transverse tomographies of said patient.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of said intermediate mounting members includes:
a plate-shaped member perpendicular to both said plate axis and said film plane;
a third slideway secured integrally to said plateshaped member;
a carriage displaceably mounted on said third slideway;
a bearing journalled in said carriage for lodging said first shaft; and
first motor means mounted on said carriage for driving said first shaft for rotating said plate about its axis; and wherein each of said further arm members includes:
a first arm having one end secured to a second motor driven shaft parallel to said plate axis and passing through said elongated member, and having its other end hinged to said plate-shaped member; and
a second arm parallel to said first arm and respectively hinged to said elongated and said plateshaped member, whereby said latter is maintained parallel to itself during the pivoting of said first arm and said third slideway ensures carriage movements parallel to the film plane.
3. Apparatus as claimed in claim 2, wherein said elongated member includes a third motor-driven shaft parallel to said second one and having its ends respec tively coupled by means of a pair of bevel gears to a pair of threaded shafts which are respectively engaged with a pair of threaded nut members respectively hingedly mounted to said carriages for controlling the simultaneous displacements of said carriages along said third slideways by rotating said threaded shafts.
4. Apparatus as claimed in claim )1, wherein said supporting plate is provided with notches along both of its lateral edges for retaining bandage means used for immobilizing the patient thereupon and wherein both ends of said supporting plate are respectively dismountably coupled to said first shaft pair.