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Publication numberUS3831374 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 27, 1974
Filing dateJun 28, 1973
Priority dateAug 30, 1971
Publication numberUS 3831374 A, US 3831374A, US-A-3831374, US3831374 A, US3831374A
InventorsNicita J
Original AssigneePower Technology Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gas turbine engine and counterflow heat exchanger with outer air passageway
US 3831374 A
Abstract
A gas turbine engine comprising a compressor, a turbine, and a burner. The turbine is interposed between the compressor and the burner. The exhaust gases of combustion from the turbine are reversed and moved axially while the air from the compressor is moved in a sinuous path in heat exchange relationship to the movement of the exhaust gases axially.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1451 Aug. 27, 1974 United States Patent Nicita 60/39 51 60/3951 Mason 165/166 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1/1964 Wosika.................

mm MN W now mum Mmm 333 R E Y m nm NX AEM ET NAM mEP N mw mmm W s m A0 GCW M 60/3916 60/3952 8/1960 France............................... 60/39 51 [75] Inventor: John Nicita, El Cajon, Calif.

[73] Assignee: Power Technology Corporation,

Bloomfield Hills, Mich.

8 w s 4 7w J30 t d] p m0. FA 1] 21 22 a R h d S 6 8 m On r S Cm T R m c nm m mn s a ww m F r WWO m e am a n m nm m7 r81 5 PA Cl [63] Continuation of Ser. No. 175,819, Augv 30, 1971,

abandoned.

A gas turbine engine comprising a compressor, a turbine, and a burner. The turbine is interposed between the compressor and the burner. The exhaust gases of combustion from the turbine are reversed and moved 60 6 60 6 1 l /3 31 68 ,6 2 1 R 5 9 055 1 l 5/9 9 3c0 1 0 Fm m n.c ""r 0 mm L Hf C IM k U.mF ll] 2 8 555 axially while the air from the compressor is moved in a sinuous path in heat exchange relationship to the movement of the exhaust gases axially.

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,721.445 10/1955 Giliberty..........................., 60/3951 8 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures \iiiii;

muons FIG. I

INVENTOR. JOHN Ntcl'rA ATTORNEY5 3.aa1.a74

mama

' INVENTOR.

JOHN NICLITA ATTORNEYS wmm M wav- GAS TURBINE ENGINE AND COUNTERFLOW HEAT EXCHANGER WITH OUTER AIR PASSAGEWAY This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 175,819, filed Aug. 30, 1971, now abandoned. This invention relates to gas turbine engines.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Among the objects of the invention are to provide a gas turbine engine which is light in weight, compact, and operates with high efficiency.

SUMMARY or THE INVENTION A gas turbine engine comprising a compressor, a turbine, and a burner. The turbine is interposed between the compressor and the burner. The exhaust gases of combustion from the turbine are reversed and moved axially while the air from the compressor is moved in a sinuous path in heat exchange relationship to the movement of the exhaust gases axially.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of a gas turbine engine embodying the invention.

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 2-2 in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 33 in FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary side elevational view of a portion of the gas turbine engine.

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view of a portion of the engine shown in FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of a gas turbine engine embodying the invention taken along the line 6-6 in FIG. 9.

FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 77 in FIG. 6.

FIG. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 8-8 in FIG. 9.

FIG. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along the line 9-9 in FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view of a portion of the engine taken along the line 10-10 in FIG. 8.

DESCRIPTION Referring to FIGS. 1-5, the gas turbine engine 10 embodying the invention comprises a compressor 11 which draws air through an axial intake 12 into a housing 13 wherein an impeller I4 compresses the air and directs it generally radially through a passage 15. The air is then turned generally axially. The air passes in heat exchange relationship to the exhaust gases through a heat exchanger 16 to a combustion area 17 where it is ignited with fuel from an atomizer 18. The gases of combustion are directed to a turbine 24 interposed between the compressor and the burner. The exhaust gases are then reversed substantially 180 by a passage 200 formed by shroud 20 and the compressor housing and moved axially through the heat exchanger 16 to an axial exhaust 21.

As shown in the drawings, the impeller 14 of the compressor is mounted on a shaft 22 rotatably supported in the housing by bearings 23. The rotor 24 of the turbine is also mounted on the shaft 22. The turbine further includes circumferentially spaced stator blades 25 that are supported on a stator assembly 26. Stator assembly 26 comprises a semi-spherical hollow memher 27. The stator blades 25 are hollow so that cooling air can be directed through the stator blades radially inwardly. A portion of the air flows through openings 28 to cool the turbine rotor while another portion flows through openings 29 against a spaced baffle 30 to cool the outer surface of the member 27 and the baffle 30.

A burner tube 31 which is generally cylindrical defines a space 32 through which the air flows to the area 17.

In accordance with the invention, the heat exchanger 16 comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced units 35. Each unit comprises spaced plates 36, 37, 38,

39, 40 and 41. Corrugated members 42 are provided between the plates 36 and 37, 38 and 39, and 40 and 41. The passages of the corrugated member 42 extend axially and are in communication with the passage 20a so that the exhaust gases flow substantially unrestricted axially to the outlet 21.

The spaces between members 37 and 38 and 39 and 40 have corrugated members 43 therein, the corrugations of which extend generally radially.

As shown in FIG. 2, the space between adjacent units 16 is covered by a plate 44. The plate 44 extends to the periphery of the portion 45 of the housing defining the passage 15. In this manner, the exhaust gases can only flow axially in the spaces defined by the corrugations 42.

The engine includes a wall 52 that is spaced from the unit 16 to define a passage 53 providing communication between portions 48 and 49 of each unit 35. The end of the wall as at 54 isolates portion 49 from portion 51 to define a sinuous path for the flow of air.

A cover member 46 is provided in spaced relation to a portion of the unit along the length thereof. The air from the compressor thus can flow into the space 47 longitudinally between the unit until it reaches the portion 48 of the corrugations 43 as shown by the arrows in FIG. 3. The air can thereafter flow radially inwardly throughthe portion 48 and successively through portions 49, the space 50 defined by the cover 46, and the portion 51 to the area 32 between the combustion tube and the housing.

One of the advantages of the engine configuration is that the compressor discharge air that is flowing in passage 15 flows along the inner wall of the outer engine shell and thus keeps the engine housing cool and also minimizes heat loss to improve overall engine efficiency.

In the form of the invention shown in FIGS. 6-10, the heat exchanger comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced units 35a. Each unit comprises spaced open ended rectangular housing 36a to 44a inclusive. Corrugated members 45a are provided in each housing. The passages 46a of the corrugated members 45a extend axially and are in communication with the passage 20a so that the exhaust gases flow substantially unrestricted axially to the outlet 21.

The spaces between housings 36a to 44a have corrugated members 45a therein, the corrugations of which extend longitudinally. .As shown in FIG. 9, corrugated sheets 45a are provided in each of the housings 36a, 38a, 40a, 42a, 44a and extend throughout the length of the housings to provide axial passages 46a for directing the exhaust gases from passage 20 to the outlet 21.

Corrugated sheets 45b with longitudinally extending passages 46b are also provided in the housings 37a, 39a, 41a and 43a but they are cut away as at 47a and 48a. In addition, the housings 37a, 39a, 41a, 43a are provided with openings 49a, 50a and have their ends closed by plugs 51a, 53a so that air will flow from the compressor to the area 52a above each unit 35a through opening 490 and then axially through the passages formed by sheets 46a and through opening 50a to the area 32. In the area of passage a, a plate 53 closes the space between units 35a.

In operation, the exhaust gases pass in an axially straight path through passage 46a and air is moved in an axially straight path in the opposite direction through passages 4612.

I claim:

1. A gas turbine engine comprising a compressor having an impeller,

said compressor having a radial outlet,

a turbine having a rotor mounted for rotation about the same axis as the impeller,

said turbine having an axial inlet,

a burner aligned with said axis,

said turbine rotor being positioned between said impeller and said burner, means for directing the products of combustion from said burner in a path substantially annular in cross section axially to said turbine, means between the compressor and turbine rotor for thereafter reversing the flow of said exhaust'gases in a reverse axial path, means defining an axially extending annular exhaust passageway spaced radially outwardly from and surrounding the turbine rotor and spaced axially with respect to said compressor for receiving the exhaust gases from said last-mentioned means,

means for directing air directly from said compressor in a substantially annular axial path radially outwardly from and surrounding the axial exhaust passageway and in the direction of the passage of exhaust gases through said passageway, and counterflow heat exchange means associated with said exhaust passageway for thereafter directing said air toward said compressor in heat exchange relationship to said exhaust passageway,

and means for thereafter directing said air radially inwardly and thereafter axially of said axial exhaust passageway to said burner.

2. The combination set forth in claim 1 wherein said heat exchange means comprises a plurality oflongitudinally spaced plates,

first corrugated members in alternate spaces between said plates,

second corrugated members in the remaining spaces between said plates,

said first corrugated members between alternate plates having their passages extending axially to define said exhaust passageways,

said second corrugated members between the other plates having their ends closed and their passages extending generally axially and terminating short of the ends so that they communicate with air from said compressor and said burner to define air directing passages for receiving air from said air directing means at one end of said heat exchange means and for delivering air at the other end to said air directing means for directing air to said burner,

3. The combination set forth in claim 1 wherein said heat exchange means comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced units,

means for directing a stream of air in heat exchange relationship to the axial exhaust path and said means for directing the exhaust gases in an axial exhaust passageway comprise a plurality of circumferentially spaced units,

each said unit comprising a plurality of spaced generally radially extending plates,

first corrugated members in alternate spaces between said plates,

second corrugated members in the remaining spaces between said plates,

said first corrugated members between alternate plates having their passages extending axially,

said second corrugated members between the other plates having their passages extending generally radially,

said means for directing the exhaust gases communieating with said axial passages formed by said corrugations of said first members,

and said means for directing flow of air communicating with the radial passages formed by the corrugations of said second members in a counterflow generally sinuous path.

5. A gas turbine engine comprising a compressor having an impeller,

said compressor having a radial outlet,

a turbine having a rotor mounted for rotation about the same axis as the impeller,

said turbine having an axial inlet,

a burner aligned with said axis,

said turbine rotor being positioned between said impeller and said burner,

means for directing the products of combustion from said burner in a path substantially annular in cross section axially to said turbine,

means between the compressor and turbine rotor for thereafter reversing the flow of said exhaust gases in a reverse axial path,

counterflow heat exchange means spaced radially outwardly from and surrounding said turbine and spaced axially with respect to said compressor for receiving the exhaust gases from said last mentioned means,

said heat exchange means comprising a plurality of axial passageways communicating with said means for reversing the exhaust gases,

means surrounding said heat exchange means defining a substantially annular path for directing air directly from said compressor axially away from the compressor,

said heat exchange means including means for receiving air from said last-mentioned annular path defining means and directing it through said heat exchange means in counterflow heat exchange relationship to said axial exhaust gas passageways,

and means for receiving air from said heat exchange means and thereafter directing air from said heat exchange means radially inwardly and thereafter axially to said burner.

6. The combination set forth in claim 5 wherein said heat exchange means comprises a plurality of longitudinally spaced plates,

first corrugated members in alternate spaces between said plates,

second corrugated members in the remaining spaces between said plates,

said first corrugated members between alternate plates having their passages extending axially to define said exhaust passageways,

said second corrugated members between the other plates having their ends closed and their passages extending generally axially and terminating short of the ends so that they communicate with air from said compressor and said burner to define air directing passages for receiving air from said air directing means at one end of said heat exchange means and for delivering air at the other end to said air directing means for directing air to said burner.

7. The combination set forth in claim 5 wherein said heat exchange means comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced units,

each said unit having longitudinally extending axial passages communicating with the turbine whereby the exhaust gases may pass therethrough,

and a plurality of longitudinally extending axial air passages in heat exchange relationship to said lastmentioned passages.

8. The combination set forth in claim 5 wherein said means for directing a stream of air in heat exchange relationship to the axial exhaust path and said means for directing the exhaust gases in an axial exhaust passageway comprise a plurality of circumferentially spaced units,

each said unit comprising a plurality of spaced generally radially extending plates,

first corrugated members in alternate spaces between erally sinuous path.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2721445 *Dec 22, 1949Oct 25, 1955James V GilibertyAircraft propulsion plant of the propeller-jet turbine type
US3118278 *Jun 26, 1959Jan 21, 1964 Gas turbine power plant
US3507115 *Jul 28, 1967Apr 21, 1970Int Harvester CoRecuperative heat exchanger for gas turbines
US3613782 *Aug 27, 1969Oct 19, 1971Garrett CorpCounterflow heat exchanger
FR1242634A * Title not available
GB838832A * Title not available
IT420872A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4213297 *Oct 3, 1978Jul 22, 1980Kernforschungsanlage Julich Gesellschaft Mit Beschrankter HaftungVehicular propulsion gas turbine motor
US4527622 *Aug 5, 1982Jul 9, 1985Klockner-Humboldt-Deutz AktiengesellschaftRing-shaped recuperative heat exchanger
US4993223 *Sep 11, 1989Feb 19, 1991Allied-Signal Inc.Annular recuperator
US5050668 *Aug 29, 1990Sep 24, 1991Allied-Signal Inc.Stress relief for an annular recuperator
US5060721 *May 29, 1990Oct 29, 1991Solar Turbines IncorporatedCircular heat exchanger
US5081834 *May 29, 1990Jan 21, 1992Solar Turbines IncorporatedCircular heat exchanger having uniform cross-sectional area throughout the passages therein
US5105617 *Nov 9, 1990Apr 21, 1992Tiernay TurbinesCogeneration system with recuperated gas turbine engine
US5855112 *Aug 2, 1996Jan 5, 1999Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaGas turbine engine with recuperator
US6293338Nov 4, 1999Sep 25, 2001Williams International Co. L.L.C.Gas turbine engine recuperator
US6357113Nov 4, 1999Mar 19, 2002Williams International Co., L.L.C.Method of manufacture of a gas turbine engine recuperator
US6935416Dec 20, 2001Aug 30, 2005Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaHeat exchanger
US6951110Sep 27, 2001Oct 4, 2005Capstone Turbine CorporationAnnular recuperator design
US7065873Aug 12, 2004Jun 27, 2006Capstone Turbine CorporationRecuperator assembly and procedures
US7147050Aug 12, 2004Dec 12, 2006Capstone Turbine CorporationRecuperator construction for a gas turbine engine
US7185483 *Jan 21, 2003Mar 6, 2007General Electric CompanyMethods and apparatus for exchanging heat
US7415764Jan 20, 2006Aug 26, 2008Capstone Turbine CorporationRecuperator assembly and procedures
DE2744899A1 *Oct 6, 1977Apr 12, 1979Kernforschungsanlage JuelichGasturbinenanlage fuer den antrieb von fahrzeugen
EP0071781A1 *Jul 13, 1982Feb 16, 1983Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz AktiengesellschaftAnnular recuperative heat exchanger
EP0320948A1 *Dec 15, 1988Jun 21, 1989Bayerische Motoren Werke AktiengesellschaftGas turbine plant
EP0796986A1 *Aug 2, 1996Sep 24, 1997Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki KaishaGas-turbine engine
WO2002039045A2 *Oct 30, 2001May 16, 2002Capstone Turbine CorpAnnular recuperator
WO2002052214A1 *Dec 20, 2001Jul 4, 2002Honda Motor Co LtdHeat exchanger
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/39.511, 165/166
International ClassificationF02C7/08, F28D9/00
Cooperative ClassificationF02C7/08, F28D9/0018
European ClassificationF02C7/08, F28D9/00D2