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Publication numberUS3832608 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 27, 1974
Filing dateSep 18, 1973
Priority dateSep 18, 1973
Publication numberUS 3832608 A, US 3832608A, US-A-3832608, US3832608 A, US3832608A
InventorsMills M
Original AssigneeMills M
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electromagnetic motors and process of their operation
US 3832608 A
Abstract
Electromagnetic reciprocating piston motors operate at wide speed range without changing direction of magnetic flux through the pistons and while positively maintaining the direction of flux in the pistons and while commutating triggering current to selected solenoid coils at low voltage.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Mills 1451 Aug. 27, 1974 [54] ELECTROMAGNETIC MOTORS AND 2,486,948 11/ 1949 Hinchman 310/34 PROCESS OF THEIR OPERATION 3,172,027 3/1965 Bourke et a]. 318/37 3,215,916 11/1965 Hermann 318/129 X [76] Inventor: Marvin s, BOX Stmnett, 3,328,656 6/1967 Dotson 318/37 Tex. 79083 3,454,957 7/1969 Chaplenko 318/132 X Filed: Sept. 1973 3,676,719 7/1972 Pecci 310/24 [21] Appl. No.: 398,389 Primary Examiner-D. F. Duggan Attorney, Agent, or Firm-E1y Silverman 52 US. Cl 318/37 310/24, 310/35,

[ 1 318/134 57 ABSTRACT [51] Int. Cl. H02k 33/00 Electromagnetic reciprocating piston motors operate [58] Field of Search 318/37, 38, 119-134; at wide speed range without changing direction of I 310/24, 39, 35, 23, 30 magnetic flux through the pistons and while positively maintaining the direction of flux in the pistons and [56] References Cited while commutating triggering current to selected sole- UNITED STATES PATENTS noid coils at low voltage.

5 Clairm, 15 Drawing Figures 458,872 9/1891 Van De Poele.'. 310/30 3.832.808 "sum 20F 1 Pmmmmzm u 0 w J J 5 4 mgmgmuszmn 3, 3,50

sum nan ELECTROMAGNETIC MOTORS AND PROCESS OF THEIR OPERATION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:

'ilTiE FieIdEfthe Invention I The field of art to which this invention pertains is dynamo electric motors of solenoid and coil type with reciprocating elements and plural cores.

2. Description of the Prior Art Conversion of electric energy to mechanical motion has heretofore utilized electromagnetic forces developed by electrical currents acting on electromagnetically susceptible masses that moved in alternating direction through portions of elongated electromagnetic fields transversely to the magnetic field direction and while reversing magnetic characteristics of the moving element; such reversals and paths developed eddy currents which wasted potential electric energy as heat and utilized attentuated magnetomotive forces and in commutation developed undesirable gases and arcing.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An array of radially and longitudinally distinct series of shielded solenoid coils surround an electromagnetically susceptible movable piston and a timer assembly for sequential selective actuation of portions of the coils responsive to the position of a piston relative thereto provide for moving the center of a magnetic field relative to the movable piston while positively maintaining the direction of a magnetization of the piston. Such process and structures avoid creation of eddy currents and long magnetic paths through a moving element transverse to its direction of movement and reciprocate a piston without detectable heat development and utilize a transistorized trigger current for large amperage solenoid actuating currents which avoids gas formation and arcing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS:

FIG. 1 is a transverse vertical section of an embodiment 20 according to this invention.

FIG. 2 is a broken away diagrammatic view of the coil form and piston assembly 30 of apparatus 20.

FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic perspective view of the timer shaft 24 and related parts connected'thereto in zone 3A of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is'a diagrammatic enlarged view of the commutator wheel of zone 4A of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a schematic wiring diagram of the electrical connections of apparatus 20.

FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of the position of center of piston body 31 relative to coils 41-43 and the magnetic condition of those solenoid coils during several different stages in cycle of operation of the apparatus 20.

FIG. 7 is a side view of another embodiment, 120, of

apparatus according to this invention, with two coil forms operating together.

FIG. 8 is a front oblique view along direction of arrow 8A of FIG. 7. FIGS. 7, 8 and are pictorial.

FIG. 9 is a broken away perspective enlarged view of zone 9A of FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is a front view of apparatus 120 along direction of arrow 10A of FIG. 9.

FIG. 11 is a schematic wiring diagram of electrical connections of apparatus 120.

FIG. 12 is a diagrammatic illustration of the position of the center of piston bodies 131 and 231 relative to coils 141-143 and 241-243 and relative to each other and the magnetic condition to those coils during the several different stages in the cycle of operation of apparatus 120.

FIG. 13 is a schematic wiring diagram of electrical connection of apparatus of embodiment 320.

FIG. 14 is a diagrammatic illustration of the position of center of pistons 331, 431 and 531 relative to coils 341-343, 441-443 and 541-543 and relative to each other and the magnetic condition of those coils during the several different stages in the cycle of operation of apparatus 320. I

FIG. 15 is a broken away and diagrammatic overall view of components of a three coil form and piston assembly embodiment, 320, of this invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT:

The embodiments illustrated and described herein are a single piston model 20, a two piston model 120, and a three piston model 320.

Each embodiment, as 20, comprises a coil form and piston assembly in cooperative combination with crank wheel and timer assembly. The embodiment 20 comprises a coil form 30 comprising an array of a plurality of distinct longitudinally and radially extending solenoid coils and a central longitudinally elongated movable magnetizable piston 31 within the coil form. The crank and timer assembly 22 comprises a crank 29 attached to the piston of the coil form and piston assembly, a timer shaft 24 connected to thevcrank wheel and turned thereby, and a transistorized electrical circuit connecting a battery 50 through the commutator elements on the timer shaft to different coils in the coil form in a predetermined sequence.

Apparatus model 20 comprises a rigid shell frame 21 on which is supported a coil form and piston assembly 30 and a crank wheel and timer assembly 22, and electrical circuit assembly 70.

The frame 21 is a rigid hollow shell; as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, there is located therein a coil form and piston assembly 30, journal bases 23A and 23B, crank and timer shaft 24 and electrical circuit assembly 70. The journals rotatably support and locate the crank and timer shaft 24. The timer shaft 24 is a rigid cylindrical rod that supports an input brush tube 25 and an electrically conductive semicylindrical brush plate portions and non-conductive portion and a heavy flywheel 28. Fly wheel 28 is located at the end of the shaft 24 laterally of the support of such shaft in journal 23A.

Piston assembly 30 comprises, in operative combination, a coil form 33, and related solenoid coils 41 48 and rods and a rigid cylindrical movable solid cylindrical rod 31 made of magnetizable material such as steel. A sleeve 32 made of rigid non-magnetic plastic material smoothly and slidably fits over the rod 31: sleeve 32 fonns the interior boundary of a coil form or body 33 wherein are located power solenoid windings 41-43, insulator 35, suppressor windings and suppressor rod assemblies 37, 45 and 49.

The power winding 34 is a series of co-axial annuar longitudinally elongated radially flattened solenoid rings which series comprises a top power solenoid coil 41 and a bottom power solenoid coil 43, each of like size and shape and interior construction (size, length and density of wire) and an intermediate power coil 42 of the same internal and external diameter as coils 41 and 42 but substantially lesser length. Each of the coils 41 and 43 has an interior surface immediately in contact with and surrounding sleeve 32 and an exterior surface in contact with a cylindrical insulator sleeve 35 co-axial with sleeve 32. The cylindrical insulator sleeve 35 on the periphery of the power winding 34 separates the power winding coils from a suppressor winding assembly 36. The suppressor winding assembly 36 comprises a top suppressor solenoid winding or coil 46, a bottom suppressor solenoid winding or coil 48 and an intermediate suppressor solenoid winding or coil 48 and an intermediate suppressor solenoid winding or coil 47 therebetween. The coils 46 and 48 have the same size, shape and interior construction (size and length and density of wire) as each other and the same interior and exterior diameter, while the intermediate suppressor coil 47 has a lesser length than 46 or 48 but the same interior and exterior diameter. All of the coils 46, 48, 41 and 42 have the same length. Coils 42 and 47 have the same lengths as each other.

' Rings of suppressor rods are composed of a plurality of like suppressor rods 91-99, each firmly located on the periphery of the suppressor coils. The suppressor rods are readily magnetized solid cylindrical rods of the same length as the adjacent suppressor coils and-are all of the same shape and size with one, top row of such rods, 45, arrayed adjacent to the top suppressor winding 46 and another row 37 arrayed adjacent to the middle suppressor winding and a third row, 49 arrayed adjacent and peripheral to the bottom suppressor winding 48.

The piston assembly 30 comprises a piston body 31 which is slidably located in sleeve 32. A rigid, electromagnetically insulating piston shaft 38 is coaxial with and rigidly attached to the piston body 31 and a rigid non-magnetic connecting arm 39 is pivotally connected to a rigid crank arm 29 which is firmly connected to the shaft 24 and extends radially thereof as shown in FIG. 1. Piston body 31 is made of magnetic material such as iron that is readily magnetized.

The electrical control assembly 70 comprises a group of control resistors 51-60, some of which are adjustable as shown, surge resistors 61-65, NPN transistors 71-75, commutator assembly 80, fuses 81-85, and a 12 volt battery 50 connected as shown in FIG. to control the time relations of actuation of the solenoid coils 41-48 and movement of piston body 31, as shown in FIG. 6. Such assembly 70 is responsive to the position of piston body 31 relative to the power and suppressor windings as below described.

Voltage divider resistors 51 and 53 and a speed control resistor 52 are connected to a power source, a battery 50 and transistor 75. The transistors 75, 71, 72, 73 and 74 provide for low voltage control of the switching of power to the windings 41-48 and prevent any arcing and development of ozone. The sequential control at commutator 80 determining which of the coils 41-48 are activated at any moment is at a very low voltage across the contacts (brushes 77, 78, and 79 to plates 27, and 26, respectively) and a very low amperage, and the transistors 71-75 are biased by the resistors therefor (56-60 respectively as shown in FIG. 5) to operate in either cut-off or saturated condition. Accordingly, large current flows are developed through coils 41-48 and are controlled without sparking or development of ozone of other noxious fumes, which is of great importance in electrical cars and other enclosures for humans.

The rigid timer and crank shaft 24 is rotatably supported in the journals 23A and 23B of shell 21 and the connecting arm 38 engages the crank arm portion 29 and turns the shaft 24 when the piston body 31 moves longitudinally of the piston sleeve 32. Shaft 24 firmly supports circular top coil brush plates 27 and bottom coil brush plate 26 thereon and also an electrically conductive input sleeve 25 are co-axial to shaft 24 and journals 23A and 23B. Bottom brush plate 26 comprises a rigid circular disc 66 with an electrically conductive center portion that reaches to the periphery thereof from the center thereof whereat it attaches to input sleeve 25 and has an electrically insulating arcuate edge portion 87 for of the 360 of its periphery. Top brush coil 27 comprises a rigid circular plate 67 with an electrically conductive center portion that reaches to the periphery thereof from the center thereof where it attaches to the electrically conductive input sleeve 25, and has an electrically insulating edge 87 for 190 of the 360 of its periphery. The peripheral conductive edges of plates 27 and 26 are arrayed as shown functionally and diagrammatically in FIG. 5 and also shown in FIG. 3. Thereby the brushes 77 and 79 serve to energize the transistors as 71 (and 73) and 72 (and 74) for coils 41 and 46 and for coils 43 and 48, respectively, at the proper time in the movement of piston body 31 as shown in FIG. 6 andbelow discussed.

In operation, when switch 50S is closed, piston 31 moves longitudinally of the axis of the sleeve 32 and for purpose of this description, upward and downward as shown in FIGS. 1, 3, and 6. At the instant when the piston body 31, after upward travel as below described reaches to one-eighth inch (in the particular embodiment shown) of its upward limit of travel, which most upward position is illustrated as position 31T of FIGS. 6, l and 2, the top power and suppressor coils'41 and 46 are turned off by movement of the brush plate 27 relative to the fixed position of brush 77 therewith, to a position whereat the base current to transistors 71 (and 73, if used) is cut off and, at such time, as shown in FIG. 6, the bottom coils 43 and 48 are also then cut off or disconnected. Piston 31 therefor travels upward slightly further and then continues on a downward stroke; when the piston body is one-eighth inch down from its most upward point of travel the brush plate 26 is moved relative to the fixed central brush 79 so that the base of transistor 72 is operatively connected to the voltage source 50 and the bottom coils 43 and 48 are connected to the electrical power source and connection of coils 43 and 48 continues on until the piston body 31 is within one-eighth inch of its lowest point of downward travel, shown as 31B in FIG. 6.

Thereafter as switch 50S continues closed, piston 31 travels upward, shaft 24 and brush plate 27 rotate and the top suppressor and power coils 41 and 46 are then turned on and continue connected until the piston body 31 again reaches one-eighth inch from its uppermost position. FIG. 6 shows in the vertical axis the vertical position of the middle of the piston body 31 relative to the center of the coil 42 to show the movement of piston body 31 with respect to time of operation in the cycle of operation of piston body 31, the time being shown in the horizontal axis of FIG. 6. The periods of closed position of electrical circuit including top coils 41 and 46 is shown in the repeated periods of each cycle co-extensive with the length of each portion of time shown as solid lines and TC and TC of FIG. 6. The periods of closed position of electrical circuit of apparatus 20 including the bottom coils 43 and 48 due to electrical circuit through brush plate 26 is shown for the repeated periods of each cycle co-extensive with the length of each portion of time shown in solid lines BC and BC in FIG. 6. It should be noted that the circuit to middle coils 42 and 47 are closed at all times during the cycle of operation of apparatus 20 as shown by the period of time shown by the solid line MC in FIG. 6. The coils 41 and 46 are disconnected from power source after about 60 of movement of total cycle of operation in a total of 360 and also 60 before the starting point of piston body 31 at its center position 31C of FIG. 6; coils 43 and 48 are connected with the power source between 120 and 240 of movement from the starting point 31C in a 360 total cycle of operation.

The brushes as 77 and 79 for each set of coils as 41 and 46 and 43 and 48 are located in operative electrical connection with the commutator switching shaft 24 with each of the two brushes for the piston 33 180 apart from each other about axis or shaft 24 as shown in FIGS. 3 and 5. j v

In operation of apparatus 20, the suppressor windings 46, 47, and 48 enclose the power windings 41, 42, and 43 and the field of the outer windings 46 and 48 reinforces the fields of those power windings and thereby concentrate the force of the electromagnetic field. of the power windings along the central longitudinal axis of the cylindrical piston body 31. This action of the suppressor coil and the power coil increase the electromagnetic field force on the piston body 31.

The small distance between each movable piston body 31 and winding 34 and the large area of surface therebetween provides a low resistance to magnetic flux and utilizes the full force of magnetic field developed by coils 41-43 and 46-48.

The intermediate coil 42 maintains the direction of magnetization of the piston 31 "during the time that coils 41 and 43 adjacent to the coil 42 are disconnected and especially during the period of operation of the parts of coil form 33 when the circuits through coils 41 and 42 are being opened. Coils 42 and 47 prevent flyback phenomenon wherein the magnetic characteristics of the piston change in response to the collapse of the magnetic field in an adjacent coil, as 41 or 43, due to disconnection of the electric power supply to such coils. Coils 42 and 47 thereby provide for a smooth movement of piston body 31 and avoids acceleration due to inertial reaction of the piston body 31, because the suppressor rods in zone 37 increase the inductance of suppressor coil 47 and provide for gradual rather than sudden changes in magnetic forces between moving piston body 31 and coils 41, 43, 46 and 48.

The intermediate coil windings as 42 and 47 have the same length parallel to sleeve 32 as the power coils. However, each of the coils 42 and 47 is composed of smaller diameter wire than 41 or 43 and have four times the electrical resistance of the adjacent power coils. The field coils 42 and 47 keep the piston 31 elec- Each suppressor coils as 46, 47 and 48 is surrounded by the suppressor rods as 91-99 of the same length as such suppressor coils. Each suppressor road is electrically insulated around its periphery and is firmly held in place with its central longitudinal axis parallel to the central longitudinal axis of the suppressor coil and sleeve 32. The suppressor rods serve to limit the peripheral radiation of the electromagnetic field of the suppressor coils 46, 47, and 48. The magnetic suppressor rods as 91-99 keep the field from rapidly forming or collapsing and also add the magnetic field strength of such rods alternatively to the field of the power coils as 41 and 43.

In the operation of apparatus 20, the direction of magnetization of the piston body 31 does not change, notwithstanding the reciprocatory movement of the piston relative to the coils 4143 and the sleeve 32.

Surge resistors 61, 62, 63, 64 and 65 provide for protection of NPN transistors 71, 73, 75, 72 and 74. Fuses 81, 82, 83, 84 and also serve to protect those transistors in conventional manner. In an alternative method of operation, the transistors 73 and 74 and resistors 62, 65, 57 and 60 may be eliminated with the conductors shown in dashed lines in FIG. 5 and fuses 82 and 85.

Embodiment comprises two coil form and piston assemblies and 230 in cooperative combination with crank wheel and timer assembly 122 and a rigid wooden plate or frame 121 on which are supported the coil form and piston assemblies 130 and 230, crank wheel and timer assembly 122, and electrical circuit assembly 170. Each coil form and piston assembly comprises a like array of a plurality of distinct longitudinally and radially extending solenoid coils and a central longitudinally elongated movable magnetizable piston 131 and 231 within the coil forms 130 and 230, respectively. The crank and timer assembly 122 comprises crank wheels 129 and 229 operatively attached to the pistons of the coil form and piston assemblies 130 and 230, respectively, a timer shaft 124 connected to the crank wheels and turned thereby, and a transistorized electrical circuit 170 connecting a battery 150 through the commutator elements on the timer shaft to different coils in the coilforms in a predetermined sequence.

The frame 121 is a rigid flat plate as shown in FIGS. 7, 8, and 10. There is located thereon coil form and piston assemblies 130 and 230, journal bases 123A and 1238, crank and timer shaft 124 and electrical circuit assembly 170. The journals of bases 123A and 123B rotatably support and locate the crank and timer shaft 124. The timer shaft 124 is a rigid cylindrical rod that supports and electrically isolates electrically conductive semicylindrical brush plates 111, 112, 113, 114 and 115 and a heavy flywheel 128. Flywheel 128 is located on the shaft 124 centrally of the support of such shaft in journals 123A and 123B.

Piston assemblies 130 and 230 each comprise, in operative combination, a coil form 133 and 233, respectively, and related solenoid coils as 141-148 and rods and a rigid cylindrical movable solid cylindrical rod 131 and 231 made of magnetizable material such as steel. Sleeves 132 and 232 made of rigid non-magnetic plastic material 132 smoothly and slidably fit over, respectively, rods 131 and 231; sleeves 132 and 232 form the interior boundary of coil forms or bodies 133 and 233 wherein are located power solenoid windings as g 141, 143 and 241, 243, insulator 135 and 235, supressor windings 136 and 236 and supressor rods assemblies 137, 145, 149 in assembly 130 and 237, 245 and 249 in assembly 230.

The coil form and piston assemblies 130 and 230 and 30 are identical in size and construction and operation except as below set out. Accordingly the description given for parts of assembly 30 and the operation thereof are directly applicable to the parts of assemblies 130 and 230. For purpose of clarity the parts of coil form and piston assemblies 130 and 230 are given reference characters identical to the components of coil form and piston assembly 30 except that the parts of coil form and piston assemblies 130 and 230 are given referent numbers 100 and 200 digits higher respectively than for the same components of assembly 30; e.g., piston body 31 of assembly 30 is identical in structure and function to piston body 131 and 231 of assemblies 130 and 230 respectively.

The piston assemblies 130 and 230 comprise piston bodies 131 and 231 which are respectively slidably located in sleeves 132 and 232. Rigid, electromagnetically insulating piston shafts 138 and 238 are coaxial with and rigidly attached to the piston bodies 131 and 231. Rigid non-magnetic connecting arms 139 and 239 respectively pivotally connect to rigid crank wheels 129 and 229 which are respectively firmly connected to the shaft 124 and extend radially thereof as shown in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9. Piston bodies 131 and 132 are made of magnetic material such as iron that is readily magnetized as is 31.

The electrical control assembly 170 comprises a group of control resistors 152, 156, 157, 256, 257 some of which are adjustable as shown, NPN transistors 171, 172, 271, 272, commutator assembly 180, and a 12 volt battery 150 connected as shown in FIG. 11 to control the time relations of actuation of the solenoid coils 141, 142, 143, 146, 147, 148, 241, 242, 243, 246, 247 and 248 and movement of piston bodies 131 and 231 as shown in FIG. 12. Such assembly 170 is responsive to the position of piston bodies 131 and 231 relative to the power and supressor windings as above described for assembly 70 and below described.

A voltage divider resistor 151 and a speed control resistor 152 are connected to a power source, a battery l50'and transistors. Those transistors 171, 172, 271 and 272 provide for low voltage control of the switching of power to the windings 141, 142, 143, 146, 147, 148, 241, 242, 243, 246, 247 and 248 and prevent any arcing and development of ozone. The sequential control at commutator 180 determining which of the power and suppressor coils are activated at any moment is at a very low voltage across the contacts (brushes 177, 277, 179 and 279 to brush plates 114, 113, 112 and 111, respectively) and a very low amperage, and the transistors 171, 172, 271, and 272 are biased by the resistors therefor (156, 157, 256, 257 respectively as shown in FIG. 11) to operate in either cutoff or saturated condition. Accordingly, large current flows are developed through coils 141, 142, 143, 146, 147, 148 and 241, 242, 243, 246, 247 and 248 and are controlled without sparking or development of ozone or other noxious fumes.

The rigid timer and crank shaft 124 is rotatably supported in the journals 123A and 1238 of frame 121 and the connecting arms 138 and 238 engage the crank wheel portion 129 and 229 and turn the shaft 124 when the piston bodies 131 and 231 move longitudinally of the piston sleeves 132 and 232. The shaft 124 firmly supports semi-circular top coil brush plates 114 and 113 and bottom coil brush plates 112 and 114 thereon and also a circular electrically conductive input ring or sleeve 115, all coaxial to shaft 124 and journals 123A and 12313. The brush plates 111-114 are connected by a conductive wire 116 to the ring or sleeve as shown in FIG. 9. FIG. 11 shows brush 177 connected to its conductive brush plate portion (114) and electrically connected to line 116, which is, as shown in FIG. 9, connected to ring 115.

The peripheral conductive edges of plates 111-115 are arrayed as shown functionally and diagrammatically in FIGS. 9 and 11. Thereby the brushes (a) 117 and (b) 179 and (c) 277 and (d) 279 serve to energize the transistors as (a) 171 and (b) 172 and (c) 271 and (d) 272 respectively for coils (a) 141 and 146 and (b) coils 143 and 148 and (c) coils 241 and 246 and (d) coils 243 and 248, respectively, at the proper time in the movement of piston bodies 131 and 231 as shown in FIG. 12 and below discussed.

In operation of apparatus embodiment 120, when switch 150$ is closed, pistons 131 and 231 move longitudinally of the axis of their sleeves 132 and 232 for purpose of this description, upward and downward as shown in FIG. 12. At the instant when thepiston body 131', after upward travel as below described reaches to one-eighth inch (in the particular embodiment shown) of upward limit of travel, which most upward position is illustrated as position 131T of FIG. 12, the top power and suppressor coils 141 and 146 are turned off by movement of the brush plate 114 relative to the fixed position of brush 177 therewith, to a position-whereat the base current to transistor 171 is cut off and, at such time, as shown in FIG. 12, the bottom coils 143 and 148 are also then cut off or disconnected. Piston 131 thereafter travels upward slightly further and then con-' tinues on a downward stroke; when the piston body is one-eighth inch down from its most upward point of travel the brush plate 112 is moved relative to the fixed brush 179 so that the base of transistor 172 is operatively connected to the voltage source 150 and the bottom coils 143 and 148 are connected to the electrical power source and connection of coils 143 and 148 continues on until the piston body 131 is within one-eighth inch of its maximum lowest point of downward travel, shown as 131B in FIG. 12.

Thereafter as switch 150$ continues closed, piston 131 travels upward, shaft 124 and brush plate 112 rotate and the top suppressor and power coils 141 and 146 are then turned on and continue connected until the piston body 131 again reaches one-eighth inch from its uppermost position. FIG. 12 shows in the vertical axis the vertical position of the middle of the piston body 131 relative to the center of the coil 142 to show the movement of piston body 131 with respect to time of operation in the cycle of operation of piston body 131, the time being shown in the horizontal axis of FIG. 12. The periods of closed position of electrical circuit including top coils 141 and 146 is shown in the repeated periods of each cycle co-extensive with the length of each portion of time shown as solid lines and 1TC and lTC of FIG. 12. The periods of closed position of electrical circuit of apparatus including the bottom coils 143 and 148 due to electrical circuit through brush plate 112 is shown for the repeated periods of each cycle coextensive with the length of each portion of time shown in solid lines lBC and 18C in FIG. 12. It should be noted that the circuit to middle coils 142 and 147 are closed at all times during the cycle of operation of apparatus 120 as shown by the period of time shown by the solid line lMC in FIG. 12. The coils 141 and 146 are disconnected from power source after about 60 of movement of total cycle of operation in a total of 360 and 60 before the starting point of piston body 131 at center position 131C of FIG. 12; coils 143 and 148 are connected with the power source between 120 and 240 of movement from the starting point 131C in a 360 total cycle of operation.

The plate brushes as (a) 114 and (b) 112 for each set of coils as (a) 141 and 146 and (b) 143 and 148 are located in operative electrical connection with the commutator switching shaft 24 with each of the two brushes for the commonpiston (131) 180 apart from each other about axis of shaft 124 as shown in FIG. 9.

When using two cylinders as 130 and 230, the second cylinder as 230 is timed so that the second cylinder moves one-fourth cycle behind the first cylinder, as shown in FIG. 12. This apparatus 120 accordingly provides that in the operation of apparatus of 120 when switch 1508 is closed, piston 231 also moves longitudinally of the axis of the sleeve 232 and for purpose of this description, upward and downward as shown in FIG. 12. At the instant when the piston body 231, after upward travel as below described reaches to one-eighth inch (in the particular embodiment shown) of its upward limit of travel, which most upward position is illustrated as position 231T of FIG. 12, the top power and suppressor coils 241 and 246 are turned off by movement of the brush plate 113 relative to the fixed position of brush 277 therewith, to a position whereat the base current to transistors 271 is cut off and, at such time, as shown in FIG. 12, the bottom coils 243 and 248 are also then cut off or disconnected. Piston 231 thereafter travels upward slightly further and then continues on a downward stroke; when the piston body is one-eighth inch down from its most upward point of travel the brush plate 111 is moved relative to the fixed brush 279 so that the base of transistor 272 is operatively connected to the electrical power source and connection of coils 243 and 248 continues on until the piston body 231 is within one-eighth of its maximum lowest point of downward travel, shown as 231B in FIG. 12.

Thereafter as switch 1508 continues closed, piston 231 travels upward, shaft 124 and brush plate 111 rotate and the top suppressor and power coils 241 and 246 are then turned on and continue connected until the piston body 231 again reaches one-eighth from its uppermost position. FIG. 12 shows in the vertical axis the vertical position of the middle of the piston body 231 relative to the center of the coil 242 to show the movement of piston body 231 with respect to time of operation in the cycle of operation of piston body 231, the time being shown in the horizontal axis of FIG. 12. The periods of closed position of electrical circuit including top coils 241 and 246 is shown in the repeated periods of each cycle co-extensive with the length of each portion of time shown as solid lines and 2TC and 2TC of FIG. 12. The periods of closed position of electrical circuit of apparatus 120 including the bottom coils 243 and 248 due to electrical circuit through brush plate 111 is shown for the repeated periods of each cycle co-extensive with the length of each portion of time shown in solid lines 2BC and 28C in FIG. 12. It should be noted that the circuit to middle coils 242 and 247 are closed at all times during the cycle of operation of apparatus 120 as shown by the period of time shown by the solid line 2MC in FIG. 12. The coils 241 and 246 are disconnected from power source after about of movement of total cycle of operation in a total of 360 and also 60 before the starting point of piston body 231 at center position 231C of FIG. 12; coils 243 and 248 are connected with the power source between and 240 of movement from the starting point 231C in a 360 total cycle of operation.

The brushes for each set of coils as 241 and 246 and 243 and 248 are located in operative electrical connection with the commutator switching shaft 124 with each of the two brushes for such one piston 180 apart from each other about axis of shaft 24 as shown in FIG. 9.

Embodiment 320 comprises three like coil form and piston assemblies 330, 430, 530 and 230 in cooperative combination with crank wheel and timer assembly 322 and a rigid frame as 321 on which are supported the coil form and piston assemblies 330, 430 and 530, crank wheel and timer assembly 322, and electrical circuit assembly 370. Each coil form and piston assembly comprises a like array of a plurality of distinct'longitudinally and radially extending solenoid coils and a central longitudinally elongated movable magnetizable piston 331 and 431 and 531 within the coil forms 330 and 430 and 530, respectively. The crank and timer assembly 322 comprises a crank shaft attached to the pistons of the coil form and piston assemblies 330 and 430 and 530, a timer shaft 324 connected to the crank wheels and turned thereby, and a transisterized electrical circuit 370 connecting a battery 350 through the commutator elements on the timer shaft to different coils in the coil forms in a predetermined sequence.

The coil form and piston assemblies 330 and 430, 530 and 30 are identical in size and construction and operation except as below set out. Accordingly the description given for parts of assembly 30 and the operation thereof are directly applicable to the parts of assemblies 330 and 430 and 530. For purpose of clarity the parts of coil form and piston assemblies 330, 430 and 530 are given reference characters identical to the components of coil form and piston assembly 30 except that the parts of coil form and piston assemblies 330, 430 and 530 are given referent numbers 300, 400 and 500 digits higher respectively than for the same components of assembly 30.

The electrical control assembly 370 comprises a group of control resistors 352, 356, 357, 456, 457, 552, 556 some of which are adjustable as shown, NPN transistors, commutator assembly 380, and a 12 volt battery connected as shown in FIG. 13 to control the time relations of actuation of the solenoid coils 341, 342, 343, 346, 347, 348, 441, 442, 443, 446, 447, and 448, 541, 542, 543, 546, 547, and 548 and movement of piston bodies 331 and 431 and 531 as shown in FIG. 14. Such assembly 370 is responsive to the position of piston bodies 331 and 431 and 531 relative to the power and suppressor windings as above described for assemblies 70 and and below described.

As the operation of each of separate assemblies 330, 430 and 530 correspond to assembly 30 in structure and function and to separate assemblies 130 and 230 in FIG. 14, the symbols (a) 331T, 431T and 531T; (b) 331B, 431B and 53113; (c) 3TC, 4TC and STC; (d) 3BC, 43C and SEC; (e) 3MC, 4MC and SMC; respectively correspond to the meaning of (a) 131T and 231T; (b) 131B and 2313; (c) ITC and 2TC; (d) lBC and 28C; and (e) IMC and 2MC of FIG. 12 above discussed for apparatus 120.

When using three cylinders as 331 and 430 and 530, the second cylinder as 430 is timed so that the second cylinder moves one-third cycle behind the first cylinder 330 as shown in FIG. 14 and the third cylinder 530 moves one-third cycle behind the second cylinder 430 as shown in FIG. 14 and FIG. 15.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF APPARATUS In a particular embodiment of apparatus 120, the piston 131 (like 31) outside diameter is one-half inch; and piston 31 (or 131) is 3 inches long; the power winding 141 (like 41) is 2 inches and 3.0 ohms DC resistance; the suppressor winding is 6 ohms DC resistance; the damping coil 42 (or 142 and 242) is 1 inch long, has l /z ohms DC resistance, while suppressor coil 147 (like 47 and 247) has 3 ohms DC. The transistors 171, 172, 271, 272 are GE 14.

With a battery 150 of 12 volt to 3 volt, the stroke of piston 131 is 2 inches. The coil form 33 (133 in embodiment) 120) is inches in length.

The power coils are 2 inches long each and the field coils one-half the length of the power coil; the piston length is the length of the power coil plus the length of the field coil.

The piston diameter is determined by the pressure required. The apparatus 120 operates smoothly at 3 to 1500 rpm. depending upon the resistance adjustment at resistor 152. The suppressor rods are one-fourth inch diameter magnetic material as steel;the sleeve 32 is made of non-magnetic material as brass, copper, aluminum or plastic. (The term field coil is the same as intermediate coil.) The field coil windings are the same internal diameter as the power coils except for use of smaller wire and the DC. resistance of the field coil should be approximately 4 times the power coil resistance (6 ohms approximately for the field coil where power coil is 1.5 ohms resistance.) The sleeve 32 has an internal diameter that it only a few thousandths of an inch larger than the outside diameter of the piston body as 31 (or 131 or 231) to allow for free (relatively), frictionless sliding therebetween; the length of sleeve 32 (and 132 and 232) is equal to length of both power coils plus field coil length plug one-half inch. The size of wire in the power and other coils in assembly 130 is determined by the amount of current to be used with larger wire used for less heating; e.g. at 12 volts DC. the magnetizing pressure per ampere is 1.5 to 2.4 pounds depending on precision of winding of power coils. Generally 12 lbs. of pressure are provided for 8 amperes with a l2 volt battery 150 in apparatus 120. 5 amperes is usually the greatest flow in any winding and power windings are connected about 50 per cent of the time. 12 volt operation provide about 30 watts per cylinder as 30 or 130 while 30 volt operation provides 70 watts per cylinder. For higher powered cylinder, increase size of piston, wires, stroke, etc.

In the intermediate coil, the power winding has a resistance of 16 ohms using number 6 wire and suppressor winding D.C. resistance is 22 ohms using number 28 wire.

A feature of the motors 20, and 320 is their high torque at low r.p.m., e.g. at 60 rpm. and in the range of 60 to 1,000 rpm.

I claim:

1. Electromagnetic motor comprising, in operative combination, a rigid frame on which is supported a coil form and piston assembly, a crank wheel and timer assembly, and an electrical circuit assembly,

said frame having located thereon a coil form and piston assembly, journals, crank and timer shaft and an electrical circuit assembly, the journals rotatably supporting the crank and timer shaft,

said shaft comprising a rigid cylindrical rod that supports an electrical commutator input and electrically conductive output means,

said coil form and piston assembly comprises an array of a plurality of distinct longitudinally and radially extending solenoid coils, one inner end and one outer end solenoid coil at one end of the coil form, another inner end and one outer end solenoid coil at the other end of the coil form, another inner and one outer intermediate coil between said inner end coils,

said one and another end coils being of the same length, and

a central longitudinally elongated movable magnetizable piston within the coil form of total length equal to sum of length of said intermediate and one end coil,

said crank and timer assembly comprises a crank attached to the piston of the coil form and piston assembly, said timer shaft operatively connected to the crank and turned thereby, and a transistorized' electrical circuit comprising a battery connected alternately through the commutator elements on the timer shaft to different end coils in the coil form while continuously connected to said intermediate coil.

2. Apparatus as in claim 1 wherein said frame supports a plurality of like coil form and piston assemblies and said electrical circuit is operatively connected to said timer assembly and said timer assembly is operatively connected to each of said like coil form and piston assemblies.

3. Apparatus as in claim 2 wherein for each of said coil forms, a ring of separate magnetizable rods of like size and shape and of the same length as the peripheral coils at said one end and at said other end are located peripherally adjacent thereto and a ring of like size and shape separate magnetizable rods of the same length as the intermediate coils are located peripherally adjacent to said intermediate coils.

4. Process of driving a reciprocating piston comprising steps of energizing a first solenoid coil and creating a magnetic field coaxial with a movable magnetically susceptible piston distant from said first coil in a first direction, and

moving said piston in said first direction responsive to said magnetic field of said first solenoid coil for a predetermined distance then discontinuing the energizing of said first solenoid coil,

thereafter after a period of time, energizing a second solenoid coil co-axial with the said first solenoid coil and distant therefrom in a second direction directly opposite to said first direction and creating a magnetic field coaxial with said second coil and moving said piston in said second direction responsive to said magnetic field of said second solenoid coil for a predetermined distance, then discontinuing the energizing of said second solenoid coil, and

wherein a third solenoid coil is energized and creates a magnetic field coaxial therewith and with said first and second solenoid coil and said electromagnetic field of said third coil is applied to said piston during the period wherein said first and second coils are not energized and the energizing of said third solenoid magnetizes said piston, and

the direction of magnetization of said piston during the energization of said first solenoid and during the period of time of energization of said second solenoid and during the period of time of energization of said third solenoid is the same.

5. Process as in claim 4 including the step of initiation of energization of a plurality of pairs of said first and second solenoid coils at equally spaced intervals of time and the step of the said reciprocating pistons automatically moving elements of switches in low amperage trigger circuits whereby circuits are closed through said switches and operatively connect high amperage electric currents to said solenoid coils.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4005346 *Oct 29, 1975Jan 25, 1977Hsia Tsang ChenDirect electromagnetic reciprocating motor
US4012675 *Aug 4, 1975Mar 15, 1977Schulze Jr Everett ESwitching system for solenoid reciprocator
US4019103 *Mar 5, 1976Apr 19, 1977Oliver Thurston DavisElectromagnetic motor and generator
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US4093880 *Apr 28, 1977Jun 6, 1978Teal Benjiman RMagnetically operable engine
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US7129610 *Apr 13, 2005Oct 31, 2006Arvinmeritor Light Vehicle Systems-FranceCommutator for an electric motor
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Classifications
U.S. Classification318/37, 310/24, 318/134, 310/35
International ClassificationH02K33/00, H02K33/14, H02K37/00
Cooperative ClassificationH02K33/14
European ClassificationH02K33/14