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Publication numberUS3834110 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 10, 1974
Filing dateJun 8, 1972
Priority dateJun 17, 1971
Also published asCA985880A, CA985880A1, DE2229264A1, DE2229264C2
Publication numberUS 3834110 A, US 3834110A, US-A-3834110, US3834110 A, US3834110A
InventorsVercelletto M
Original AssigneeVercelletto M
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for the manufacture of prefabricated housing units
US 3834110 A
Abstract
This method relates to the construction of buildings or structures from units forming cells fabricated and equipped in the factory and assembled on the erection site. According to this method, a plurality of cells designed to form a construction unit, house or building storey, are manufactured in the factory side by side and exactly in the respective position occupied by the cells once the building is completed after setting up and assembling. These cells are however made as units which are independent from each other and which are detachable.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Vercelletto Sept. 10, 1974 [5 METHOD FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF 1,856,906 5/1932 Carve] 264/D1G. 57 PREFABRICATED HOUSING UNITS 3,676,536 1/ 1969 Shelley 425/1 17 X Inventor: Michel Vercelletto, 97 rue Ledru-Rollin, 72 Mamers (Sarthe), France Filed: June 8, 1972 Appl. No.1 260,962

Foreign Application Priority Data June 17, 1971 France 71.22028 U.S. Cl 52/745, 52/79, 249/84, 249/85, 249/129, 264/35, 264/261, 264/263, 264/297, 264/334, 425/123, 425/127 Int. Cl. E04g 21/14 Field of Search 264/35, 261, 297, 334, 264/263; 52/79, 74 S; 425/110, 117, 123,

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 6/1912 Cameron 425/261 Primary ExaminerRobert F. White Assistant Examiner-Thomas P. Pavelko Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Bierman & Bierman [57] ABSTRACT This method relates to the construction of buildings or structures from units forming cells fabricated and equipped in the factory and assembled on the erection site. According to this method, a plurality of cells designed to form a construction unit, house or building storey, are manufactured in the factory side by side and exactly in the respective position occupied by the cells once the building is completed after setting up which are inde pendent fro meach other and which are detachable.

, -5 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures PAIENIED SEP 1 01914 SHEET 1 UP 4 PATENTEDSEPI 01814 I 3.834.110

sum u 0F 4 METHOD FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF PREFABRICATED HOUSING UNITS This invention relates to a method for the manufacture of housing units and, generally, buildings or prem ises made up of cells fabricated and equipped in the factory or at a site having industrial facilities and then transported and assembled on the building site for final erection.

The main disadvantage of construction methods of this type stems from distortions between the walls of the cells, which distortions are inevitable in view of the tolerance standards admitted in the field of concrete contruction. The result is that the cells placed side by side exhibit offsets and alignment defects at the level of the walls, floors and ceilings. The esthetic effect of the overall construction is consequently uneven and disagreeable to the eye.

Another disadvantage of such a construction method lies in the difficulty of providing in advance the technical equipment such as water, heat, etc.. piping and ducts in each cell. In fact, owing to the offset between cells during their assembly, great difficulty is encountered in connecting such piping or other technical equipment when the cells are assembled if this equipment was installed in advance independently in each cell, especially since differences in the position of these equipments in the various cells are added to the offsets between them. Accordingly, the invention seeks to eliminate these disadvantages.

For this purpose, it relates, firstly, to a method for the construction of buildings or structures from units forming cells fabricated and equipped in the factory and designed to be assembled on the construction site, this process being distinguished in that a plurality of cells designed to form a construction unit, house or building storey, are manufactured in the factory side by side and exactly in the respective position occupied by the cells once the building is completed after setting up and assembling, the cells being however made using units which are independent from each other and which are detachable.

According to one embodiment of the invention, the cells fabricated side by side according to a layout corresponding to the final arrangement planned for their assembly on the building site, are manufactured by the assembly of elements placed on fixtures forming jigs or supports common to the cells belonging to the same assembly coming from a single fabrication.

Preferably, the floor slabs of the cells belonging to the same assembly arranged at the same level, are made of concrete cast in a single mould, this mould being provided with partitioning elements suitable for separating the slabs belonging to each cell.

Another object of the invention is an apparatus for the implementation of the present method. This apparatus comprises a plane horizontal mould suitable for receiving a pouring of concrete and for conforming to the floor slabs of the cells, the mould having the form and the dimensions of the floor of the housing unit and being provided with partitions suitable for separating the floor of the assembly into basic slabs each corresponding to the floor or to the base of a cell.

This apparatus also includes, along the two longitudinal edges of the mould of the floor slabs, a series of fastening means capable of maintaining temporarily in a vertical position prefabricated panels designed to form the corresponding walls of the different cells during fabrication.

Other advantages and features of the invention will become apparent from the following description of an illustrative embodiment, with reference to the appended drawings in which:

FIG. 1 represents a perspective view of an installation according to the invention with an assembly of cells during manufacture according to the present method;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view representing the temporary fastening means for the vertical panels designed to form the outer walls of each cell;

FIG. 3 is a partial sectional view along the line III-Ill of FIG. 2;

' FIGS. 4 and 5 are similar views illustrating two successive phases of the operation of withdrawing the temporary fastening means of a vertical panel;

FIG. 6is a partial view in perspective representing one end of a cell, after fabrication is completed, and when it is still resting on the corresponding mould (to simplify the drawing, the end'panels of the two contiguous cells are not shown in this figure);

FIGS. 7 and 8 are partial sectional views along the lines VII-VII and VIII-VIII of FIG. 6; and

FIG. 9 is a view similar to that of FIG. 6 illustrating an embodiment variant.

As can be seen more particularly in FIG. 1, the implementation of the present method is achieved by manufacturing side by side a series of individual cells designated by the general references 1, la, lb, 1c, 1d..

These cells are placed side by side and rigorously aligned so asto form an assembly corresponding to the construction unit under fabrication for example a storey of a house the different cells making up this assembly being designed to be reassembled on the erection site of the corresponding house, after the transporting of each cell.

Each cell comprises a floor slab 2, two end vertical panels 3 and one ceiling element 4. Moreover, each cell can include, on the inside, one or more separating partitions 5'.

The length L of each cell corresponds to the width of the considered construction unit, so that the vertical end panels 3 constitute part of the corresponding outer walls of this unit; for example, one of the storeys of a house. Of course, vertical panels are arranged on the outer longitudinal sides of the first and of the last cell of the same assembly to form the corresponding outer walls of this construction unit.

The different cells from a given assembly are fabricated in a single mould designated by the general reference 6. This mould is designed to allow the casting of floor slabs 2 made of reinforced concrete.

This mould is made up of a horizontal platform having a series of transverse channels 7 separating the location of the slabs 2 of each cell. Moreover, each of these channels contains a partitioning element capable of separating the two adjacent slabs 2 which are thus independent from each other, although made at the same time by a single pouring of concrete, and this in their final position.

This partitioning element can advantageously consist of a shape 8 having a cross section in the form of an inverted T and whose lower branch constitutes a thrust flange. These partitioning elements are independent of the mould 6 and are subsequently removed from it with 3 the cells 1, 1a, but, they can later be separated from them.

.These elements can be replaced by partitioning elements forming an integral part of thecell slabs.

The platform 9'corresponding to each individual slab 2 can include 'a relief suitable for providing an underface of desired form possibly including ribs.

Along the entire length of the two longitudinal edges of the mould 6 is provided a trench 12. This trench contains a horizontal rail 13 placedalong the edge of the mould 6 under the location provided for the edge of the corresponding end of the floor 2 of the different cells. This rail is supported by two hydraulic jacks 14 placed near each end of the mould.

These jacks, allow the two longitudinal rails to be raised into the stripping position as will be explained further below. However, in the rest position of these jacks, the rails 13 are retracted to serve as supports for the shuttering elements of the inner face of the ends of the slabs 2. These shuttering elements can consist of simple shims 15 placed on the rails 13 between rolling devices-16, themselves arranged under the ends of each partitioning element 8 {-see FIG. 6). Each of these rolling devices can consist of a series of rollers. I

On the opposite edge of each trench 12 is provided a series of attachment shoes 17, two such shoes being placed opposite the corresponding end of each cell 1. These shoes are capable of allowing the placing of a series of vertical frames18 designed to serve as backing elements for the end panels 3 of each cell. Each of these elements is composed of a frame proper made, for example, of metallic shapes and inside which are provided cross struts 19. Near its lower corners, each frame has a lug 20 provided with a swivelling trunnion 21. The swivelling trunnions of a frame 18 are designed to be engaged in a bent groove 22 provided on the inner face of the two correspondingattachment shoes 17.

When the frames 18 are arranged vertically in the working position, a removable key 23 is inserted in the rear part of the groove 22 of each shoe 17 so as to maintain the corresponding trunnion 21 toward the front, as shown in FIG. 3. Ties 24, secured to the ground and also to the upper end of each supporting element 18, hold the latter in a vertical position, each of these ties being provided with a turnbuckle 25 or similar device.

The lower edge of each frame 18 has'a rim. 34 designed to serve as a bearing surface for the lower edge of the outer face of the corresponding panel 3.

On its upper end, each frame 18 has a horizontal bar 26 whose ends have flanges 27 allowing their connection with the corresponding ends of the similar bar of the adjacent supporting element. At the lower part of these frames are moreover provided horizontal arms 28 also equipped with assembly flanges 29.

These bars and these arms thus allow a rigorous alignment of the different supporting elements 18 in the same vertical plane so that they form a single jig for the placing of the end panels 3 of each cell. Thus, although they are independent from each'other, they are perfectly aligned so that they are subsequently able to form a continuous wall during their assembly on the erection site of the building.

These different panels are themselves prefabricated before placement along the sides of the mould 6.

In the illustrated example, these panels are made of reinforced concrete, but their structure could be different. These panels could be hollow and also contain insulating fittings.

On its lower edge, each of these panels has, on its front face, an extension 30 of small thickness capable of serving as shuttering for the corresponding end of the floor slab 2 of the respective cell (see FIG. 3).

Furthermore, at least some of the reinforcements of each of these panels, in this case the reinforcements 31 and 32 of the example, extend beyond the lower end of the corresponding panel.

The extensions thus provided are designed to be embedded in the floor slab 2 of the corresponding cell,

thereby ensuring the solid connection of the cell with the vertical panels 3 and of its two ends.

Of coursejreinforcement irons and fabric are also embedded in each slab-2. It is also possible to place, before pouring these slabs, a suitable insulating material and, if desired, additional assembly elements making it possible to subsequently unite side by side the individ ual slabs of two adjacent cells.

The pouring of the concrete to be used for forming the slabs 2 is done in a single operation. However, the different slabs 2 still remain separated owing to the presence of the partitioning elements 8. These slabs are however perfectly juxtaposed and do not present any distortion owing to the fact that they are poured together.

After the setting of the concrete, the elements 18 supporting the vertical panels are removed.

Owing to the engagement of the lower rim 34 of these elements under the lower extension 30 of the said panels, this removal requires these elements to be moved back. This is accomplished by removing the keys 23 out of the attachment shoes 17. Then, the trunnions 21 of the mobile frames 18 can move back within the grooves 22, in the position shown in FIG. 4. At the same time, the mobile frames 18 can swivel in the direction of the arrow F Then, they can be disengaged upward along the direction of the arrow F when the trunnions can move within the rear branch of each groove 22.

Before this operation, or possibly after it, the re- Y quired intermediate partitions S are made inside the different cells 1, la These can be made in different ways, for example from prefabricated panels. The latter can be embedded at their base in the slabs 2 or can be attached by means of hollow or projecting elements provided during the pouring of the slabs, or forming part of the partitions themselves.

The partitions, which extend inside several contiguous cells,'can be separated by partioning elements arranged between two cells. However, it is possible to make them in a continuous manner and to cut them subsequently.

The required technical equipment is also installed in the different cells, for example sanitary (35 and 35a) and heating (36) appliances. The ducts and pipes leading to these different appliances are also placed inside the cells, by simply providing suitable couplings between their different parts which extend inside different cells so that after the connection of these cells on the erection site it is sufficient to assemble these couplings so that the pipes and ducts are in operating condition.

Of course, the inner partitions 5 as well as the panels 3 include the necessary window frames and doors and all other required equipment. Finally, where provided, the ceiling elements 4 of the different cells are placed on the latter; these elements can have any desired structure.

After completion of the fabrication of these different cells, general stripping is carried out by raising the two longitudinal rails 13 under the action of the jacks 14. This operation makes it possible to lift the slabs 2 over the platform 9 of each slab and of all other reliefs provided on the upper surface of the mould 6 so that these slabs are disengaged from these reliefs and so that the assembly can be removed from the mould (see FIG. 7).

Then, it is possible to move the assembly of cells in the direction of the arrow F 3 on the two rails 13, using the rolling elements 16 provided under the ends of each partitioning element 8.

The rails 13 extend outside of the corresponding manufacturing plant and can possibly be connected to other tracks.

After leaving the factory in this way, the cells can be transported individually. In fact, it is then possible to raise them one after the other by means of a crane to place them on trucks or transport platforms. On the erection sites, it is then sufficient to proceed with the assembly of these different cells exactly in the respective positions they occupied during their fabrication. This assembly can be carried out by any suitable means, for example by means of complementary assembly components provided on the adjacent edges of the slabs 2 as well as on the contiguous edges of the vertical panels 3. Since these cells have been fabricated in the position they are to occupy at this point, they are perfectly juxtaposed without any distortion between them. The different walls of the corresponding building thus form continuous surfaces without any irregularity. Moreover, the internal technical equipment will be perfectly connected. It is thus sufficient to connect them again, for example by means of couplings provided for this purpose.

Under these conditions, the method according to the invention gets around the usual drawbacks of construction methods based upon the assembly of prefabricated cells.

As already indicated, this method and the corresponding apparatus can be used not only for the construction of family houses, but also for erecting several storeys of a building or of any other structure.

It will of course by understood that the present method and corresponding apparatus are not limited to the illustrative embodiment described above. Thus, the means of securing the vertical panels 3 could be different from those shown in this example.

Furthermore, it should be noted that the elements 18 designed to support the panels 3 in the same vertical plane could be used to keep these panels inclined successively toward one side or another to form walls whose contour would take on the form of a broken line. It would also be possible to use these elements to maintain the end panels 3 inclined on the horizontal successively in one direction and then in the other.

Morover, the form and the structure of these panels,

as well as that of the floor slabs, can vary. Further, it should be noted that the term vertical panel designates not only a material wall, solid or hollow, but also an assemblage of uprights, for example a pair of uprights provided at the corners of the considered wall.

FIG. 9 represents a variant in which the slabs 2 do not come directly into contact on the longitudinal lifting rails 13. In fact, in this variant, the ends of the corresponding slabs 2a terminate before the location of the lifting rails. However, suitable gripping components, for example lugs or gussets 37 are fitted on the corners of the slabs 2 so as to bear on the roller elements 16 previously described. These components can be attached by means of bolts 38. It is also possible for these components to be eliminated by extending the partitioning elements 8 so that their ends bear on the rolling elements 16.

What I claim is:

l. A method of erecting building stories, each made from a plurality of cells comprising the steps of:

a. providing a single mold having two longitudinal edges;

b. placing a plurality of prefabricated panels along said longitudinal edges, at least the lower portion of said panels forming a portion of said mold;

c. maintaining said panels in place on said longitudinal edges;

d. providing a plurality of separating elements in said mold at selected locations for separating a slab into a plurality of side-by-side cells;

e. forming partitions on one or more of said slabs at selected locations and including the walls along the lateral edges of said mold;

f. casting a plurality of reinforced concrete slabs in said mold to unite said slabs to said panels;

g. forming a top closure element on each of said sideby-side cells; and

h. removing said cells from said mold;

i. assembling said cells at the construction site in the same side-by-side relationship as they were made.

2. Method of constructing building stories as set forth in claim 1, further comprising the step of aligning said vertical panels on each longitudinal edge of the mold in a common prefabricated plane.

3. Method as set forth in claim 1 further comprising the step of placing one or more rolling members under the separating elements of each said side-by-side cell prior to casting the slab, and rolling the cell assembly away from the mold area after molding is complete.

4. Method as set forth in claim 1 further comprising the step of placing one or more rolling members beneath the locations selected for the end of the slab of each side-by-side cell, and rolling the cell assembly awayfrom the mold area after molding is complete.

5. Method of constructing building stories as set forth in claim 1 further comprising the steps of providing relief portions in said mold and lifting the cells away from the mold after completion to release the slab from the relief portions of the mold.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3940903 *Apr 25, 1974Mar 2, 1976Credelca A.G.Prefabricated transportable room element for use in the construction of a plural storey building
US3992848 *May 24, 1974Nov 23, 1976Credelca A.G.Buildings
US3999355 *Jan 22, 1975Dec 28, 1976Credelca AgMethod of constructing a transportable prefabricated room element
US4021979 *Jun 21, 1976May 10, 1977Associated Concrete Products, Inc.Aligning bracket for underground sectional precast concrete structures and method of assembly
US4040227 *Aug 4, 1975Aug 9, 1977Lely Cornelis V DMethods of manufacturing building sections
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US5167842 *Nov 8, 1990Dec 1, 1992Entreprise VercellettoInstallation for the fabrication of cells to be subsequently assembled side by side in order to constitute a construction unit
US5402618 *Dec 31, 1991Apr 4, 1995Cable Bridge Enterprises LimitedSystem for use in fabricating, transporting and placing a prefabricated building unit at its placement site
US7086209 *Mar 11, 2002Aug 8, 2006Nelson, L.C.Method for constructing a building and resulting building
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CN103061516A *Jan 15, 2013Apr 24, 2013中南大学Method for assembling novel substructure module type preformed assembled frame structure
CN103061516B *Jan 15, 2013Jul 8, 2015中南大学Method for assembling novel substructure module type preformed assembled frame structure
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/745.2, 52/79.7, 249/84, 264/261, 264/297.9, 425/123, 249/129, 264/263, 264/334, 264/35, 249/85, 425/127
International ClassificationB28B15/00, E04B1/348
Cooperative ClassificationB28B15/00, E04B1/34823
European ClassificationB28B15/00, E04B1/348C2