|Publication number||US3836364 A|
|Publication date||Sep 17, 1974|
|Filing date||Aug 17, 1972|
|Priority date||Mar 23, 1970|
|Publication number||US 3836364 A, US 3836364A, US-A-3836364, US3836364 A, US3836364A|
|Original Assignee||Xerox Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (10), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent [191 Lin [ 51 Sept. 17, 1974 METHOD OF MAKING MULTIPLE IMAGES FROM A MIGRATION IMAGED MEMBER  Inventor: Luke C. Lin, Rochester, NY.
 Assignee: Xerox Corporation, Rochester, NY.
 Filed: Aug. 17, 1972  Appl. No.: 281,615
Related US. Application Data  Continuation of Ser. No. 21,800, March 23, 1970,
 US. Cl' 96/1.4, 96/1 PS, 96/1 M  Int. Cl. G03g 13/00, G03g 13/14  Field ofSearch 96/1.4,1 R, 1 PS, 1 M
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,520,681 7/1970 Goffe 96/1 3,565,612 2/1971 Clark 96/l.4 X 3,648,608 3/1972 Kaminstein 96/l.8 X 3,664,834 5/1972 Amidon et a1. 96/l.4 3,708,288 1/1973 Lin 96/l.4
Primary Examiner-Ronald H. Smith Assistant Examiner-John R. Miller Attorney, Agent, or FirmJohn B. Mitchell; David C. Petre; James .1. Ralabate  ABSTRACT A migration imaged member is contacted with a transfer member wherein upon separation of said members, migration material from said migration imaged member is transferred in image configuration to said transfer member.
12 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PAIENIEBSEPWIBH 3.336.334
F76. 2A FIG; 2B
VENTOR. LU K C. LIN
BY l yvw (l? I A TTORNEV METHOD OF MAKING MULTIPLE IMAGES FROM A MIGRATION IMAGED MEMBER CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS This is a continuation, of application Ser. No. 21,800, filed'Mar. 23, 1970, now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates in general to imaging, and more specifically to a system employing contacting migration imaged members with a transfer member wherein upon separation of said members, unmigrated material from said migration imaged member has transferred in image configuration to said transfer member.
Recently, a migration imaging system capable of producing high quality images of high density, continuous tone and high resolution has been developed. Such migration imaging systems are disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 837,780 and Ser. No. 837,591 both filed June 30, 1969, which are hereby expressly incorporated herein by reference. In a typical embodiment of the new migration imaging system, there is provided an imaging member comprising a substrate with a layer of softenable material having dispersed therein migra tion material such as electrically photosensitive particles. The member is imaged in the following manner: a latent image is formed on the member, for example, by electrically charging the member and exposing it to a pattern of activating electromagnetic radiation such as light. The latent image is developed by causing migration material in the softenable layer to migrate imagewise toward the substrate when the member is developed as by softening the softenable layer.
One mode of development entails exposing the member to a solvent which dissolves only the softenable layer. The migration material (typically particles) which has been exposed to radiation migrates through the softenable layer as it is softened and dissolved, leaving an image of migrated particles corresponding to the radiation pattern of an original on the substrate. The
material of the softenable layer is substantially completely washed away by the solvent. The particle image may then be fixed to the substrate. For many preferred photosensitive particles, the image produced by the above process is a negative of a positive original, i.e., particles deposit in image configuration corresponding to the radiation exposed areas. However, positive to positive systems are also possible by varying imaging parameters. Those portions ofthe photosensitive material which do not migrate to the substrate are washed away by the solvent with the softenable layer. As disclosed therein by other developing techniques, the softenable layer may at least partially remain behind on the supporting substrate with or without a relatively unmigrated pattern of marking material complementary to said migrated material.
Softenable" as used here is intended to mean any material which can be rendered more permeable to migration material migrating through its bulk. Conventionally, changing permeability is accomplished by dissolving, melting and softening as by contact with heat, vapors, partial solvents and combinations thereof.
Fracturable layer or material as used herein, means any layer or material which is capable of breaking up during development, thereby permitting portions of said layer to migrate toward the substrate in image configuration. The fracturalble layer may be particulate, semi-continuous or continuous in various embodiments of the migration imaging members.
Contiguous, for the purpose of this invention, is defined as in Websters New Collegiate Dictionary, Second Edition, 1960; In actual contact; touching; also, near, though not in contact; adjoining.
In certain methods of forming the latent image, nonphotosensitive or inert, fracturable layers and particulate material may be used to form images, for example, wherein an electrostatic latent image is formed by a wide variety of methods including charging in image configuration through the use of a mask or stencil; first forming such a charge pattern on a separate photoconductive insulating layer according to conventional xerographic reproduction techniques and then transferring this charge pattern to the imaging member by bringing the two layers into very close proximity and utilizing breakdown techniques as described, for exam ple, in Carlson U.S. Pat. No. 2,982,647 and Walkup U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,825,814 and 2,937,943. In addition, charge patterns conforming to selected shaped electrodes or combinations or electrodes may be formed by the TESF discharge techniques as more fully described in Schwertz U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,023,731 and 2,919,967 or by techniques described in Walkup U.S. Pat. No. 3,001,848 and 3,001,849 as well as by electron beam recording techniques, for example, as described in Glenn U.S. Pat. No. 3,113,179.
The characteristics of the images produced are dependent on such process steps as charging, exposure and development as well as the particular combination of process steps. High density, continuous tone and high resolution are some of the image characteristics possible. The image is generally characterized as a fixed or unfixed particulate image with or without a portion of the softenable layer and unmigrated portions of the layer left on the imaged member.
A related but different invention to the present invention is described in copending application Ser. No. 784,164, filed Dec. 16, 1968, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,741,757 wherein a migration imaged member is contacted with a stripping sheet with sufficient adhesive contact between the transfer sheet and the imaged member so that upon separation the imaged member splits, typically at about middle thickness of the softenable layer to create simultaneously complementary positive and negative images corresponding to the relatively unmigrated and relatively migrated portions of the migration imaged member. In contrast, the instant invention is directed not to splitting the imaging member at about midway through the thickness of the softenable layer, but in removing a portion of one or the other of the relatively unmigrated or migrated particles to a transfer member and typically preferably followed by recontacting of the imaged member with a subsequent transfer member to remove: additional migration material from the same surface of the migration imaged member to produce multiple copies in the form of imaged transfer members.
In this new migration imaging system, the advantageous transfer imaging system with multiple copy feature of this invention has been invented, utilizing migration imaged members as a master image.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is, therefore, an object of this invention to provide a novel and advantageous transfer imaging system using migration imaging members as a master.
It is a still further object of this inventionto provide a migration member-transfer imaging system wherein a single migration imaged member is split into a plurality of layers each on a different substrate.
Another object of this invention is to provide a dry method of duplicating.
The foregoing objects and others are accomplished in accordance with this invention by providing a migration imaged member which is contacted with a transfer member and split upon separation of said member, whereupon a portion of migration material from said migration imaged member is transferred in image configuration to said transfer member. The migration material remaining on the image is contacted with another transfer member and upon separation another portion of the migration material is transferred to the transfer member. The ability of an imaged member to split into sucessive thin layers is due to the presence in the softenable layer 12 of a viscosity gradient. Such a gradient occurs in some cases by virtue of the development means employed to permit migration and initial film splitting such as the use of a solvent vapor. In other cases the use of thermoplastic materials combined with the application of heat can achieve such a viscosity gradient. Temperatures in the range of from about 150F to about 200F are usually sufficient to produce a satisfactory viscosity gradient. When thermoplastic materials of relatively low viscosity at room temperature are employed as the softenable layer, the application of heat is not required as air temperature will provide the viscosity gradient. Also, the presence of dispersed migration material in the film has been found to affect favorably the ability of the softenable layer to split into thin layers to provide multiple copies.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS For a better understanding of the invention, as well as other objects and further features thereof, reference is made to the following detailed disclosure of this invention taken in conjunction with accompanying drawings wherein:
FIGS. 1A and 1B are partially schematic illustrations of a layered configuration imaging member and an imaged layered configuration migration imaging member respectively, according to this invention.
FIG. 2A is a partially schematic illustration of a binder migration imaging member 18 wherein the migration material 13 is dispersed throughout softenable layer 12 on substrate 11. FIG. 2B is a typical binder member 20 which has been migration imaged such that the migration material that was previously in portion 22 of softenable layer 12 has migrated into area 24 immediately beneath area 22 and closer to the substrate to create an image pattern of migration material in the binder. Areas of the binder from which the migration material 13 has migrated can provide an image configuration in the upper surface of the imaged member 20.
FIG. 3A shows an imaged member of the type of FIG. 2B which has been split as taught in application Ser. No. 784,164 referred to above, substrate 32 being the stripping sheet and portion 34 corresponding to the inverted upper portion of the imaged member 20 of FIG. 2B containing area 22. FIG. 3B is the member of FIG. 3A with transfer member 36 having been contacted with the top surface of member 30 and then having been partially separated to transfer to the under surface of transfer member 36 a thin layer 38 from the surface of member 30. Layer 38 provides an image copy because portions 42 of layer 38 are relatively free of migration material in image configuration. When directly viewed from the layer 38 side of transfer member 36, an image corresponding to the image pattern in layer 30 but a reverse thereof will be observed.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to FIGS. 1A and 2A, there are shown partially schematic drawings of examples of embodiments of migration imaging members 8 and 18 comprising substrate 11 and softenable layer 12 which contains contiguous to its upper surface a layer of migration material 13. FIG. 1B shows a migration imaging member of FIG. 1A after it has been migration imaged. Migration material portions 16 have migrated in depth in image configuration adjacent to the substrate 11 with relatively unmigrated portions 14 of the migration layer remaining contiguous to the surface of the imaged member 10. Although migration material 13 is shown as a thin layer in softenable layer 12, such migration material can also in a separate layer coated over softenable layer 12 as a dispersion in softenable material of the same or different type as employed in softenable layer 12. By employing such double layers, materials advantageous to producing copies in accordance with this invention can be employed while less advantageous materials can be employed in softenable layer 12. The imaged member can be employed directly in the method of this invention or first split in half as described more fully below.
A more detailed description of substrate 11, softenable layer 12 and migration materials and migration imaging methods may be found in the first two aforementioned copending applications incorporated herein by reference.
As disclosed in the first two copending applications mentioned above for both the layer configuration and binder configuration imaging members, a preferred av erage particle size of the migration material is from about 0.01 to about 2 microns to yield optimum resolution and highest density images. The preferred thickness range of softenable layer 12 is from about one-half to about 16 microns and optimally from about I to about 4 microns.
As stated above when a migration imaged member of the type of FIG. 1B or FIG. 2B or a member comprising a split migration imaged member, for example, illustrated in FIG. 3A is contacted with a transfer member according to the invention, only a portion of the upper surface of the migration imaged member is found to be transferred to the transfer member leaving behind on the imaged member at least enough thickness of softenable material to produce another transfer image, usually about six more images.
Transfer member 36 may be in the form of a web or sheet or any suitable form and the contacting surface of member 36 should be presented into preferably nonslipping pressure contact with migration imaged member 30. A backing plate may optionally be used to regulate and control the pressure of the contact of transfer member 36 on imaged member 30. As will be seen, member 36 and substrate 11 may be opaque in various colors, translucent depending on the mode of operation and the ultimate use of the web.
The transfer member 36 generally comprises a material having a surface either capable of being rendered tacky as by the application of heat, solvents or the like or without the accompanying pressures or having a surface which is tacky such as an adhesively coated surface, for example, pressure sensitive adhesive tapes. Member 36 is applied, with the adhesive surface against migration imaged member 30, for example, by means of a roller. After application, the member 36 is separated from imaged member 30.
Typical webs useful as transfer members 36 include polyethylene terephthalate polyester film backed tapes, cellophane and acetate based tapes such as Scotch brand Magic Transparent Tape No. 810 available from the 3M Company (all the foregoing being preferred for transparency formation), commercially available masking tapes and similar adhesive webs. Also, surfaces such as dye transfer paper, Cronar (Mylar overcoated with hydrophilic gelatin like layer) film from duPont and heat activated hot-melt adhesives are found to be suitable.
It is preferred that the thickness of member 36, if the images formed on member 36 are to be used other than a light absorbing directly viewable image, for example as a transparency, be kept relatively thin, on the order of about 3 mils or less in order not to adversely affect image resolution upon transmission of the image. For lower resolution films, of course, the films may be thicker up to about one-tenth inch thick. Of course, it should be appreciated that the transfer member 36 to be contacted with migration imaged member 30 need not be a thin layer but may comprise a solid member such as wood, plastic elements, metals and the like, of course, which generally limits the resulting image carrier on this member to a directly viewable light absorbing image. Preferably, if this support base serving as transfer member 36 is not transparent, as when a thick metal member is employed, the image produced should contrast with the surface for easier viewing.
In the pressing of transfer member 36 against the imaged member surface, pressures of from about 50 to 200 pounds per linear inch produce optimum results.
The following Examples further specifically define the present migration imaged member transfer imaging system of this invention. The parts and percentages are by weight unless otherwise indicated. The Examples below are intended to illustrate various preferred embodiments of this invention.
EXAMPLE I About 5 parts Staybelite Ester 10, a partially hydrogenated rosin ester from Hercules Powder Co., is dissolved in about parts cyclohexanone and about 75 parts toluene. Using a gravure roller, the solution is then roll coated onto about a 3 mil Mylar polyester film having a thin semi-transparent aluminum overcoating. The solution coating is applied so that when air dried for about 2 hours to allow for evaporation of the cyclohexanone and toluene solvents, about a 2 micron thick layer of Staybelite Ester 10 is formed on the aluminized Mylar substrate.
An overlayer coating dispersion is then prepared by mixing together a dispersion made up of about 10 parts of x-form metal-free phthalocyanine photoconductive particles, prepared as described in. Byrne U.S. Pat. No. 3,357,989; about 4 A: parts of Picco-lastic resin A-25 a polystyrene resin and about 27 parts of Piccopale SF, a highly branch polyolefin both available from Pennsylvania industrial Chemical Co., and about 64 parts Isopar G (a long chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon liquid, boiling point 3l5-350F from Humble Oil and Chemical Co.). The dispersion is then coated onto the 2 micron layer of Staybelite Ester 10 with a wire wound rod.
The member is imaged by uniformly electrostatically charging it to a surface potential of about +500 volts, exposing the charged member to a positive optical image including line copy with exposure in illuminated areas of the member being about 0.3 f.c.s. from a tungsten lamp.
The member is developed by exposing it to the vapors of the solvent trichloroethane for about 10 seconds. An imaged member results as the phthalocyanine particles migrate in image-wise configuration toward the substrate through the Staybelite resin layer.
The imaged member is split according to the process described in copending application Ser. No. 784,164 referred to above. The top most split off portion of the migration imaged member is transferred to a transfer member to produce a member similar to that illustrated in FIG. 3A.
This member is then used as a master to produce seven additional transferred images by passing this member with the softenable layer in contact with seven successive paper transfer members through pressure rollers with a force of lbs/linear inch followed by stripping to form a mirror reverse, but with the same sense image on each of the transfer members.
EXAMPLE II] An imaging member is prepared by forming on an aluminized polyester film, available under the trade name Mylar from E. l. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc., a softenable layer about 2 microns thick of a Staybelite ester 10 binder having zinc oxide particles of about 0.5 microns in average diameter uniformly dispersed throughout the Staybelite ester in a dry weight ratio of zinc oxide to binder of about 1 to 1. The member is uniformly electrostatically charged by means of a corona discharge device to a negative surface potential of about 240 volts while in the dark and is then exposed to a light image having an intensity of about 200 footcandle seconds. The latent imaged member is developed by exposing the member to vapors of a halogenated commercially available under the name Freon l 13 for about 10 seconds whereupon the zinc oxide migrates towards the film in the unexposed areas. The imaged member is then split according to the process described in copending application Ser. No. 784,164 referred to above providing a positive image on the upper half of the split image. The upper half of the split image is contacted with transparent cellophane tape available under the trade name Scotch from the 3 M Company and passed between a pair of pressure rollers one of which is heated. The imaged member is contacting the heated roller which provides a viscosity gradient through the cross section of the softenable layer such that a thin layer of the image is transferred to the tape.
This process is repeated six times to provide six images on successive portions of the tape.
EXAMPLE Ill An imaging member is prepared by depositing about a 4 micron layer of softenable material on a 3 mil Mylar film. The softenable layer is formed by coating a mixture of about 1 to 3 parts by volume stainless steel particles to Piccotex 100, a styrene homolog copolymer available from the Pennsylvania Industrial Chemical Co., onto the film. The stainless steel particles are in the range of from to 44 microns in diameter. The imaging member is subjected to an image shaped magnetic field and simultaneously to vapors of 1,1,1 trichloroethane for about 10 seconds. As a result the stainless steel particles migrate in depth toward the film and cluster at the edges of the magnetic field forming an outline of the magnetic image. The imaged member is subjected to solvent vapor for the binder layer and split in accordance with the procedure referred to in Example ll. The top half of the split image is then used as a master to prepare five additional images by passing the master in contact with separate sheets of Cronar, available from the E. l. duPont de Nemours & Co., lnc., which is heat activated prior to contact with the master.
- The master in contact with the Cronar is passed between a pair of pressure rollers exerting a pressure of about 150 pounds per linear inch. The roller contacting the master is heated to provide a viscosity gradient across the softenable layer of the master. Five images are thus prepared by five successive transfers to Cronar sheets.
Although specific components and proportions have been stated in the above description of preferred embodiments of the migration imaged member-transfer imaging system of this invention, other suitable materials, as listed herein, may be used with similar results and various degrees of quality. In addition, other materials which exist presently, or may be discovered, may
be added to materials used herein and variations may be made in the various processing steps to synergize, enhance or otherwise modify the properties of this invention.
For example, with the choosing of the proper hydrophilic, hydrophobic nature of the particles relative to the binder therein, second generation transfer members of this invention may be used as lithographic printing masters.
Also, advantageous enhancement of image contrast can be achieved by proper selection of migration material and transfer members especially with respect to their color. It will be understood that various other changes in the details, materials, steps and arrangements of parts, which have been herein described and illustrated in order to explain the nature of the invention, will occur to and may be made by those skilled in the art upon a reading of this disclosure and such changes are intended to be inclined within the principal and scope of this invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An imaging method for making multiple images from an original comprising the steps of:
a. providing a migration imaged member comprising a layer of softenable material containing a viscosity gradient and migration particles distributed in only one imaging configuration and at least some of said migration particles contiguous a free surface of said softenable layer, said migration imaged member having been made by splitting it from a migration imaged member which originally contained migration particles distributed in two image configurations;
b. contacting a transfer member against said free surface of said imaged member; and
c. separating said transfer member and said imaged member whereby a portion of said imaged member including some but not all of said migration particles distributed in only one image configuration at said free surface is transferred to the transfer member to produce an image on said transfer member.
2. An imaging method according to claim 1 wherein said migration particles are of an average particle size from about 0.01 to about 2 microns and are dispersed in said softenable layer and wherein said softenable layer is electrically insulating and is between from about one-half to about 16 microns thick.
3. An imaging method according to claim 1 wherein said softenable material comprises a a material selected from the group consisting of polystyrenes and aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbon resins.
4. An imaging method according to claim 1 wherein steps (b) and (c) are repeated at least one additional time to transfer an image pattern to at least one additional transfer member.
5. An imaging method according to claim 1 wherein the transfer member is paper.
6. An imaging method according to claim 3 wherein the migration particles are metal free xphthalocyanine.
7. An imaging method according to claim 6 wherein the transfer member and imaged member are passed between a pair of pressure rollers.
8. The imaging method of claim 7 wherein at least one of the rollers is heated.
9. The imaging method of claim 1 wherein the migration particles comprise zinc oxide.
10. The imaging method of claim 1 wherein the transfer member is opaque and has a tackifiable layer in contact with said free surface of said imaged member.
11 An imaging method according to claim 1 wherein said imaged member is formed by forming an electrical latent image on an imaging member comprising a layer of electrically insulating softenable material and migration particles in said softenable material, said softenable material capable of having its resistance to migration of said migration particles decreased sufficiently to allow migration of said migration material through said softenable material and developing said electrical latent image by decreasing the resistance to migration of said migration particles through said softenable material at least sufficient to allow imagewise migration of migration particles at least in depth in the softenable layer.
12. The imaging method according to claim 1 wherein the contacting of the transfer member against the surface of the imaged member is a contact pressure from about 50 to 200 pounds per linear inch.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Paten No. 3,836,364 Dated September 17, 1974 Invent0 Luke 0 Tin It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 2, line 25, change "or" second occurrence, to of Column 5, line 4, after "translucent" insert or transparent Column 6, line 55, before "commercially" insert hydrocarbon Signed and sealed this 19th day of November 1974.
McCOY I-I. GIBSON JR, C. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM PO-1050 (10-69) USCOMNPDC 76.p5g
9 1.5, GOVERNMENT PRINTNG UFFICE 1 I959 O-366-334
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|US3970453 *||May 28, 1974||Jul 20, 1976||Xerox Corporation||Imaging by selective stripping out areas of layer|
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|US4075049 *||Sep 1, 1976||Feb 21, 1978||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Method of preparing retroreflective sheeting|
|US4897327 *||May 27, 1988||Jan 30, 1990||E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company||Correct-reading images from photopolymer electrographic master|
|US5227265 *||Nov 30, 1990||Jul 13, 1993||Eastman Kodak Company||Migration imaging system|
|US5565287 *||Jun 6, 1995||Oct 15, 1996||Eastman Kodak Company||Migration imaging with dyes or pigments to effect bleaching|
|US5614340 *||Sep 27, 1993||Mar 25, 1997||Eastman Kodak Company||Migration imaging, optionally with dyes or pigments to effect bleaching|
|U.S. Classification||430/41, 430/40, 430/252|
|International Classification||G03G17/10, G03G17/00|