US 3837197 A
A lock adapted to be operated by a bitted key and including dual locking features which must be both operated to cause the unlocking. A key-operated lock including a cylinder, a plug rotatable into the cylinder, tumblers carried by the plug and arranged to be displaced radially of the plug to lock and unlock the latter to the cylinder, at least one indentation into each tumbler, a locking side bar extending longitudinally of the plug and arranged to releasably lock the latter to the cylinder, and movable releasing members adapted to respond to predetermined positioning of the tumblers to release the locking side bar.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1191 1111 3,837,197
Lopez 1 Sept. 24, 1974 KEY-OPERATED LOCKS 3,479,849 11/1969 Check 70/364 A 3,507,133 4/1970 B2 h 70/42l  Inventor? Pea) Lopez 2295 de Londres 3,722,240 3/1973 70/364 A St. Laurent, Quebec, Canada  Filed; Mar, 19, 1973 Primary Examiner-Robert L. Wolfe A lock adapted to be operated by a bitted key and in-  Foreign Application Priority Data cluding dual locking features which must be both op- Apr. 27, 1972 Canada 140775 erated to aus t l king. A key-operated lock including a cylinder, a plug rotatable into the cylinder,  US. Cl 70/364 A, 70/378, 70/419 l r rri by the pl g and arranged to be dis-  Int. Cl E05b 15/14, EOSb 27/02 placed radially of the plug to lock and unlock the lat-  Field of Search 70/364 A, 364 R, 365, 366, ter to the cylinder, at least one indentation into each 70/378, 377, 419, 416, 421 tumbler, a locking side bar extending longitudinally of the plug and arranged to releasably lock the latter to  Referen Cit d the cylinder, and movable releasing members adapted UNITED STATES PATENTS to respond to predetermined positioning of the tum- 2,524,339 10/1950 Young 70/366 blers to release the lockmg 2,648,973 8/1953 Spain 70/366 6 Claims, 30 Drawing Figures KEY-OPERATED LOCKS This invention relates to a lock of the type adapted to be operated by a key.
In the above-mentioned type of locks, unlocking is basically produced by predetermined radial displacements of tumblers into a core, commonly called a plug. A large number of different embodiments of this basic principle of operation have been conceived with the object to minimize the possibility of picking the resulting locks.
The Applicant proposes locks of the above type which are adapted to operate under a different basic principle involving dual locking features requiring a precise positioning of all the tumblers to allow release of the second locking feature.
It is therefore a general object of the invention to provide a key-operated lock including dual locking features arranged to minimize the possibility of successfully picking the resulting locks.
It is another general object of the invention to provide key-operated locks which require precise positioning of all the tumblers to allow release of the second locking feature.
It is another general object of the invention to provide a key-operated lock including rotatable lock pins which must be rotated to predetermined angular positions to allow release of the second locking feature.
It is a more specific object of the invention to provide a key-operated lock including axially and angularly displaceable lock pins adapted to cooperate with a suitably bitted key to be precisely displaced by the latter to predetermined axial and angular positions to release both locking features.
It is a still further object of the invention to provide 1 a key-operated lock including axially and angularly displaceable lock pins which affords a selection of angular positions for each lock pin, thereby affording an increased number of possible codes or bittings.
The above and other objects and advantages of the invention will be better understood in the light of the following description of preferred embodiments thereof which are illustrated, by way of example only, in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a front view of a key-operated lock according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view as seen along line 2-2 in FIG. 1 of a first embodiment according to the invention;
FIG. 3 is. a side view of a plunger used in the keyoperated locks according to the invention;
FIG. 4 is a side view ofa lock pin according to the invention;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a lock pin as seen along line 55 in FIG. 4.
FIGS. 6 and 8 are partial views ofa key according to the present invention illustrating the action of the key bits;
FIG. 7 is a partial side view of the key shown in FIGS. 6 and 8 in operative association with lock pins according to the invention;
FIGS. 9, l0 and 11 are sequential views as seen along line 9-9 in FIG. 2 and illustrating the action of the appropriate key;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged side view of the plug alone according to the first embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a side bar according to the invention;
FIGS. 14 and 15 are sequential views illustrating the operative displacement of the side bar.
FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional view of a second embodiment of the invention as seen along line 16-l6 in FIG. 17;
FIGS. 17, 18, and 19 are sequential cross-sectional views as seen along line l717 in FIG. 16;
FIG. 20 is an exploded perspective view of the lock of FIG. 16;
FIG. 21 is a front view of a tumbler plate according to the second embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 22 is a cross-sectional view as seen along line 22-22 in FIG. 21; FIG. 21;
FIG. 23 is a cross-sectional view of a key-operated lock according to a third embodiment of the invention;
FIGS. 24, 25, and 26 are cross-sectional views of the cylinder plus as seen along lines 24-24, 25-25, and 26-26 in FIG. 23;
FIG. 25a is a cross-sectional view of the complete lock as seen along line 25-25 in FIG. 23;
FIG. 27 is a partial view of a key adapted for use with the third embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 28 is a cross-sectional view of a fourth embodiment of the invention; and
FIG. 29 is a partial view ofa key adapted for use with" the fourth embodiment illustrated in FIG. 28.
The same reference numerals identify the same elements throughout the different views.
The key-operated lock of the first embodiment of the invention, illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 15 inclusive, includes a cylinder 1 having an internal bore 2 into which is rotatably mounted a plug 3 which is axially restrained by a pair of rings 4 at opposite ends thereof. The cylinder body 1 is adapted to be secured in any suitable manner into an aperture through a door 5 which is desired to be locked.
The plug 3 has a keyway 6 extending axially therethrough and forming wards 7 adapted to receive a complementarily warded key 8. The plug 3 also has a row of radial tumbler bores 9 registering one to one with a similar row of radial tumbler bores 10 into the cylinder 1, as is well known in the art. The bores 9 extend only part way into the keyway 6 to allow operative engagement ofthe key with the tumblers which are hereinafter defined in detail.
A tumbler is mounted into each pair of aligned bores 9 and 10 and includes a lock pin 11 and a plunger 12 Iockingly abutting end to end under the action of a compression spring 13. Each lock pin 11 and plunger 12 is formed with circumferential grooves to define annular shoulders 14 arranged to complicate the picking action on the lock. Each lock pin 11 has a pointed key engaging end formed with a pair of diametrically opposite planar faces 15 which are inclined outwardly to wards each other, thereby forming the pointed end. A bore 16 extends diametrically through each lock pin 11 in a predetermined angular direction R,R' relative to the planar faces 15. The bores 16 of the row of pins 11 are differently angularly arranged relative one to another according to a selected code, and as is well known, the lock pins 11 are also of different lengths according to a selected code.
The appropriate key 8 to operate the tumblers is bitted according to the two selected codes, as will now be explained.
The key 8 includes a foremost face 17 which is inclined to form a ramp causing the lock pins 1]. to move upwardly upon insertion of the key. The dual code is imparted to the key by making notches of different depths into one edge thereof and by forming the said notches with side faces 18 which extend transversely at different angles R,R' according to the code defined by the different angles of the bores 16. There results that upon proper insertion of the properly bitted key 8, the lock pins 11 will engage into the afore-mentioned notches and will be rotated by engagement with the angular faces thereof to cause all the bores 16 to extend parallel to each other transversely of the plug 3.
It should be appreciated later in the light of the following description that the bore 16 may be replaced by a pair of blind bores arranged at diametrically opposite positions of the generally cylindrical lock pins 11 or may even be replaced by a single blind bore or indentation. The use of a through bore 16 or two diametrically opposite indentations and two planar faces 15, instead of only one indentation and one planar face, is preferred to ensure response of the lock pins 11 to the rotary action produced by the faces 18.
The plug 3, as best shown in FIG. 12, has a circumferential groove 19 arranged to receive one ring 4, an elongated cavity 20 extending lengthwise thereof and formed to receive the locking side bar 21 and a series of circumferential slots or grooves 22 aligned each with a bore 9 and intersecting the elongated cavity 20. A
. blind bore 23 is formed at each end of the elongated cavity 20 and arranged to mount a compression spring 24 to bias the locking side bar 21 radially outwardly. The latter has outwardly converging inclined faces 25 and 26 and transverse cutouts 27, equal in number to the slots 22 and arranged to be transversely aligned therewith. An elongated recess 28 is formed into the periphery of the'bore 2 and extends lengthwise thereof. The recess 28 has a generally V-shaped cross-section defining a pair of inclined faces 29 and 30 adapted to be engaged by the inclined faces 25 and 26 respectively.
An arcuated releasing blade or plate 31 is engaged edgewise into each slot 22 and adapted to slide therein around the plug 3 and relative to the latter and the cylinder 1. The arcuated releasing plate 31 includes a projection 32 adapted to engage into one end of the bore 16 when the latter is precisely positioned in alignment therewith, as shown in FIGS. 10 and 11. Each arcuated releasing plate or blade 31 is formed with a notch or cutout adapted to receive the locking side bar 21 and having opposite inclined sides 33 and 34 forming a guideway for the bar 21.
When one or more lock pins 11 has its bore 16 misaligned with the corresponding projection 32, the latter abuts against the lateral side of the corresponding lock pin and through the inclined side 33, against the locking side bar 21 holding the latter against radially inward displacement. The locking bar 21 then engages into both the cavity 20 and the recess 25 and locks the plug 3 against rotation.
When the appropriate key 8 has been inserted into the keyway 6 and the lock pins 11 have all been thence displaced axially and angularly to align the bores 16 with the corresponding projections 32, the rotation of the key in the direction of the arrow 35 in FIG. 11 may be effected, since the arcuated releasing plates 31 are allowed to be displaced around the plug 3. The rotary effort on the latter is then transmitted through the inclined faces 25 and 30 into a radially inward displacement of the side bar 21. The latter then acts against the inclined side 33 to urge the arcuated releasing plates 31 towards the pins 11 until the projections 32 have entered into the bores 16. Then, the locking slide bar 21 has been displaced sufficiently radially inwardly to escape the elongated recess 28 and to travel with the plug 3, as shown in FlG. 11.
The locking of the lock of FIGS. 1 to 15 inclusive is done by counterrotating the key 8 and the plug 3 until the locking side bar 21 aligns radially with the elongated recess 20. Then the springs 24 urge the side bar 21 into the recess 20, causing the inclined face 26 to act on the inclined sides 34 and a resulting retraction of the projections 32 from the bores 16. The key 8 may then be withdrawn, which causes the lock pins 11 to be lowered with odd alignments of their bores 16 by the action of the ramp face 17 of the key on the lowering lock pins. I
The lock according to the second embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 16 to 22 inclusive includes a cylinder 36 into which is rotatably mounted a plug 37 supported at one end by a ring '38 and having a bolt actuating member 39 secured at its other end by means of screws 40 or the like. The plug 37 has a keyway 41 extending longitudinally therethrough and a series of transverse slots 42, into which are slidably mounted sliding blades 43 forming the tumblers.
The cylinder 36 is provided with longitudinal spaces 44 and 45 constructed and arranged for the extension of the sliding blades 43 therein, thereby locking the plug 37 to the cylinder 36. Each sliding blade has a slot 46 generally aligned with the keyway 41 for the insertion of a suitable key 37. Each sliding blade 43 is formed with an offset lug 49 adapted to be engaged by a spring 49 urging the corresponding blade radially outwardly for engagement into the space 44 or 45. Notches or indentations 50 are formed into one edge of each sliding blade 43.
Asvin the first embodiment, the plug of the lock is formed with an elongated cavity 20 adapted to receive the locking side bar 21, with circumferential slots 22, and with blind bores 23 lodging springs 24. The cylinder 36 is provided with an elongated recess 28 which is arranged as in the first embodiment. An arcuated releasing plate 51 is associated to each sliding blade 43 and includes a pair of projections arranged to engage into a pair of notches or indentations 50 of the corresponding blade. Otherwise, the releasing plates 51 are constructed and operate like the releasing plates 31 of the embodiment of FlGS. 1 to 15 inclusive.
When the appropriate key 47 is inserted into the keyway 41 of the lock of FIGS. 16 to 22 inclusive, the blades 43 are displaced radially inwardly as shown in FIG. 18, in which case the projections 52 are allowed to engage into the indentations 50 and to release the locking side bar 21. The latter can then be caused to travel with the plug 37.
Additional indentations 53 are formed along the edge of each blade 43 to complicate and make substantially impossible the successful picking of the lock, since, as soon as one projection 52 will engage any false indentation 53, the whole picking operation has to be started over to release the blade 43 which had been wrongly engaged; otherwise that blade still extends into one space 44 or 45 and locks the plug 37 against rotation.
The lock according to the third embodiment of the invention, illustrated in FIGS. 23 to 27 inclusive, includes a cylinder 54 having the longitudinal space 44 and 45, the elongated recess 28 and an additional elongated recess 55 parallel to the other and similarly formed with a V-notch cross-section and inclined faces. A plug 56 is rotatably mounted into the bore of the cylinder 54 and has a keyway 57 extending longitudinally therethrough. The plug 56 also has transverse slots 42 having sliding blades 43 therein and other transverse slots 58 having sliding blades 59 therein alternatively arranged with the blades 42 and urged outwardly in diametrically opposite direction relative to the latter by springs 49 engaging offset lugs 48 formed into each sliding blade 43 and 59. Each sliding blade 59 also includes thesets of notches 50 and 53 and the slot 46 for the key 47.
The plug 56 includes the elongated cavity and a second elongated cavity 60, generally similar to the cavity 20. The plug 56 also includes the arcuated slots 22 and generally similar slots 61 intersecting the elongated cavity 60. A movable releasing plate 62 having projections 63 is mounted into each slot 61 for actuate displacement towards and away from the corresponding sliding blade 59. A locking side bar 21 is mounted into the elongated cavity 20 and a similar locking side bar 64 is mounted into the second elongated cavity 60. The movable releasing plates 62 are also provided with a notch or guideway having opposite inclined sides arranged to be engaged by the side bar 64 to actuate the same. A key 65 having opposite edges suitably bitted, as shown in FIG. 27, is inserted into the keyway 57, causing radially inward displacement of the two sets of sliding blades 43 and 59 and the alignment of the notches 50 of both sets of blades with the projections 52 and 63 of the corresponding releasing plates 51 and 62. The plug 56 may then be rotated either way, as all the releasing plates 51 and 62 allow both side bars 21 and 64 to retract radially inwardly to disengage the cylinder 54.
It will be readily appreciated that when any sliding blade 43 or 59 is improperly displaced, whether a projection engages into a false notch 53 or not, the plug 56 will remain locked against rotation. It therefore results that improper pickingof even only one sliding blade will counter the opening of the lock.
The fourth embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 28 and 29 defines the basic concept of the first embodiment applied to a lock which includes two rows of tumblers diametrically opposed, instead of only one row. Each lock pin 11 must therefore become aligned with the corresponding projection 32 before the plug can be rotated by rotation of the appropriate key 66.
In FIGS. 24 and 27, P indicates the pitch or spacing between any two adjacent sliding blades 43 and P between two adjacent sliding blades 59. In FIG. 29, P" and P' indicate the pitches for the two rows of lock pins 12. It should be noted that to produce correct alignment of all the bores 16, the pitches P" and P must be equal and in phase.
Each sliding blade 43, 59 is formed with other false indentations 67 at corners thereof, which is adapted to engage one of the lips 68 defined by the spaces 44 or 45 upon an attempt to pick the lock. There results added confusion to perform the picking action.
Referring to FIG. 20, it will be noted that ring 38 has an internal notch 28 to receive the end of side bar 21. Ring 38 does not rotate and its inside cylindrical surface prevents side bar 21 from entering space 44 when plug 37 is rotated to the position of FIG. 19.
As shown in FIGS. 2, 12, 20, 23, 24, tempered steel pins 69 are press fitted transversely into the front end portion of plug 3, 37 or 56 to prevent breaking the lock by drilling through the plug and the plungers 12 or sliding blades 43.
Referring to FIGs. 6 to 8, it is obvious that angle R, R could be negative. One could thus provide key side faces 18 extending transversely with alternate inclinations.
l. A key-operated lock comprising a cylinder, a key plug rotatable in said cylinder, a locking side bar carried by said key plug longitudinally thereof in a cavity of the key plug for rotation therewith and movable be tween a retracted position in which said side bar is totally within said cavity and a locking position in which a part of said side bar extends outwardly of said key plug and engages into a longitudinal recess in said cylinder, at least one of said side bar and cavity having an inclined surface engageable by the other of said cavity and side bar to cause retraction of said side bar from said cavity into said retracted position upon rotation of said key plug, spring means urging said side bar into said locking position, tumblers for locking said key plug to said cylinder, spaced-apart releasing members car ried by said plug around the latter for rotation therewith and in respective transverse alignment with said tumblers, the latter having indentations, said releasing members movable relative to said plug between a retracted position clearing said tumblers and an advanced position engaging said indentations, said releasing members each having a notch with an inclined side, said notches being in register longitudinally of said plug and receiving said side bar, movement of said bar from its locking position to its retracted position causing movement of said releasing members relative to said plug from their retracted position to their advanced position due to coaction between said notch inclined side and said side bar, the latter preventing rotation of said plug in said cylinder, when said releasing members are prevented from moving to their advanced position by said tumblers when their indentations are not all in register with the respective releasing members.
2. A key-operated lock as claimed in claim 1, wherein said recess has a pair of inclined surfaces and said locking side bar includes a pair of inclined faces arranged to selectively co-operate with said inclined surfaces and cause retracting movement of said side bar upon rotation of said key plug in any of two directions in said cylinder.
3. A key-operated lock as claimed in claim 1, wherein said plug includes circumferential slots intersecting said tumblers respectively and each of said releasing members forms an arcuate plate slidably mounted into one of said circumferential slots and intersecting said cavity.
4. A key-operated lock as claimed in claim 1, wherein each of said tumblers includes a generally cylindrical lock pin rotatable in a radial bore of said plug and having said indentation formed at a predetermined angular position and level at the lateral face thereof. a rotation transmitting and key-engaging means is provided on said locking pin and arranged to be operatively engaged by a key having a predetermined rotation producing bitting to rotate said locking pin and to cause alignment of all of said indentations with said releasing members, respectively. thereby allowing said engagement of said releasing members, retracting movement of said side bar and rotation of said plug within said cylinder.
5. A keyoperated lock as claimed in claim 3, wherein each of said tumblers includes a lock pin, a plunger and a biasing spring extending into a pair of aligned radial bores in said cylinder and plug respectively, and each said lock pin is provided with at least one annular shoulder arranged to be engaged by a picking tool to deceive picking action on the lock.
6. A key-operated lock as defined in claim 1, wherein sliding blades are mounted in a row into said plug and arranged in spaced-apart relationship lengthwise of the latter and form a first set of tumblers constituting said tumblers operatively associated to said locking side bar and to said releasing means, and said sliding blades form a second set of tumblers and are constructed and arranged to slide outwardly of said plug in opposite direction relative to the sliding blades of said first set of tumblers, each of said sliding blades includes a hole therethrough for the insertion of a suitable key, each of said sliding blades has an indentation into one edge thereof, the indentations of the sliding blades of said first set and of said second set are arranged at the diametrically opposite ends respectively of said blades, and along the same edge thereof, said releasing members and said locking side bars are operatively associated to the sliding blades of said first set, and other movable releasing members and another locking side bar are similarly operatively associated to the sliding blades of said second set, whereby to allow rotation of said plug in either direction upon engagement of all said releasing members into all said indentations respectively.