US 3837284 A
A projectile for injecting liquid drugs into animals carries within a hollow body a drug in dry powdered form behind a water soluble wad which overlies the inner end of the hollow steel needle, whose outer end projects axially from the forward end of the projectile. The drug is liquified and the wad dissolved by injecting sterile water from a hypodermic syringe by insertion of the syringe needle into the projectile needle and piercing the wad prior to compressing the syringe plunger. In one form, an interior member impacts a paper cap explosive charge, which upon detonation drives the syringe plunger axially to eject the liquid drug from the projectile.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [191 [111 3,837,284 Waldeisen Sept. 24, 1974  DRY CHARGE HYPODERMIC PROJECTILE 3,386,381 6/1968 Ferb 102/92 In o Robert B. Waldeisen R0 3,429,263 2/l969 Snyder et al l02/92 Hillsgrove, Barbours, Pa. 18619 Primary Examiner Robert E Stab]  Filed: Sept. 7, 1973 Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Sughrue, Rothwell, Mion, 211 App]. No.: 395,095 and Macpeak Related US. Application Data 57 R C  fonginugtion-in-(part of Ser. No. 334,546, Feb. 22, A projectile for injecting liquid drugs into animals 97 andone carries within a hollow body a drug in dry powdered form behind a water soluble wad which overlies the 5" 102/92 A; inner end of the hollow steel needle, whose outer end E d DIG projects axially from the forward end of the projectile. 0 ea c The drug is liquified and the wad dissolved by injecting sterile water from a hypodermic syringe by insertion of the syringe needle into the projectile needle  References Clted and piercing the wad prior to compressing the syringe UNITED STATES PATENTS plunger. In one form, an interior member impacts a 979,993 12/1910 O'Byrne et al 102/92 paper cap explosive charge, which upon detonation 2,617,359 ll/l952 Van Horn et al 102/92 d i e the syringe plunger axially to eject the liquid 2,854,925 10/1958 Crockford et a1. 102/92 drug from the projecti]e v 2,923,243 2/l960 Crockford et al. 102/92 3,209,696 10/1965 Palmer et a1 102/92 13 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures 1 DRY CHARGE I-IYPODERMIC PROJECTILE This application is a continuation in part of application Ser. No. 334,546 filed on Feb. 22, 1973, and now abandoned.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to hypodermic type projectiles in which a liquid drug is automatically injected into the animal as a result of projectile impact and skin penetration and, more particularly, to a projectile permitting drugs to be stored therein in powdered form.
2. Description of the Prior Art Hypodermic projectiles have been employed in conjunction with air rifles and the like for administrating liquid medicine and drugs to an animal at some distance from the operator of the air rifle by impact penetration of the hollow needle projecting axially forward of the projectile body. This results in forceful injection of adesired quantity of liquid medicine or drugs from the body of the projectile into the animal through the hollow needle. Conventionally, the hypodermic projectile is in the form of a hollow body carrying a capsule, bladder or the like accommodating the liquid medicine or drug and wherein inertia member such as a ball or the like forces the bladder or capsule to be pierced or otherwise connected to the inboard end of the hollow needle and under the force exerted by the inertial member, the liquid is forced through the needle by movement of the inertial member in a direction twoards the discharge end of the needle.
Such conventional projectiles are complicated by the necessity of providing space for the bladder or capsule and the necessity of providing the drug or medicine in liquid form having a set dosage depending upon the volume of confined liquid within the capsule. Thus, there is a lack of versatility in conventional projectiles. The bladders and capsules are subject to breakage and loss of the liquid contents, the liquid drugs and medicines lose their potency when stored in liquid form for long periods of time, the capsules or bladders storing the drug or medicine in many cases require refrigeration which means that the capsule or bladder must be removed from a refrigerated storage space and placed in the projectile shortly before use, all of which limits the usefulness of the projectiles in the field.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is directed to an arrangement permitting the liquification of the powdered drug just prior to firing of the projectile. The present invention proposes to store the drug or medicine within the projectile in powder form retaining its potency, eliminating the necessity for refrigeration or otherwise temperature control, and permitting by the selective addition of a sterile liquid such as water to the powdered drug or medicine, the creation of a liquid medicine or drug charge within the projectile of known potency, of varying strength while permitting the charge to be liquified just prior to the insertion of the projectile within the weapon firing the same without the hazzards of possible breakage or loss of the liquid charge from the projectile holding the same.
Specifically, within a projectile of otherwise conventional form including a hollow body whose bore defines a chamber closed at its rear end and having attachable closure means for closing its front end and a needle extending axially from the front of the closure means and being in fluid communication with the chamber and a plunger slidably mounted within the chamber bore for inertial movement towards the needle, the present invention relates to the improvement wherein the drug is in powdered form, positioned within the chamber between the plunger and the closure means, and liquid soluble seal means overlies the innerend of the needle permitting the drug to be liquified by injecting liquid into the chamber for contact with the powdered drug and the seal means to dissolve the powder and the seal means just prior to firing of the projectile.
In a preferred form, the closure means comprises a cylindrical plug having a reduced-diameter portion corresponding to that of said chamber bore and received by the bore and terminating in a convex end face which faces a plunger formed of plastic material having concave end faces. The powdered drug is positioned between the plunger and the closure means and at least one metal ball is positioned within the chamberbore on the opposite side of the plunger from the powdered drug. The soluble seal means preferably takes the form of a water soluble wad in the form of a thin disc whose diameter approximates the bore, and is positioned overlying the end face of the cylindrical plug whereby a liquid such as sterile water is injected into the chamber by a hypodermic syringe whose needle is inserted within the bore of theprojectile needle to the extent that it pierces the water soluble disc.
The plunger may be driven towards the needle by the explosive force of detonation of a paper cap explosive which is positioned to the side of the plunger opposite the powdered drug charge and between the plunger and the metal ball which acts asthe hammer to ignite the explosive by impact.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a sectionalview of the hypodermic projectile of the present invention in a preferred form.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the projectile of FIG. 1 showing the method of liquifying thepowdered drug charge through the use of a hypodermic syringe.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view of a portion of the projectile of FIG. 1 after liquification of the powdered drug and the dissolving of the water soluble wad but prior to firing of the projectile.
FIG. 4 is a similar sectional view to that of FIG. 3, but subsequent to firing of the projectile and injection of the charge upon needle penetration of the skin of the animal.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of an alternate form of hypodermic projectile of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a sectional view of yet another embodiment of the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERREDEMBODIMENTS Reference to FIG. 1 illustrates in a preferred form of the invention a projectile identified generally at 10 in the form of a hollow body 12 of cylindrical form, which may be formed of molded plastic or the like, and provided with a bore 14 extending along a portion of its length from its front end. Bore 14. receives a closure in the form of a cylindrical end plug 16 having a large diameter portion 18 terminating rearwardly in a reduced diameter portion 20 whose diameter conforms generally to that of bore 14, with the reduced diameter portion having a convex end face 22 and defining with partial bore 14, a chamber 24. It is noted that the plastic body 12 is provided with a large diameter portion or headed rear end 26 of a diameter conforming generally to the large diameter portion 18 of the end plug 16, these portions of respective members conforming generally to the diameter of the bore of the air rifle (not shown), normally employed in firing the projectile at the animal to receive the liquid drug injection. In this respect, the end plug or closure 16 carries an axially extending hollow steel needle 28 whose leading end 30 is tapered to permit ready penetration of the skin of the animal upon firing of the projectile. The inboard end 32 of needle 28 terminates short of the convex end face 22 of plug 16, the end plug casting being formed with an integral pierceable plug 48 sealing the inner end of needle 28.
The bore 14 of body 12 carries an axially slidable plunger 34 in disc form which may be also formed of plastic and which is provided with concave end faces as at 36 and 38. The plunger 34 slides within the chamber 24 and faces on its inboard side, one or more metal balls or inertial elements 40, formed of steel or other relatively heavy metal, balls 40 being of a diameter somewhat less than that of bore 14, whereby the balls are free to move axially within the chamber restrained only by the slidable plunger 34. On the opposite side of plunger 34 and between plunger 34 and the end plug 16, chamber 24 receives a mass 42 of drug or medicine in dry powdered form, the drug being prevented from passing outwardly through the steel needle 28 due to the presence of a water soluble wad 44 in the form of a paper disc which overlies the end face 22 of the end plug 28. Wad 44 overlies plug 48 permitting it to be readily attached to end plug 16. The end plug 16 is fixed to the cylindrical body 12 by means of adhesive as indicated at 46 after assembly of the projectile components within bore 14.
Assembly is effected by sequentially placing one or more balls 40, slidable plunger 34, and a measured amount of drug 42 or medicine in powdered form within bore 14. The thin water soluble paper wad 44 in the form of a disc is coupled to the convex end face 22 of end plug 16, and the leading end of the cylindrical body and a portion of the bore 14 are provided with adhesive 46, whereupon, the end plug is inserted therein with the water soluble wad 44 in place and the charge projectile may be stored for an unlimited time period awaiting liquification of the powdered drug.
This is achieved as evidenced in FIG. 2, wherein the operator of the weapon firing the projectile manually inserts needle 50 of hypodermic syringe 52 carrying a given supply of liquid such as sterile water (not shown) into the tapered front end 30 of the hollow steel projectile needle 28, until the tip of the hypodermic syringe needle 50 penetrates plug 48 and paper wad 44. Under operation of syringe plunger 54, a measured amount of liquid may be injected within that portion of the chamber 24 carrying the powdered drug 42. As a result, the projectile is in the condition illustrated in FIG. 3 prior to firing, the inertia elements in the form of the steel balls 40 are maintained at the rear of chamber 24, held in position by the slidable plastic plunger 34, while the plunger and the end plug 16 defines a liquid charge storage area storing the liquid drug as at 42'. The bore of the projectile needle 28 is such that the stored liquid charge 42' normally does not leak from the needle but requires forceful movement of the plunger 34 to achieve that result. Thus, during flight and prior to impact, the elements carried within the bore 14 maintain the position shown in FIG. 3 until impact and then take the position as illustrated in FIG. 4. Upon impact with the animal and penetration of the skin, indicated at 56 in FIG. 4, the inertial elements or balls 40, upon the cessation of forward movement of body 12 as the result of the end plug 16 contacting the skin 56 of the animal 60, the mass of the balls 40 acting on plunger 34 causes the plunger 34 to move from left to right, FIG. 4, and to expel the liquid drug charge 42' from the projectile and through the small diameter bore of the hollow projectile needle 28. Since the end face 36 conforms generally to the spherical configuration of the lead ball 40, the ball is centered relative to the plunger, and the plunger easily moves axially within bore 14. Further, since the opposite end face 38 conforms to the convex end face 20 of end plug 16, this assures the discharge of most of the liquid drug from that portion of the chamber 24 storing the same, and thus the animal receives a full measured charge of liquid drug or medicine 42'.
While the inertia element comprises a pair of steel balls, one ball may suffice. It may be formed of heavy metal other than steel, such as lead, or alternatively the plunger 34 itself may comprise the inertial member, assuming it has sufficient mass. Further, while the projectile body 12, the end plug 16 and the plunger 34, are formed of plastic, these elements may be formed of metal or other suitable material depending upon the use to which the projectile is made. Further, while advantageously a hypodermic syrinage carrying sterile water may be employed to liquify the dry powdered charge by permitting the small needle of the syringe to pass axially through the needle of the projectile to the extent where its leading end penetrates the water soluble paper wad 44, it is readily apparent that other means may be employed for liquifying the charge with such means penetrating the projectile body, for instance, to achieve this result. Further, the seal means overlying the inner end of the projectile needle 28 may constitute a water soluble paper wad 44 of disc form having a projecting portion 48 which extends into the hollow needle and such sealing means may also take other forms without departing from the scope of the present invention.
Referring to FIG. 5, an alternate form of the invention is illustrated in terms of a projectile which is similar in external appearance to that of FIG. 1. Like numerals have been employed to indicate like elements to that of the embodiment of FIG. 1. The projectile, which is identified generally at 10', takes the form of a hollow body 12 of cylindrical form which may be formed of molded plastic or the like and is provided with a bore 62 and a counterbore 14 which define a shoulder 64 receiving a shallow metal cup 66 which acts as a rear stop for the single ball 40 positioned within counterbore l4. Slidably positioned within counterbore 14 is plunger 34 and counterbore 14 is closed off by a closure which takes the form of a cylindrical end plug 16. End plug 16, in turn, holds the hypodermic needle 28 whose inner end opens up into the chamber 24 defined by counter 14. A liquid soluble, paper disc wad 44 overlies the convex end face 22 of end plug 16 and a measured amount of drug 42 in powdered form fills that portion of the counterbore 14 between the liquid soluble wad 44 and plunger 34. Plunger 34 is provided with a central projection 74 having a slightly tapered end face 76, and concentrically positioned within counterbore l4 and about the projection 74 is a compression coil spring 72, with one end of the spring abutting plunger 34 and the other end of the spring abutting a shallow metal cup 68 corresponding generally to cup 64 and facing the opposite side of ball 40 from that of cup 64. Positioned between the face of the ball 40 and cup 68, and within the cup, is a paper cap explosive 70 similar to that employable with a childs cap pistol and constituting a small powdered explosive charge which is denotable upon impact.
In this embodiment, when the operator of the weapon firing the projectile inserts a needle of the hypodermic syringe which carries a supply of liquid such as sterile water, sufficient to penetrate the paper wad 44, the liquid is injected within that portion of the chamber 24 carrying the powdered drug 42, the wad 44 is dissolved and the powdered drug 42 is liquified. The inertia element in the form of metal ball 40 is maintained between the fixed cup 64 and the axially slidable cup 68 under the bias of the compression spring 72 with the paper cap explosive 70 in contact with the ball 40 and sandwiched between the ball 40 and cup 68. Again, during flight and prior to impact, the elements carried within counterbore 14 are maintained in the position shown in FIG. 5. At impact, when the needle 28 penetrates the skin of the animal, the inertia of ball 40, upon cessation of forward movement of body 12, causes the mass of the ball 40 to move the cup 68 and the paper cap explosive 70 against the compression of spring 72 until the cup 68 impacts the end 76 of projection 74 at which time the ball 40 effects detonation of the explosive which, in conjunction with the inertia of the ball 40, drives plunger 34 forcing the liquid medicament or drug to be fully expelled from that portion of the chamber 24 forward of plunger 34 through the needle 28 and into the interior of the animal.
A further embodiment of the invention as illustrated in FIG. 6 and again like elements to the embodiments of FIGS. 1 and 5 are given identical numerical designations. The embodiments of FIG. 6 takes the form of a projectile identified generally at 10 having a hollow body 12 identical to that of FIG. 5, of cylindrical form and being provided with a bore 62 and a counterbore 14 within which is positioned an axially slidable plunger 34 in similar fashion to the prior embodiment. A cylindrical end plug 16 carries needle 28 whose inner end opens up into that portion of chamber 24 defined by end plug 16 and plunger 34. Again, a liquid soluble paper wad 44 of disc form overlies end face 22 of the end plug 16 and a drug 42 in dry powdered form fills at least a portion of chamber 24 between the wad 44 and plunger 34. An inertia element in the form of a metal ball 40 is positioned within counterbore l4 and is maintained generally adjacent shoulder 64 formed between bore 62 and counterbore 14 by compression spring 72, one end of which abuts the ball 40 and the other end of which abuts plunger 34. In this embodiment, the paper cap explosive 70 is inserted within chamber 24 and held in position on the end face of the plunger 34 facing the inertia element or ball 40 by appropriate means. Spring 72 may maintain the cap in position such that the ball 40 acts as a hammer to effect detonation of the explosive upon impact of the ball 40 against the paper cap 70. In that respect, the compression spring 72 is of such nature that when fully compressed, the end face of ball 40 makes full contact with the cap sufficient to effect detonation as result of impact. If necessary, a projection such as projection 74, FIG. 5, may be provided on plunger 34 facing the ball 40 and maintaining the cap at an axial position to insure impact of the ball against the cap and compression of the cap between plunger 34 and the ball to effect detonation of the explosive carried thereby. In similar fashion, as result of penetration of needle 28 within the body of the animal or other target and cessation of movement of the body 12', the inertia of the ball 40 is such as to compress spring 72 and to effect impact of the ball against the paper cap explosive 70, resulting in an explosive force being developed on the plunger 34 tending to move it along with the inertia impact effect of the ball towards end face 22 of the end plug 16 sufficient to force the liquid drug through the needle 28 and into the body of the target animal. Of course, prior to firing, liquification of the dry powdered medicine 42 is necessary. This may be achieved in the manner of the prior embodiments.
While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and other changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In a projectile adapted to inject liquid drugs and the like into animals including; a hollow body whose bore defines a chamber closed at its rear end, attachable closure means for closing its front end, a needle extending axially from the front of said closure means and being in fluid communication with said chamber, a plunger slidably mounted within said chamber bore for movement towards said needle, the improvement wherein: said drug is in powdered form and positioned within said chamber between said plunger and said closure means and liquid soluble seal means overlies the inner end of said needle; whereby, said drug is liquified by injecting liquid into said chamber for contact with said powdered drug and said seal means to dissolve the same prior to firing said projectile.
2. The projectile as claimed in claim 1 wherein said liquid is inserted into said chamber by forcing liquid from a hypodermic syringe whose needle is received within the bore of said projectile needle and said seal means comprises: a liquid soluble wad corresponding to the diameter of said chamber and overlying the face of said closure means for penetration by inserted syringe needle.
3. The projectile as claimed in claim 2, wherein said wad comprises a liquid soluble paper disc.
4. The projectile as claimed in claim 1, wherein said plunger comprises a disc of a diameter approximating that of the chamber bore and wherein at least one metal ball of a diameter less than that of said bore is positioned within said chamber and to the side of said plunger opposite that of said drug.
5. The projectile as claimed in claim 3, wherein said plunger comprises a disc of a diameter approximating that of the chamber bore and wherein at least one metal ball of a diameter less than that of said bore is positioned within said chamber and to the side of said plunger opposite that of said drug.
6. The projectile as claimed in claim 4, wherein; said closure means comprises a cylindrical plug having a reduced diameter portion corresponding to that of said chamber bore, received by said bore and terminating in a convex end face, and said plunger is formed of plastic material having concave end faces conforming respectively to said at least one metal ball and said reduced diameter portion of said closure means.
7. The projectile as claimed in claim 5, wherein; said closure means comprises a cylindrical plug having a reduced diameter portion corresponding to that of said chamber bore, received by said bore and terminating in a convex end face, and said plunger is formed of plastic material having concave end faces conforming respectively to said at least one metal ball and said reduced diameter portion of said closure means.
8. The projectile as claimed in claim 4, further comprising: a paper cap explosive carried within said chamber between said plunger and said ball for detonation under inertial impact of said ball.
9. The projectile as claimed in claim 8, wherein: said paper cap explosive is carried within a cup and a compression coil spring extends between said cup and said plunger.
10. The projectile as claimed in claim 8, wherein: said paper cap explosive is in contact with said plunger and a compression coil spring is concentrically positioned within said chamber bore between said ball and said plunger and normally prevents contact between said ball and said paper cap explosive.
11. The projectile as claimed in claim 5, further comprising: a paper cap explosive carried within said chamber between said plunger and said ball for detonation under inertial impact of said ball.
12. The projectile as claimed in claim 11, wherein; said paper cap explosive is carried within a cup and a compression coil spring extends between said cup and said plunger.
13. The projectile as claimed in claim 11, wherein: said paper cap explosive is in contact with said plunger and a compression coil spring is concentrically positioned within said chamber bore between said ball and said plunger and normally prevents contact between said ball and said paper cap explosive.