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Publication numberUS3837763 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 24, 1974
Filing dateDec 22, 1972
Priority dateDec 22, 1971
Also published asDE2262803A1, DE2262803B2, DE2262803C3, DE7246814U
Publication numberUS 3837763 A, US 3837763A, US-A-3837763, US3837763 A, US3837763A
InventorsCarbonnel H, Ertaud A, Panossian J
Original AssigneeAlsacienne Atom
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Liquid metal conduction pump
US 3837763 A
Abstract
A conduction pump having a simple structure for liquid metal, comprising a coil constituted by a refractory casing containing liquid metal and a metal flow duct connnected to the casing by two end pieces each comprising at least one opening.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1 1 Ertaud et al.

[ LIQUID METAL CONDUCTION PUMP [75] Inventors: Andr Ertaud, Paris; Jacques Panossian, Chaville; Henri Carbonnel, Antony, all of France [73] Assignee: Groupement Atomique Alsacienne Atlantique, Le Plessis-Robinson, France [22] Filed: Dec. 22, 1972 [21] Appl. No.: 317,842

Dec. 22, 1971 France ..7l/462l1 152'] vs. Ci..' I;..;IIIITLII.'II.II .I.....417Zsb [51] Int. Cl. H02n 4/20 [58] Field of Search 417/50 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,756,678 7/1956 Collins 417/50 1 51 Sept. 24, 1974 3,115,837 12/1963 Campana ..4l7/50 3,442,217 5/1969 Hanlin ..417/50 Primary Examiner-William L. Freeh Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Sughrue, Rothwell, Mion, Zinn & Macpeak [57] ABSTRACT A conduction pump having a simple structure for liquid metal, comprising a coil constituted by a refractory casing containing liquid metal and a metal flow duct connnected to the casing by two end pieces each comprising at least one opening.

10 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures LIQUID METAL CONDUCTION PUMP The present invention concerns a conduction pump having a simple structure for liquid metal, which may be immersed in the said metal.

It is known that conduction pump designates a pump in which the liquid metal is set in motion by the electromagnetic force produced by the combined action of a magnetic induction and an electric current flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field, across a section of liquid metal flux.

A pump of that type is the object of French Pat. No. 71,09,159 filed in the name of the Applicant on Mar. 16, 1971.

According to an embodiment described in the above mentioned patent, the pump comprises:

A first magnetic circuit provided at its upper part with a first feed winding, and at its lower part with an air gap in which a horizontal magnetic field is set up;

A rectilinear duct having a vertical axis crossing the said air gap, used for the liquid metal flow;

A coil, whose middle plane is horizontal, constituted by a refractory casing containing liquid metal in electrical contact at the level of the said air gap with the liquid metal flowing in the said duct;

A second magnetic circuit provided, at its upper part, with a supply winding inducing an electric current in the coil, the direction of that current being horizontal and orthogonal to the magnetic field in the section of liquid metal situated in the said air gap.

In that pump, the coil is arranged appreciably below the said first and second windings, this enabling the said windings to be above the liquid metal bath when the coil is immersed in that bath.

The refractory casing of the coil is connected to the duct by means of two rigid electrodes ensuring electrical continuity between the liquid metal contained in the refractory casing and the metal flux flowing in the duct.

Pumps of the type described in the aforementioned patent give absolute satisfaction, but the Applicant has attempted to make pumps having a simplified structure and nevertheless having acceptable efficiency, which may be used, for example, in applications where they are called upon to operate on a discontinuous basis.

To obtain the pump according to the invention which is the object of the present application, the Applicant conceived the idea of replacing the rigid-electrodes, which were delicate and expensive to manufacture in the liquid coil pump in the aforementioned patent, by end pieces provided with at least one opening establishing a communication between the inside of the refractory casing of the coil and the inside of the duct.

Pumps whose coils end in end pieces provided with openings have acceptable effeciency and have given satisfaction. In particular, the filling of the coil with liquid metal on starting up the pump, as well as the discharging of that metal after the stopping of the pump are considerably simplified. Indeed, on starting up the pump, the coil is immersed in a liquid metal bath and filled with that same metal. Moreover, the Applicant has observed that it was possible to improve that output in a simple way by cancelling an interference flow of metal which originated in an opposite direction to that of the metal flow in the duct.

According to a first variant of the invention, the end pieces are provided with n openings extended by separations dividing the coil and end pieces into 11 parallel channels.

According to a second variant of the invention, the end pieces are provided with n openings extended by separations dividing only the end pieces into n parallel channels. I

The following description with reference to the accompanying drawings will make it easier to understand how the invention may be implemented.

FIG. 1 is a general view of a pump according to the invention.

FIG. 2 shows diagrammatically a conductive coil provided with end pieces according to the invention.

FIG. 3 is a first variant of a coil provided with end pieces.

FIG. 4 is a second variant of a coil provided with end pieces.

FIG. 5 shows diagrammatically a particular end piece.

The electromagnetic conduction pump such as that shown in FIG. 1 comprises a vertical duct 1 for the liquid metal flow, preferably made of refractory material crossing the air gap 2 of a first magnetic circuit in the shape of a frame 3.

That frame is connected with a winding 4 situated at the upper part of the frame 3 and wound round one of the sides of that frame. The winding 4 is fed with alternating current, so as to set up, in the section of liquid metal situated in the air gap 2, a horizontal magnetic field. That air gap is situated at the lower part of the frame 3.

The pump comprises, moreover, a second magnetic circuit in the shape of a frame 5, a feed winding 6 situated in the upper part of the frame 5 and wound round one of the sides of that frame, and a conductive coil 7 having a rectangular cross-section surrounding one of the vertical sides of the frame 5.

The winding 6 is fed with alternating current so as to induce an alternating current in the conductive coil 7. That coil 7 whose middle plane is horizontal is constitued by a refractory casing 8 containing liquid metal. That casing 8 is connected to the duct 1 by two end pieces 9, 9 each comprising an opening making the inside of the casing 8 communicate with the inside of the duct 1, so that metal may flow between the casing 8 and the duct 1. The section of metal situated between the end pieces 9, 9' has the alternating current generated in the coil 7 passing through it.

The coil 7 is arranged so that the direct current flowing between the end pieces 9 and 9 be orthogonal to the magnetic field set up in the air gap 2 and to the axis of the duct 1. The end pieces 9 and 9' are situated on either side of the part of the duct 1 arranged in the air gap 2, and the casing 8 comprises a plane part situated facing that part of the duct arranged in the air gap 2, also arranged in the air gap 2. The spire 7 is arranged at an appreciably lower level than the windings 4 and 6, so that these windings 4 and 6 be situated appreciably above the liquid metal bath when the coil 7, as well as the part of the duct 1 situated below that coil are immersed in the metal bath. It is thus possible, to protect the said windings 4 and 6 against any accidental rise in temperature which would make good operation of the pump impossible.

For the vertical electromagnetic force which is then set up in the section of metal situated between the end pieces 9 and 9' to remain always ascending, it is necessary to ensure that the current and the magnetic field be approximately in phase.

FIG. 2 shows diagrammatically a conductive coil 17, constituted by a casing 18 containing liquid metal. That coil has a rectangular cross-section and is connected to the duct 1 by two end pieces 19 and 19' each provided with a rectangular opening and 10'.

When the pump is in operation, the metal flux in the duct 1 has an ascending direction (vertical arrow F1). Nevertheless, as the Applicant has observed, an interference flow takes place from top to bottom of the liquid in the end pieces 19 and 19' (arrows F2 and F2). To cancel that interference flow, which decreases efficiency, end pieces having several openings are manufactured.

FIG. 3 is a first variant of a coil 27 constituted by a casing 28 containing liquid metal and ended by two end pieces 29 and 29' connecting that coil 27 to the flow channel 1.

The end piece 29 comprises n openings of equal cross-section, arranged one below another, such as a, 20b Likewise, the end piece 29' comprises n openings having an equal surface, such as 20a, 20b The openings 20a, 20b 20'a, 20b of the end pieces are extended by horizontal partitions such as 2l'a, 2lt situated inside the end pieces and the coil 27. These partitions separate that coil and these end pieces into n parallel channels 22a, 22b and they are constituted by insulating or conductive refractory materials, they prevent any interference flow of the liquid metal from top to bottom in the end pieces 29 and 29 and in the coil 27.

FIG. 4 is a second variant of the conductive coil 37 whose casing 38 is connected to the duct 1 by two end pieces 39 and 39'. Each end piece 39, 39' comprises n equal openings, situated one below another, such as 30a, 30b and 30a, 30'b These openings are extended over the length of the end pieces only by horizontal partitions 31a, 31b and 3la, 31b dividing the end pieces into n parallel channels 32a, 32b and 32'a, 32'b These partitions are made of refractory materials and prevent any parasite flow of liquid metal from top to bottom in the end pieces 30 and 39.

FIG. 5 is an end piece 49 comprising n openings a, 40b whose cross-sections decrease from the lower part of the end piece to the upper part, following the metal flow in the duct, to take into account the possible variant of the field along the duct.

The openings 40 are extended by horizontal partitions. End pieces of that type give excellent results and enable the electrical resistance of the coil on the end of which they are installed to be reduced as much as possible.

The applicant has manufactured end pieces whose openings were extended by inclined partitions, this having, in certain cases, improved the metal flow in the duct.

The end pieces are, to great advantage, made of a ceramic substance, cement or compound materials.

Although the end pieces and the coil are manufactured separately, it is possible, in certain cases, to make this manufacturing easier, to manufacture simultaneously the end pieces, the casing of the coil and also the partitions, for example, by moulding in a same mould, so that the coil and end pieces then form only a single part.

Although the pump which has just been described appears to afford the greatest advantages for implementing the invention, it will be understood that various modifications may be made thereto without going be yond the scope of the invention, it being possible to replace certain of its elements by other elements capable of fulfilling the same technical function or an equivalent technical function therein.

We claim:

1. In a liquid metal conduction pump which may be immersed in said metal and which includes:

a first magnetic circuit provided at its upper part with a first feed winding and at its lower part with an air gap within which a horizontal magnetic field is set up by energization of a first feed winding, a rectilinear duct extending vertically within said air gap for confining the liquid metal flow along a vertical axis crossing said air gap, a second magnetic circuit provided at its upper part with a second supply winding and a coil carried by said second magnetic circuit having an electrical current induced therein and having a middle plane portion extending through said air gap of said first magnetic circuit with the direction of the current being horizontal and orthogonal to the magnetic field in the section of liquid metal situated in said air gap. the improvement wherein:

opposite sides of said duct at said air gap carry aligned openings and said coil comprises a closed refractory casing intersecting said rectilinear duct and terminating at its ends in open end pieces sealingly overlying said openings within respective sides of said rectilinear duct with said refractory casing containing said liquid metal,

whereby, a continuous loop of liquid metal flowing in said duct at the level of said air gap acts as a low impedance closed loop conductor for causing a large current to flow across the flow path of the liquid metal passing axially within the rectilinear duct and at right angles to the magnetic flux path across the air gap.

2. The conduction pump for liquid metal according to claim 1, wherein: each end piece of said casing is constituted by an extension of said casing.

3. The conduction pump for liquid metal, according to claim I, wherein: each end piece comprises n openings separated by partitions dividing that end piece into n parallel channels.

4. The conduction pump for liquid metal according to claim 3, wherein: each end piece of said casing is constituted by an extension of said casing.

5. The conduction pump for liquid metal, according to claim 3, wherein: the cross-section of the openings decreases from the lower part of each end piece to the upper part, following the flow direction of the metal.

6. The conduction pump for liquid metal, according to claim 5, wherein: each end piece of said casing is constituted by an extension of said casing.

7. The conduction pump for liquid metal, according to claim 1, wherein: each end piece comprises n openings separated by partitions dividing the coil and the end pieces into n parallel channels.

8. The conduction pump for liquid metal, according to claim 7, wherein: each end piece of said casing is constituted by an extension of said casing.

9. The conduction pump for liquid metal, according upper part, following the flow direction of the metal.

10. The conduction pump for liquid metal, according to claim 9, wherein: each end piece of said casing is to claim 7, wherein: the cross-section of the openings 5 constituted by an extension of Said Casingdecreases from the lower part of each end piece to the

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2756678 *Nov 22, 1954Jul 31, 1956Gen ElectricElectromagnetic pump
US3115837 *Apr 14, 1961Dec 31, 1963Gen Dynamics CorpElectromagnetic pump
US3442217 *May 19, 1967May 6, 1969Atomic Energy CommissionOn-off switch for electromagnetic pump
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3973878 *Feb 12, 1975Aug 10, 1976Groupement pour les Activities Atomiques et Avancees "GAAA"Method and device for electromagnetic pumping by conduction of liquid metals having low electrical conductivity
US4143997 *Jul 19, 1977Mar 13, 1979Novatome IndustriesElectromagnetic induction pump for molten metal including impurities
US4286926 *Oct 31, 1979Sep 1, 1981NovatomeConduction pump for liquid metal
US4392786 *Oct 16, 1980Jul 12, 1983Merenkov Jury FElectromagnetic induction pump
US4818185 *Oct 13, 1987Apr 4, 1989The University Of Tennessee Research CorporationElectromagnetic apparatus operating on electrically conductive fluids
US5993164 *May 9, 1997Nov 30, 1999Diaz; Rodolfo E.Method and apparatus for an electromagnetic propulsion system
US6200102Mar 2, 1999Mar 13, 2001Rodolfo E. DiazMethod and apparatus for an electromagnetic propulsion system
Classifications
U.S. Classification417/50
International ClassificationH02K44/00, H02K44/04
Cooperative ClassificationH02K44/04
European ClassificationH02K44/04