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Publication numberUS3838537 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 1, 1974
Filing dateJul 2, 1973
Priority dateJul 2, 1973
Also published asCA976037A1
Publication numberUS 3838537 A, US 3838537A, US-A-3838537, US3838537 A, US3838537A
InventorsBates W, Stavenau H
Original AssigneeTruth Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Window hinge
US 3838537 A
Abstract
A hinge for pivotally supporting an awning mounted window sash for angular opening and closing movement relative to a window frame including a friction device slidably mountable on the window frame, a first link pivotally connected to the friction device and the window sash, a second link pivotally connected to the window frame and the window sash, a third link pivotally connected to the friction device and the second link, and gearing connecting the first and third links for equal angular movement so that when the lower part of the sash is pushed outwardly the upper end of the sash also swings outwardly. A pair of hinges are required respectively at opposite sides of the sash.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 9] Stavenau et al.

[111 3,838,537 4 51 Oct. 1, 1974 [5 1 WINDOW HINGE [75] Inventors: Harold L. Stavenau; Wayne C.

' Bates, both of Owatonna, Minn.

[73] Assignee: Truth Incorporated, Owatonna,

Minn.

22 Filed: July 2,1973

21 Appl. No.: 375,855

52 US. Cl.. 49/248, 49/251- 51 Int. Cl E05d 15/44 58 Field of Search 49/24s-251 ['56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,767,979 10/1956 Hummert 49/250 X 2,784,459 3/1957 Anderberg et al.... 49/248 3,020,604 2/1962 Bransford, J-r. '49/25l 3,509,663 5/1970 Miller 49/251 X 22 g lk 7 1'55 f i i I Primary Examinerl(enneth Downey Attorney, Agent, or Fi rmWegner, Stellman, McCord, Wiles & Wood 57 ABSTRACT A hinge for pivotally supporting an awning mounted window sash for angular opening and closing movement relative to a window frame including a friction device slidably mountable on the window frame, a first link pivotally connected to the friction device and the window sash, a second link pivotally connected to the window frame and the window sash, a third link pivotally connected to the friction device and the second link, and gearing connecting the first and third links for equal angular movement so that when the lower part of the sash is pushed outwardly the upper end of the sash also swings outwardly. A pair of hinges are required respectively at opposite sides of the sash.

8 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PAIENTED Hm I i974 SHEHIUFZ WINDOW HINGE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a hinge for supporting and controlling angular movement of a casement, awning or hopper type window sash relative to a window frame, so that the sash is movable to an angularly inclined position in which the outside of the sash is accessible from the inside for purposes of cleaning.

In the past it has been customary to mount sashes by means of a mounting bar secured to the window frame, a mounting bar secured to the window sash, and a pair of links each having opposite ends pivotally connected to the bars, in an arrangement sometimes referred to as a four bar linkage. In order to hold the window in open position, a friction device has been slidably mounted on the window frame bar and connected by linkage with the window sash to retard sash movement. In general, US. Pat. Nos. 2,784,459 and 3,345,777 relate to hinges of the type described. Additionally, US. Pat. No. 2,746,101 relates to an awning type sash with a friction device for holding the sash in open position.

Prior friction devices for yieldably holding a window sash in adjusted positionshave usually included adjustment screws which require manipulation from time to time in order to compensate for wear and material fatigue. It has also been found that prior four bar linkages have often been arranged in a manner such that application of openingforce at one edge of the sash results in inward movement of the opposite edge of the sash in amanner which scuffs the Weatherstripping and results in premature deterioration.

As a result of experiencewith prior art devices, it

would be desirable to improve the construction in a manner to avoid the requirement of repeated adjustment of friction retarding devices and in amanner to prolong the life of Weatherstripping.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a general object of the present invention to provide a hinge for pivotally supporting and controlling angular opening and closing movement of a window sash embodying a linkage arrangement with gearing connecting a pair of links in a manner such that application of opening force at one edge of the window sash has the effect of also moving the opposite edge of the window sash away from the window frame-without damage to Weatherstripping normally utilized between the confronting faces of the window sash and the window frame when the sash is in closed position.

A more specific object is to provide a four bar hinge linkage of the type described for supporting a window sash for angular movement relative to a window frame including a mounting member attachable to a window sash, a mounting member attachable to a window frame, a plate slidably mounted on the window frame member, a first link pivotally connected to the plate and the window sash member, a second link pivotally connected to the window frame member and the window sash member, a third link pivotally connected to the plate and the second link, and gearing connecting the first and third links for equal angular movement so that when one edge of the sash moves outwardly, the opposite edge also moves outwardly relative to the window frame.

A further object is to provide'a new and improved friction device associated with a hinge linkage for pivframe member, and means urging the friction pads toward the window frame member.

More specifically, the friction device comprises a plate of frictional material slidably'mounted in a channel in the window frame member and having bifurcated opposite ends together with means biasing the bifurcated end portions outwardly to engage the side walls of the channel, in a manner such that the biasing means inherently automatically adjusts for wear without the requirement of repeated adjustments.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS closed position and with the window sash omitted;

FIG. 3 s a front elevational view of the linkage illustrated in FIG. 2; I

FIG. 4 is a fragmentary enlarged sectional view taken at about the line 4-4 of FIG. 3, illustrating the friction device;

FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional view taken at about the line 55of FIG. 4; and

FIG. 6-is a transverse sectional view taken at about the line 6-6 of FIG. 4.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION-OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT A hinge embodying the principles of this invention may be adapted to support and control movement of a casement, awning or hopper type window sash relative to a windowframe, and it is to be understood that application of same to a metal frame awning sash window' herein is exemplary. Such type of window is'illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 3 and 6, and comprises a window frame generally indicated by the numeral 20 and a horizontally pivoted outwardly swining sash generally designated by the numeral 21.

The window frame 20 may comprise a sill 22, a head .23 and side jambs as at 24 joined atthe ends thereof to form a unitary structure. The sash 20 may comprise a frame in the form of a top rail 25, a bottom rail 26 and side stiles as at 27 joined at the ends thereof to form a unitary structure. The said sash frame supports a glass pane 28 retained by typical glazing stops 29 and sealing I compound 30. The sash 20 may be weather-sealed by a Weatherstrip 31 supported in sash marginal flange 32 and contacting window frame confronting surface 33, and a Weatherstrip 34 supported in window frame marginal flange 35 and contacting sash frame confronting surface 36.

In an awning type window, the bottom rail 26 of the sash swings outwardly, as is showri in FIG. 1. Similar hinges are used at opposite sides to support the sash and are located respectively in the cavity between each frame jamb 24 and confronting sash stile 27. A hinge is shown at the right side herein, and the left-hand hinge is similar.

Referring now to the hinge structure in detail, it comprises a mounting member 38 attachable to a window frame and mounting member 39 attachable to a window sash, together with a first link 40 and a second link 41 for pivotally supporting the sash member 39. The

frame member 38 is generally bar-shaped and of channel formation in cross section (FIG. 6), with a web 42 and side flanges 43 with inwardly turned'edges 43a,

.to a friction slide 46 mounted in the channel of the frame member 38.

The second link 41 is pivotally connected at 50 to the sash member 39. The opposite end of the link 41 is pivotally connected at 53 to the frame member 38. If desired, link 41 may-include a reinforcing rib as at 47. The web 42 of the window frame member 38 has a round screw hole for a screw 57 (FIG. 1), and a pair of vertically elongated apertures for screws 58 which fasten the member 38 to the window frame jamb 24. The sash member 39 has a round hole 60 (FIG. 2) and two vertically elongated apertures 61 through which fastening screws extend to attach the member 39 to the sash stile 27.

When the window sash 21 is arranged for manual opening and closing, and is not equipped with a selflocking operator such as a gear and crank handle type manual operator, it is essential that friction means be provided to hold the sash in a wide range of angular open positions. Such function is performed by the sliding friction device 46. As best seen in FIGS. 4, and

In order to assure movement of the upper edge of the window outwardly away from the window frame when the lower edge of the window is manually pushed outwardly, the link and the link 74 are-connected by gearing which assures that the two links move pivot-ally outwardly through similar angles relative to the friction slide 65. As illustrated herein. the end of the link 40 is formed with gear teeth 80 which mesh with gear teeth 82 formed on the end of the link 74. Referring to FIG. 2, it will be noted that outward force applied to the lower end of the sash member 39 tends to pivot the member 39 about the pivotal mounting 50, resulting in an inward force at the upper end of the sash member 39. Such inward force, if not opposed, would result in undue compression of the sealing strips 31 and 34 leading to premature deterioration. With the gearing arrangement illustrated. connecting the links 40 and 74 for uniform angular motion, outward movement of the lower portion of the sash has the effect of swinging the connecting link 74 outwardly, as a result of which the intermeshing gear teeth also swing the link 40 outwardly, thereby moving the window portions 32 and 36 away from the confronting faces of the window frame in a mariner to avoid the'scuffing and crushing of weatherstripping 31 and 34 which leads to premature deterioration. 1

In operation, as the sash 21 swings from closed position to open position, the link 41 pivots about the mounting 53, and the pivotal connection swings through an arcuate path designated a in FIG. 1. At the same time, the relatively short link 40 travels in an ar- 6, the friction device 46 comprises a generally rectangular plate 65 of suitable friction material such as nylon disposed within the channel of the frame member 38 and having side edges underlying the return bends 43a of .the channel sides 43. The friction plate 65 is recessed centrally at opposite ends as seen at 66, so that in effect the opposite ends of the plate are bifurcated or'yoke-shaped with yoke arms 67. The material of the plate 65 is resiliently yieldable, and the yoke arms 67 are each formed at the outer edge with a friction pad 68 engageable with the adjacent side 43 of the channel 38. The yoke arms 67 are resiliently urged outwardly by means of a U-shaped leaf spring 69 having a central portion seated at 70 on the plate 65 and opposite ends engageable, with the yoke arms 67, so that the friction pads 68 frictionally engage the side walls 43.

In order to'effect movement of the friction plate 65 along the channel 38 as the window sash is moved between theclosed and open positions, a connecting link 74 has one end pivotally mounted at 75 on the friction plate and the opposite end pivotally mounted at 76 on the link 41. Thus, when the lower end of the sash is swung-outwardly, and the upper end of the link 41 is swung outwardly, the connecting link 74 will pull the friction slide 65 downwardly along the channel 38. Conversely, when the window is returned toward 5 closed position, the link 74 will push the slide 65 upwardly in the channel 38. Contact of the friction pads 68 with the walls 43 of the channel 38 retards movementof the window sash and the sash will remain in any of an infinite number of open positions to which it may be adjusted.

cuate path about pivotal mounting 45. At the same time that the link 40 swings about the pivot 45, the slide 46 also moves downwardly in the channel of the frame member 38, and the upper edge of the sash flange 32 moves approximately through a path esignated by the lineb in FIG. 1. The intermeshing gearing on the links 40 and 74 assures that outward movement of the lower portion of the sash also results in outward movement of the upper portion of the sash in a manner to avoid damage to the Weatherstripping.

The hinge is. generally suitable for application to metal frame awning or hopper sash windows. When applied to an awning sash window, the frame member 38 is fastened to the frame jamb 24 in the position shown,

with the upper end 88 of the frame member abutting or near the upper inside corner of the frame 20. Accordingly, the upper endof the sash member 39 is adjacent to the same frame inside corner when the sash is in closed position. For hopper type sash, the hinges are located near the bottom'of the window in the reverse position to that illustrated and described above.

When the sash 21 is in closed position in relationship to the frame 20, the hinge is in the closed position illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, and the top rail 25 of the sash is adjacent to the head 23 of the frame. In FIG. 1, the sash 21 is shown in open position, and the hinge'is like wise shown in open position. To open or close the sash, force may be applied against the bottom rail 26 thereof, by hand or through a mechanical. sash operator.

As the sash 21 is opened, the bottom rail 26 thereof swings outwardly, and its top rail 25 moves outwardly and downwardly as indicated by the path b. The fully open position of the sash is illustrated in FIG. 1. Oscillatory motion of the link 41 is transmitted through the connecting link 74 and effects reciprocal movement of the slidable friction device 46 along the frame member 38. The leaf springs 69 urge the friction pads 68 into contact with the side walls 43 of the frame member 38, and the friction thus developed is calculated to retain the window in any of its open positions. The design and proportion of the linkage components of the hinge, and the pivotal relation of them to the frame mounting member and the sash member 39 is preferably such that the center of gravity of the sash 21 moves outwardly along a path of movement which is generally horizontal, so that vertical lifting and lowering of the sash is minimal and the sash is well balanced. Accordingly, frictional resistance developed by the pads 67 may be of a low order thereby minimizing wear.

In the sash closed portion, the sash member 39 is disposed adjacent the frame member 38 and gears 80 and 82 retain the window in closed position against an opening force applied to the top of the window. As window opening force is applied against the bottom rail 26 of the sash, it fulcrums on the pivot pin 50, and the top rail of the sash is canted inwardly. During such sash opening movement, the top edge of the sash top rail 25 moves outwardly and downwardly away from the frame head 23, and the related Weatherstrip 31 is moved away from the window frame without significant scuffing which leads to premature deterioration. Simultaneously, the sash surface 36 moves outwardly away from the Weatherstrip 34 without damage to the latter. When the sash is returned to the closed position, the upper portion of the sash moves through a similar return path which avoids excessive deformation of the Weatherstripping.

While the invention is illustrated in an arrangement with the hinge linkage interconnecting members 38 and 39 attachable to the window frame and window sash respectively, it should be understood that the linkage may be mounted directly on the window frame and the window sash.

We claim:

1. A hinge for pivotally supporting a window sash for angular opening and closing movement relative to a window frame, comprising,

a. a window frame bar,

b. a window sash bar,

c. a plate slidably supported on said window frame bar,

d. a first link pivotally connected to the plate and pivotally connected to the window sash bar,

e. a second link pivotally connected to the window frame bar and the window sash bar,

f. a third link pivotally connected to the plate and to said second link, and

g. gearing connecting the first and third links for angular movement proportional to each other.

2. A hinge as defined in claim 1, wherein the plate has friction pads thereon engageable with the window frame bar and means urging the friction pads toward the window frame bar.

3, A hinge as defined in claim 1, wherein the window frame bar is formed with a channel and the plate comprises friction material slidably mounted in the channel and having bifurcated extensions at opposite ends, together with means biasing the bifurcated extensions outwardly to engage the side walls of the channel.

4. A hinge as defined in claim 3, wherein said biasing means includes a bowed leaf spring engaging the bifurcated extensions at each end of the friction plate to urge the latter outwardly.

5. A hinge as defined in claim 1, wherein the first link is relatively short and extends away from the second link when the window sash bar is in closed position, the second link is relatively long and extends toward the first link when the window sash bar is in closed position, the third link has a length intermediate the lengths of the first and second links, and said gearing comprises intermeshing gear teeth on the first and third links so that such links move equal angular distances relative to the friction device.

6. A friction hinge for pivotally mounting a window sash for angular opening and closing movement relative to a window frame, comprising,

a. a window frame member adapted to be stationarily secured to a window frame,

b. a window sash member adapted to be stationarily secured to a window sash,

c. a friction device slidably mounted on the window frame member,

d. a relatively short first link pivotally mounted on the friction device and pivotally connected to the window sash member adjacent one end of the latter to permit limited movement of said one end relative to said friction device,

e. a relatively long second link pivotally mounted on said window frame member in spaced relation relative to said friction device and pivotally connected to said window sash member to permit relatively greater movement of the opposite end of the window sash member relative to the window frame member,

f. a third link pivotally connected to the friction device and pivotally connected to the second link for retarding movement of the window sash member,

and

g. gearing connecting the first and third links for movement proportional to each other so that when said opposite end of the sash member swings outwardly, said one end of the sash member also swings outwardly.

7. A window sash friction hinge as defined in claim 6, wherein the window sash member is mounted for movement from a retracted position in which the members confront each other and the links are substantially parallel with the members, to an extended position in which the window sash member is inclined relative to the window frame member, said second link extending toward said friction device and said first link extending away from said second link when the window sash member is in retracted position, and said gearing comprises intermeshing gear teeth on the adjacent ends of the first and third links, so that said one end of the window sash member moves outwardly and along the window frame member while said opposite end of the window sash member moves outwardly to an extended position relative to said window frame member.

8. A window sash friction hinge as defined in claim 6, wherein the friction device comprises a plate slidable on the window sash member and having friction pads engageable with the window frame member to yieldably hold the sash member in adjusted positions.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2767979 *Apr 20, 1953Oct 23, 1956Standard Thomson CorpWindow actuator
US2784459 *Feb 21, 1955Mar 12, 1957A W Anderberg Mfg CoSupporting bracket for windows
US3020604 *Oct 25, 1960Feb 13, 1962Beaman CorpFriction pivot block for projected type windows and the like
US3509663 *Aug 2, 1968May 5, 1970Robertson Co H HClosures
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4102012 *Dec 1, 1976Jul 25, 1978Interlock Industries LimitedSliding and swinging window stays
US4241541 *Jun 8, 1979Dec 30, 1980Truth IncorporatedDual arm operator for a casement-type window
US5081741 *Sep 20, 1989Jan 21, 1992Ferco International Usine De Ferrures De BatimentHinge fittings for pivoting and tiltable doors, windows or the like, situated in rabbets of the opening frame and the fixed frame
US5199216 *Jun 17, 1992Apr 6, 1993Truth Div. Of Spx CorporationFrench casement window operator
US5673810 *Aug 1, 1994Oct 7, 1997Nova Group, Inc.Pit lid counterweight assembly
US5775028 *Jun 28, 1994Jul 7, 1998Lambert; Peter WinstonWindow stays
US5815984 *Mar 27, 1996Oct 6, 1998Wright Products Corp.Casement window operator
US5839229 *Nov 19, 1996Nov 24, 1998Allen-Stevens Corp.Telescopic operator for casement windows
US5964011 *Sep 12, 1997Oct 12, 1999Newell Operating CompanyAdjustable casement window hinge
US6003705 *May 19, 1998Dec 21, 1999Magnum Mud Equipment CompanyPortable bulk storage container having and easy opening lid
US6308650 *Jul 13, 1999Oct 30, 2001Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki KaishaHatch cover structure for personal watercraft
US7047600Jul 14, 2003May 23, 2006Advantage Manufacturing CorporationEgress 4-bar hinge assembly
US8434265 *Mar 6, 2009May 7, 2013Frank W. CampbellRack gear operator
US20130118084 *May 3, 2012May 16, 2013Caldwell Hardware (Uk) LimitedWindow restrictor
EP0001487A1 *Sep 25, 1978Apr 18, 1979Interlock Industries LimitedA window stay for adjustable mounting of a window sash on a window frame
EP0072320A2 *Aug 3, 1982Feb 16, 1983Yvon GodestRoof-light with wing-frame construction
EP0364379A1 *Sep 21, 1989Apr 18, 1990FERCO INTERNATIONAL Usine de Ferrures de Bâtiment Société à responsabilité limitéeFitting for a pivoting and tiltable wing of a door, window or the like, situated in the grooves of a window
EP0419687A1 *Sep 20, 1989Apr 3, 1991Mila Beslag A/SConcealed stay for turning and tiltable windows or doors
WO1994021879A1 *Mar 21, 1994Sep 29, 1994Ronald Percival DavisA window stay
WO1995002106A1 *Jun 28, 1994Jan 19, 1995Peter Winston LambertWindow stays
WO1996004448A1 *Jul 5, 1995Feb 15, 1996Nova Group IncPit lid counterweight assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification49/248, 49/251, 16/354
International ClassificationE05D15/40, E05D15/44
Cooperative ClassificationE05D15/44
European ClassificationE05D15/44
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 20, 1991ASAssignment
Owner name: SPX CORPORATION A CORPORATION OF DE
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNORS:A.W. ANDERBERG MANUFACTURING COMPANY;OTC HOLDINGS, INC.;TRUTH INCORPORATED;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:005722/0385
Effective date: 19901130
May 20, 1991AS03Merger
Owner name: A.W. ANDERBERG MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Owner name: OTC HOLDINGS, INC.
Owner name: SPX CORPORATION A CORPORATION OF DE
Effective date: 19901130
Owner name: TRUTH INCORPORATED