US 3838545 A
An environmental space module defining an enclosed space or volume which may be formed of modular components including a floor component, a roof component, frame components disposed between the roof and floor defining openings into the contained space and wall components disposed between the roof and floor components and adjacent frame components to enclose the space between frames.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 91 Kump 1 Oct. 1, 1974  MODULAR ENVIRONMENTAL SPACE 3,566,558 3/1971 Fisher 52/595 X MODULE 3,618,273 11/1971 Crandall 52/80 x 3,624,977 1/1970 Morton et al 52/79 X Inventor: Ernest J. Kump, 360 Ev re A 3,642,310 2/1972 Hudson 52/220 x P810 Alto, Calif. 94301 3,690,077 9/1972 Dalgliesh et a1. 52/584 X 9,  Appl' 151,294 1,269,321 7/1961 France 52/73 812,367 0/1951 Germany 52/237  US. Cl 52/79, 52/220, 52/237,
52/270 Primary Examiner-Henry C. Sutherland  Int. Cl E04h 1/12 Assistant ExaminerCarl D. Friedman  Field of Search 52/79, 80, 167, 264, 261, Attorney, Agent, or FirmFlehr, Hohbach, Test,
52/270, 271, 220, 236, 234 Albritton & Herbert  References Cited  ABSTRACT UNITED STATES PATENTS An environmental space module defining an enclosed 2,614,664 10 1952 5116mm 52/264 x Space or volume which y be formed of modular 2,927,665 3 1960 Hauf,......... 52/264 x components including a fl p n nt, a f 3,078,522 2/ 1963 Anderson 52/237 X ponent, frame components disposed between the roof 3,157,254 11/1964 Spiselman et a1 52/263 and floor defining openings into the contained space 3,295,265 1967 H1da 52/237 X and wall components disposed between the roof and 5 9 9 e1 floor components and adjacent frame components to OIllCa 3,533,200 10/1970 ZOebelelfl 52/270 x enclose the Space between frames 3,566,554 3/1971 Schaffer 61 a 52/234 X 13 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures Pmimanw 1 3.838.545 I INVENTOR. ERNEST J. KUMP ATTORNEYS:
minnow H914 am am a INVENTOR. ERNEST-J. KUMP I /2Z4, 7,1 m WW ATTORNEYS SHEET 30? 8 INVENTOR. ERNEST J. KUMP BY ;%,W 72;, was /AQM' ATTORNEYS PATENTEI] 1 PAIENTEBucr 11924 snmsara ,INVENTOR. ERNEST J. KUMP 2%, I ,721 4%iLQW ATTORNEYS PAIENIEU 0m H974 mews INVENTOR ERNEST J. KUMP BY rim-w ,w, m v M ATTORNEYS MODULAR ENVIRONMENTAL SPACE MODULE CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS In copending patent application Ser. No. 60,520, filed Aug. 3, 1970, entitled Building System and Components Therefor, a building system including structural frame components for supporting environmental space modules is described. The space modules described in said copending application include floor, ceilings and walls with openings including frame means. The frame means of adjacent modules are engaged by connecting collars to join adjacent modules and form a larger space. The frames or connectors are also engaged by supporting means to support the mod ules. Components such as doors, closures, windows, air conditioning and the like can be connected to the frame means to close off the exterior openings.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to a space module defining an enclosed space and more particularly to a space module formed of interchangeable modular components permitting a large number of container configurations with a minimum number of different components.
As described in said copening application, space modules may be interconnected to form multi-room structures, such as offices, apartments, homes, schoolrooms, etc. and these, in turn, can be interrelated to form apartment houses, schools, hotels and the like. Each of the modules is of fixed dimension whereby they may be easily interrelated. Larger spaces are formed by selecting modules or compartments having the desired openings to provide wide or narrow connecting passages or wide or narrow exterior openings. Furthermore, the modules are adaptable to rooms of various types such as kitchens, bathrooms, bedrooms, class rooms, offices and the like. Where the modules are of unitary construction and different modules are required for different uses, the inventory costs may become substantial not only because of the cost of the modules but also because of the space required for storage. Finally, transporting of the finished modules from the factory to the site might be expensive.
OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a general object of the present invention to provide a space module in which modules having desired interiors, exteriors, different sized openings and uses may be formed by assembling modular components which are easily fabricated at a factory, stored and easily transported to a site for assembly into a space module by using simple connections.
The foregoing and other objects are achieved by a space module'comprising a floor component, a roof component spaced from said floor component, frame components having bottom, sides and top defining openings for said container connected between said floor and roof components, and a plurality of wall components disposed in the space between the floor and roof components and the sides of adjacent frame components.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a modular space container in accordance with the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an exploded view of the modular space container of FIG. I showing the various component modules.
FIG. 3 is a top view of the floor component of the container shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line 44 of FIG. 3.
FIG. 5 is a bottom view of the roof of the container shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken along the line 66 of FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of a modular space container.
FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken along the line 88 of FIG. 7 showing the top of the frame component joined with the roof component.
FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken along the line'99 of FIG. 7 showing the side of the frame component joined to the adjacent wall component.
FIG. 10 is a sectional view taken along the line l010 of FIG. 7 showing the bottom of the frame component joined to the floor component.
FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken along the line l1l1 of FIG. 7 showing the roof component joined to the wall component.
FIG. 12 is a sectional view taken generally along the line 12-12 of FIG. 7 showing the floor component joined to the wall component and the raceway.
FIGS. 13A 13F show possible configurations of space containers formed of modular components in accordance with the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 1, the space module is a boxshaped enclosure having floor, roof, walls and openings defining a space. The walls and roof are curved in the form of a sector of a sphere. The walls 11 comprise components bent to form corners 12 which merge into the edges of the spherical sector of the wall. A floor component 13 and a roof component 14 cooperate with the lower and upper edges of the wall components. Frame components 16 define openings 17. The edges of the floor and roof components are rounded l8, 19 to merge with the edges of the wall to form a smooth transition. I
The frames 16 are preferably formed with an exterior groove 21 and rim 22 adapted to accept a collar or connector component of the type described in said copending application. The connector serves to interconnect and seal one module to another module to form a larger space and also to support the module. The frame may also receive components such as doors, windows, closures, and mechanical equipment, such as fans and air conditioning units, or fireplace units.
The frame openings 17 may be of various sizes to form windows, doorways, etc. They may be relatively wide whereby when adjacent space modules are connected to one another, the enclosed space is essentially one room. In certain instances, the space modules may include ceiling openings to accommodate skylights or floor and ceiling openings to provide a vertical passage between adjacent vertical modules to accommodate stairs and form a two-level arrangement.
In accordance with the present invention, the space container is modular. Referring specifically to FIG. 2, the space container shown in FIG. 1 is shown in an exploded view with the individual modular components clearly illustrated The container includes a floor component 13 which is adapted to receive the frame components 16 on each of its four sides. The frame components are suitably secured and sealed to the edges of the floor components as will be presently described. Roof component 14 is adapted to engage the top edge of the frame components 16 and is suitably sealed and secured thereto as will be presently described. The space between the floor and roof components and the edges of adjacent frame components is filled by the wall components 11. In accordance with the present invention, three types of wall components are provided whereby they may be oriented and positioned to accommodate a variety of frames providing different size openings 17. The wall components each include a rounded corner portion 12. Howeventhe length of the wall sections extending away from the corner on each side are selected to provide three combinations of lengths.
Referring specifically to FIGS. 2, 3 and 4, the floor component 13 includes an outer shell 26 including an inner layer 27 of insulating material. A cruciform 28 forms a part of the floor 29, provides ends 31 which abut the frame components 16 and provides the step or ledge 32 for supporting floor sections or other components such as the sections 33, FIG. 2. By inserting a flat floor closure, a level floor such as shown in FIG. 4 is provided. On the other hand, rather than closures, the corner sections may be adapted to receive showers, bathtubs or other component suitably made to fit and be retained by the ledge 32. The cruciform includes sides 34 which are secured to the bottom of the shell and provides the support for the floor and inserts. Openings or'holes 36 extend through the arms of the cruciform whereby conduits, pipes and the like can communicate between the compartments 37 defined between the inside 38 of floor component and the cruciform sides 34. An opening 39 extends through the bottom of one of the compartments to provide means for connecting to utilities.
Referring now more particularly to FIGS. and 6, a roof member is shown. The member comprises inner and outer shells 40 and 42 on opposite sides of insulation 43. The member is shaped to fit over the frames 16 and walls 11 of the container.
FIG.'7 is a schematic diagram of a space container such as illustrated and described above. The schematic diagram is presented whereby to provide means for illustrating connection of the components to each other.
FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken along the line 88 of FIG. 7 showing the upper edge of a frame component and lower edge of a roof component. The frame component may comprise a hollow member 41 with a groove 21 and rim 22 adapted to receive an associated connector, as previously described, whereby to connect adjacent modules to one another or to connect closures or other members to the frame. The frame additionally serves to support the module. The frame may be formed from extruded, rolled or stamped members. A section 42 may be removable to provide access to the interior. The outer surface of the frame includes means for connection to the adjacent components. A variety of connection means could be used. For completeness, one is shown and described. Others will be obvious.
The upper surface of the frame member is provided with a fitting member 44 which includes a flange 46 in the shape of an exterior flange adapted to receive the corresponding grooved fitting 47 molded to the edge 48 of the roof component 14. Bolts 49 pull the members together to form a connection and seal. Means 51 are provided at-the outer edge to seal the lower edge of the roof component to the upper edge of the closure or frame.
The side of the frame. FIG. 9, is likewise provided with a flange of the type just described and is adapted to receive the edge of the adjacent wall section in the manner just described to form a connection and seal. Like reference numerals have been applied to like parts.
The lower edge of the frame member serves to receive and support the floor module. Rim 44 fits into the groove 50 formed at the edge of the floor module, FIG. 10. Like reference numerals have been applied to like parts. The top edge of the bottom of the frame is coplanar with the floor 29. In FIGS. 8, 9 and 10. there is schematically shown a door 54. The side of the frameincludes openings 56 and 57 adapted to accommodate electrical. water and other wires or conduits which can pass through the frame or which can be connected to wires or conduits within the hollow frame.
The connection between the upper and lower edges of the wall modules and the roof and floor modules is illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12. The upper and lower edges of the wall components include a rim or tongue 46 which fits into the grooves 47. The space between the wall and the edges of the floor or floor insert are provided with a raceway 48 which accommodates electrical and other utilities which extend thorugh the frames and around the periphery of the container immediately inside the wall. Spaces 37 between the floor insert and the insulation30, FIGS. 4 and 12, serve to accommodate a water heater and other necessary mechanical or electrical appliances.
Referring to FIG. 13, there are illustrated six module configurations which can be achieved by means of the modular floor. roof, wall and frame components. The modules shown have their openings centered in the walls.
The three types of wall components are shown more clearly in FIG. 13. The component 71 includes outwardly extending wall sections of equal length on both sides of the corner. The component 72 has the wall on one side of the corner shorter than the wall on the other side of the corner and by inverting it provides a second opposite configuration. One wall component 73 has equal legs of shorter length. The reference numerals for the three types of components are shown in each of the figures to show their interchangeability to form a varietyof space modules having selected openings. It will also be apparent that it is possible to form modules with openings which are eccentrically located.
It is, of course, apparent that the containers may be formed using honeycomb cores with skins, molded thin shell concrete or conventional construction such as framing members with attached outer and inner wall surfaces. The exterior finishes can have any color, texture and finish to provide an esthetic and differing appearance to the various containers. The interior, of course, can also be varied to suit the environment and the particular type of module under consideration.
It is noted, however, that there has been provided a modular space container in which a minimum number of modules can be combined to form a wide variety of containers having various components such as windows, doors and mechanical means. The interior of the container, by removal of the floor inserts, can accommodate showers, baths, water heaters and other fixtures.
1. A multilateral module defining a space or volume and adapted to interconnect with other modules comprising a floor component of generally square'configuration having a lower exterior surface curved to conform generally to a surface defined by the sector of a sphere with substantially vertical upwardly extending edge portions, a roof component of generally square configuration having an upper exterior surface curved to conform generally to a surface defined by the sector of a sphere with substantially vertical downwardly extending edge portions, frame components having bottom, sides and top defining openings for said module disposed between said floor and roof components on each side thereof with the top of said frame components connected to the downwardly extending edge portion of saidroof component and the bottom of said frame components connected to the upwardly extending edge portion of said floor component to maintain the roof and floor components in spaced relationship, said frame components adapted to interconnect with the frames of adjacent components to form a larger space or volume and a plurality of wall components disposed in the space between and connected to the upwardly extending floor edge portion and the downwardly extending roof edge portion and extending to and connected to the sides of adjacent frame compo nents.
2. A space module as in claim 1 wherein said floor component includes a plurality of removable floor plates.
3. A space module as in claim 1 wherein said components are joined to one another by a cooperating flange and groove connection.
4. A space module as in claim 1 including a raceway between the wall and floor.
5. A space module as in claim 1 in which said wall components comprise a unitary element having first and second wall portions extending away from both sides of a corner along the edge portion of said roof and floor components to engage the sides of said frames.
6. A wall component as in claim 5 wherein the wall portions on both sides of the corner are of the same length.
7. A wall component as in claim 5 wherein the wall portions on both sides of the corner are of different length.
8. A space container of the type including a generally square floor component, a generally square roof component, frame components disposed between and connected to said floor and roof components in each side thereof and wall components disposed between said floor, roof and frame components in which said floor component comprises an outer shell having upwardly extending edge portions, a cruciform floor section supported by said outer shell, and floor closures adapted to fit in the space between the sides of the cruciform and the upwardly extending edge portions.
9. A multilateral space module adaptedto be interconnected with other modules comprising a substantially square floor component including an outer wall with upwardly extending curved edge portions including connection means, a substantially square roof component having downwardly extending curved edge portions including connection means, frame components having bottom, sides and top defining an opening disposed on each of the four sides of the floor and roof components, means cooperating between the floor and roof connection means and the top and bottom of the frame for securing the floor and roof components to the frame, said frame components adapted to interconnect with the frames of adjacent components, four wall components having first and second wall portions extending outwardly from both sides of a corner, said floor components including connection means on the outer edge thereof, said wall components being disposed in the space between the floor and roof components and sides of adjacent frame components, and means cooperating between the frame, sides, the roof components and wall component for securing the wall component to the same to define an enclosed space.
10. A space module comprising a rectangular floor component including an outer wall with upwardly extending curved edge portions including connection means, a cruciform supported from the outer wall and one or more filler panels supported between the cruciform and floor component, a rectangular roof component having downwardly extending curved edge por' tions including connection means, frame components having bottom, sides and top defining an opening disposed one on each of the four sides of the floor and roof components, means cooperating between the floor and roof connection means and the top and bottom of the frame for securing the floor and roof components to the frame, four wall components having first and second wall portions extending outwardly from both sides of a corner, said floor components including connection means on the outer edge thereof, said wall components being disposed in the space between the floor and roof components and sides of adjacent frame components, and means cooperating between the frame, sides, the roof components and wall component for securing the wall component to the same to define an enclosed space, said frames serving to provide the sole support for said module from a-cooperating support means.
11. A space module as in claim 10 including a space between the filler and adjacent wall and a raceway disposed in said space.
12. A space module comprising a rectangular floor component including an outer wall with upwardly extending curved edge portions including connection means, a rectangular roof component having downwardly extending curved edge portions including connection means, frame components having hollow bottom, sides and top adapted to accommodate utilities defining an opening disposed one on each of the four sides of the floor and roof components, means cooperating between the floor and roof connection means and the top and bottom of the frame for securing the floor and roof components to the frame, four wall components having first and second wall portions extending outwardly from both sides of a corner, said floor comoperating support means.
13. A space module as in claim 11 wherein the top, bottom and sides of said frame component are hollow and means provide communication between the interior of the frame and the raceway whereby utilities can be extended around the periphery of the module.