US 3838626 A
A gas or vapor powered double acting motor having a housing in which is a primary central chamber and two secondary chambers communicating therewith. Each secondary chamber has a high pressure inlet port and low pressure exhaust port. A drive assembly is axially reciprocatable in the housing and includes a rod carrying a free piston dividing the primary chamber into high and low pressure compartments. The rod is rigidly connected to each of the secondary pistons. Within each of the secondary chambers is a cylindrical valve having radial holes. The valves are freely movable by the free piston and the secondary pistons to respectively open and close the ports. The free piston reciprocates in the primary chamber by high pressure gasses which are admitted in one compartment and expelled as low pressure exhaust gas out of the other compartment alternately. Gas passes axially of the valves and radially through the holes therein in passing to and from the ports.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent "1191 Carter I GASOR VAPOR POWERED DOUBLE ACTING PISTON MOTOR  Inventor: Donald Carter, 10 Costello Av., Bay
Shore, NY. 11706 22 Filed: Dec. 11,1972
21- Appl. No.: 313,766
 U.S. Cl 91/323, 91/342, 91/398  Int. Cl. F01] 15/16, F011 23/00  Field of Search. 91/398, 323, 342
 i References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,117,884 ll/1914 Montgomery 91/323 1,709,682 4/1929 Moxley 91/323 2,445,985 7/1948 Werner....'.
2,992,636 7/1961 Sampietro 3,274,899 -9/1966 Stump 91/342 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 26,280 0/1904 Great Britain 91/323 0119315 GreatBritain' ..9l/323 HIGH PRESSURE IN Attorney, Agent, or FirmEdward H. Loveman 57 ABSTRACT A gas or vapor powered double acting motor having a housing in which is a primary central chamber and two secondary chambers communicating therewith. Each secondary chamber has a high pressure inlet port and low pressure exhaust port. A drive assembly is axially reciprocatable in the housing andincludes a rod carrying a free piston dividing the primary chamber into high and low pressure compartments. The rod is rigidly connected to each of. the secondary pistons. Within each of the secondary chambers is a cylindrical valve having radial holes. The valves are freely movable by the free piston and the secondary pistons to respectively open and close the ports. The free piston reciprocates in the primary chamber by high pressure gasses which are admitted in one compartment and expelled as low pressure exhaust gas out of the'other compartment alternately. Gas passes axially of the valves and radially through the holes therein in passing to and from the ports.
7 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures 3 ow PRESSURE our HIGH PRESSURE IN PATENI mm mm:
3.838.626 SHEHIUF 2 GAS OR VAPOR POWERED DOUBLE ACTING PISTON MOTOR The present invention involves improvements in the prior pumps or motors and is comprised of a housing with a-primary piston in a primary chamber adapted to admit gas under pressure applied via one or another of 'two gas inlet ports located in a respective secondary chamber communicating with the primary chamber. Each secondary chamber also has an exhaust gas outlet port. The primary piston rides freely on a reciprocatable rod or drag link which extends axially of the primary chamber and connects a secondary'rod or piston at each end thereof. The secondary chambers are sealed off from the exterior of the motor by radial flanges on the secondary pistons. Surrounding each of the secondary pistons is a cylindrical valvelarger in diameter than the secondary piston so that gas can pass axially through the valve. Each valve has radial holes at opposite ends to pass gas radially to and from the outlet and inlet ports of the secondary chamber. The valves ride freely on the secondary pistons to close and open the ports alternately in each secondary chamber. Mechanical power is taken from that portion of both secondary piston extending axially outward of the housing. The secondary pistons are moved by the primary piston which is reciprocated in the primary chamber by high pressure gas admitted alternately into opposite ends of the primary chamber while exhaust gas is discharged from the other end. The primary piston moves the valves alternately to close the exhaust port and open the inlet port in each secondary chamber. The secondary piston in each chamber in turn moves the valve therein to close the inlet portand open the exhaust port. The motor operates cyclically at high speed determined by the inertia of the drive assembly including primary and secondary pistons, connecting rod and valves.
It is therefore a principal object of the present invention to provide a gas powered motor having a cylindrical'piston riding on a connecting link and reciprocated in a primary chamber by high pressure gas admitted alternately to opposite ends of the chamber.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a gas powered motor as described, wherein the connecting link connects two secondary pistons in secondary chambers communicating withthe primary chamber.
Another object ofthe present invention is to provide a gas powered motor as described, wherein cylindrical, radially apertured valves are movable by the primary piston and secondary pistons to open and close gas inlet and outlet ports at the secondary chambers respectively.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a gas powered motor which can utilize high pressure air or other gas, steam or other vapor supplied by any readily available source. to replace other electrically powered or fluid powered motors. v
These and other objects and many of the attendant advantages of this invention'will be readily appreciated as the same becomes better understood by reference to the following'detailed description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a free piston gas powered motor embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal central sectional view taken along line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view taken along line 33 of FIG. 2; 4 FIG. 4-is across sectional view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 2;
' FIG. 5 is a side view of the free piston per se;
FIG. 6 is an end view of the free piston taken along line 66 of FIG. 5; and
' FIG. 7 is an exploded perspective view of parts of the reciprocating motor drive assembly employed in the motor.
Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference characters designate like or corresponding parts throughout, there is illustrated in FIG. 1 to 4 a motor 10 including a hollow, cylindrical housing 12 defining a primary chamber 14. Opposite ends of the housing 12 are closed by a circular head 16 and 18 held inplace by a plurality of bolts 20 each secured by a nut and washer 22 and 23. Integral with and secured to each of the heads 16, 18 is a hollow housing section 24, 26 respectively defining respective secondary chambers 25a. 25b. The housing sections 24, 26 are open at their outer and inner ends. At their inner ends they open into the primary chamber 14. Exhaust ports 28a, 28b are each defined by a slot in each upper wall 30 of the respective housing sections 24, 26 and open into the secondary chambers 25a, 25b respectively. Fittings 32a. 32b at opposite ends of the housing 12 open into inlet ports 31a, 31b respectively and are integral atone end with a bottom wall 34 in the respective housing sections 24, 26 and each fitting terminates at theother end in a threaded nipple 33. Each of the housing sections 24, 26 v terminates in an annular flange 36.
A reciprocating motor drive assembly extends through the chambers 14, 25a and.2 5b in the respective housings 12, 24 and 26. The assembly 50 as best shown in FIGS. 2,3, 4 and 7 includes a free circular primary piston 52 movable axially in the chamber 14 and dividing it into two compartments. The compartments are alternately increased and decreased in size to receive high pressure driving gas and to expel low pressure exhaust gas. The primary piston 52 has cylindrical extensions 54a, 54b at opposite sides extending axially. Each of the extensions 54a, 54b has four circumferentially spaced radial flutes 56 defining c-ircumferentially spaced axially extending channels 58 therebetwe en as best shown in FIGS. 5, 6 and 7. The flutes 56 and the channels 58 guide gas into and out of chamber, 14. The piston 52 has a central bore 60 larger in diameter than that of a 'connectionrod or drag link 62 extending through the bore 60. The piston 52 rides freely on the link 62 which reciprocates axially in the chamber 14 and terminates at opposite threaded ends 64 in a spective housing 24, 26. Each of the heads 16 and 18 is formed with a central hole 72 through which can extend inner ends of the respective piston 68a, 68b and -outer ends of the piston extensions 54a and 54b. When the primary piston 52 is reciprocated in the chamber 14,-a slight amount of gas is permitted to leak between the drag link 62 and the bore 60 of the primary piston 52 and also between the outer diameter of the piston .52 and the bore of cylinder 14 so that when piston 52 is reciprocated it floats thereby minimizing friction.
Moveably mounted on the inner portions of each of the secondary pistons 68a, 68b is a cylindrical spool valve 75a, 75b respectively. Each valve 75a and 75b has a cylindrical body 76 formed with axially spaced circumferential grooves 78 and a central axial bore 79, and each valve terminates at opposite ends in rings 82, 84 having reduced external diameters. The purpose of the grooves 78in the body 76 of each valve 75a and 75b is to trap the gas or vapor and thus float the valve and minimize friction and radial load. Each of the rings 82, 84 is formed with a multiplicity of circumferentially spaced holes 86, 88 to pass gas radially to the exhaust ports 28a, 28b and from inlet ports 31a, 31b via the channels 58 in the piston extensions 54a, 54b. The diameter of each of the rings 82, 84 is slightly larger than that of hole 72 in the heads 16, 18 so that the tubular ports 31a, 31b and the respective outlet ports 28a, 28b.
However it should be noted that the primary chamber 14 and the primary free piston 52 are proportioned such that the primary piston 52 will engage the ends of the primary chamber, i.e., circular head 16 or the circular head 18 before the rings 82 and 84 contact the circular heads 16 or 18 whereby the cylindrical valves 75a and75b are free floating and unloaded. The diameter of the inner end 68' of each of the secondary pistons 68a, 68b is smaller than those of the hole 72 so that the inner end of the respective secondary piston can enter the chamber 14. The bore 79 in each of the cylindrical valves 75a and 76b is larger in diameter than'the respective piston 68a, 68b to define cylindrical spaces through which gas can pass axially of the valve and then radially through the holes 86, 88.
A pressurized source of gas or vapor such as compressed air, high pressure steam or the like from anysuitable source such as an engine, pump, boiler, high pressure cylinder, compressor and the like, can be manifolded to both of the fittings 32a, 32b at the nipples 33 for energizing the motor 10. The outer end portions 68" of each of the secondary pistons 68a, 68b
may be connected to reciprocating loads. These can be mechanical loads. Alternatively, the piston: portions 68" can serve as parts of reciprocating pistonsof external liquid or gas pumps. In any case, the energy sup- The chamber 25a communicates with the nipple 3211 via the inlet port 310 in the bottom wall 34. The inner ring 84 of the valve 75a is located at the port 31a so that gas under pressure can enter the chamber 25a and reach the piston 52 via the channels 58 in the extension 54a. The piston 52 rides freely on the rod or shaft 62.1
The valve 75b in the chamber 25b is disposed as shown in FIG. 2. The body 76 of the valve 75b closes the port 31b to close off the chamber 25b from the nipple 32b. The port 28b is open to the chamber 2512 since the apertured ring 86 of the valve 75 is located at the port 28b.
When the gas at high pressure impinges on the left i side of piston 52 positioned as illustrated in FIG. 2 the piston moves to the right as far as it will go, expelling exhaust gas from the right compartment while filling the left compartment. The piston extension 5412 then contacts the inner end 68 of piston 68b and moves it i to the right to the dotted line position shown. The pistime the rod 62 and the pistons 68a, 68b move simultaneously to the right. The flange 70 of the piston 680 then moves the valve 75a to the right until its cylindricalbody 76 closes the inlet port 31a while the outlet port 28a is opened at the outer ring 82 of the valve 75a. The valves 75a, 75b move sequentially while the pistons 68a, 68b move simultaneously. The cycle then repeats in the opposite direction as gas or vapor under pressure is passed via the fitting 32bto the right side of the piston 52 through the open inlet port 31b. The motor drive assembly 50 then moves to the left to re store the valves 75a, 75b and the pistons 52, 68a, 68b to the positions shown in FIG. 2. Exhaust gas passes axially of the bores 79in the in the valves 75a,75b to reach the ports 28a, 28b via the radial holes 86.
It will be apparant that the gas or vapor under high pressure is alternately applied to opposite sides of the free piston 52 in the primary chamber 14. Exhaust gas at low pressure is displaced from chamber 14 by the piston 52 and is expelled from the chambers 25a, 25b via the exhaust ports 28a, 28b. The reciprocating rods or pistons 68a, 68b can do whatever mechanical work desired, via suitable attachments for pumping fluids or mechanical cranking drive trains.
Although not illustrated, it is obvious that the primary free piston 52 may be fastened to the rod or link 62. In such an embodiment however, the primary pistons stroke must be proportioned such that the clearance between the flange 70 and the valve 75a in FIG.
. 2 must be equal to the distance between the ends of the flutes 56 facing the secondary chamber 25b and the valve 75b.
If desirable, the flutes 56 in the primary free piston 52 may be eleminated and the secondary pistons or rods 68a and 68b may respectively incorporate another flange (similar to flange at the primary chamber end which when actuated by the primary piston will move the respective cylindrical valve a or 75b to open the inlet port and closethe exhaust port. Thus in this-latter embodiment, the stroke of the valve 750 and 75b would be determined by the distance between the flanges on the secondary pistons or secondary rods.
The motor can be made to any desired specifications, such as size, weight, power handling capabiity, gas or 5 fluid volume, etc. Speed of operating will primarily depend on the inertia of the reciprocating assembly and pressure values. Parts may be made of plastic, metal and/or other suitable materials.
lt should be understood that the foregoing relates to only a preferred embodiment of the invention, which have been by way of example only and that it is intended to cover all changes and modifications of the example of the invention herein chosen for the purposesof the disclosure, which do not constitute departures from the spirit and scope of the invention.
The invention claimed is:
l. A gas powered motor, comprising:
a housing defining a primary chamber and two secondary chambers respectively communicating with opposite ends of said primary chamber,
said secondary chambers having a diameter smaller than said primary chamber,
said housing having at each secondary chamber an inlet port for admitting high pressure gas and an exhaust port for expelling exhaust gas at low pressure;
a reciprocatable drive assembly disposed in and. ex-
tending axially of said housing, said assembly comprising:
a drag link,
a primary piston symetrically disposed about said link in said primary chamber and freely movable thereon to move in response to applied gas pressure,
a secondary rod connected to each opposite end of said link and movable axially of said housing within said secondary chamber, said secondary rods having portions extending outwardly of said secondary chambers for reciprocatably drawing loads,
a cylindrical valve movable freely on each ofsaid secondary rods adjacent to said inlet and said exhaust ports in each of said secondary chambers to open and close said ports,
said primary piston having axial extensions at opposite ends thereof for moving said valves alternately to close said exhaust port and open said inlet port,
and a each of said secondary rods having actuating means to move said valves alternately to close said inlet wherein saidaxial extensions of said primary piston port and open said exhaust portin one of said secdary chambers until one of said primary piston extensions contacts said cylindrical valve in the other of said secondary chambers thereby axially moving said valve in said of other secondary chambers to close said exhaust port and open said inlet port therein and simultaneously axially moving said actuating means whereby said inlet port is closed and said exhaust port is opened in said one of said secondary chambers.
2. A gas powered motor as defined in claim 1, wherein each of said valves has an axial bore whose diameter is greater than that of said secondary rod on which it moves for passing exhaust gas axially through said valve to and from said ports adjacent thereto.
3. A gas powered motor as defined in claim 1,
have circumferentially spaced radial flutes and channels for guiding and passing gas at high pressure from said inlet ports to said primary chambers.
4. A gas powered motor as defined in .claim 1 wherein each of said valves has an axial bore whose diameter is greater than that of said secondary piston on which it moves for passing gas axially through said valve, and wherein each of said valves has a plurality of circumferentially spaced radial holes at opposite ends thereof for passing exhaust gas radially to said exhaust ports and for passing gas at high pressure from said inlet ports to said primary piston.
5. A gas powered motor as defined .in claim 1, wherein said means on said secondary rods for moving said valves comprises annular flanges arranged to seal off said secondary chambers from the exterior of said housing.
6. A gas powered motor as defined in claim 4, I
wherein each of said valves has a cylindrical body portion between said holes at opposite ends of said valves for closing off said inlet and said outlet ports alternately ments for respectively containing gas at high pressure pressure and exhaust gas at low