Apparatus for photographing by artificial lsght
US 384151 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F. .B. GOULD.
APPARATUS FOR PHOTOGRAPHING BY ARTIFICIAL LIGHT.
No. 384,151. Patented June 5, 1888A N. PETERS. Plvololilhngmpher. Washmgwn, D. C.
NITED STATES PATENT FlFlCE.
FORREST B. GOULD, OF MILFORD, MASSACHUSETTS.
APPARATUS FOR PHOTOGRAPHING BY'ARTlFlClAL LiGl-l'l'.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 384,151, dated June 5, 1888.
Application filed May 1387. Serial No. 237,577.
To all whom it may concern: Other features of my invention will be Be it known that I, FORREST B. GOULD, of pointed out in the claims at the end of this Milford, county of \Vorcester, and State of specification.
Massachusetts, have invented an Improvement The drawing shows a sufficient portion of a 5 in Apparatus for Photographing by Artificial room in which my improved cabinet or appa- Light, of which the following description, in ratus is located to enable my invention to be connection with the accompanying drawing, understood. is a specification, like letters on the drawing Referring to the drawing, A represents the representing like parts. floor of a room or gallery in which my im- [0 This invention relates to the art of photogproved cabinet or apparatus is situated, the raphy, and has for its object to provide an said room beinga gallery such as now used by apparatus or cabinet whereby photographs photographers; oritmay be any other room of may be taken in a novel manner by artificial sufficient size to enable the photographer to light, the photograph when completed being operate.
I5 substantially equal in quality or tone to those The room referred to may bea dark roo1nproduced by daylight. that is, free from daylight,which is not requi- Prior to my invention I am aware that phosite to the successful operation ofmy process tographs have been taken by artificial light; thus enabling photographers to utilize less exbut such photographs do not compare in delpensive galleries or quarters than now re- 20 icacy of shading or harmonious blending of quired, and to operate in a lower story rather light and shadow with those produced by daythan in an upper story of a building; as now light. occupied the rooms are usually located at the In accordance with my invention I have top of a building and provided with a large aimed to and have broughtthe artificial light glass skylight.
2 under the natural laws oflight, as it were, so The cabinet referred to, and as shown in the that the rays of artificial light fall upon the drawing, consists of a frame, A, to which subject in the same manner as does natural are secured pieces of sheets a a a? of cotton light. cloth or other translucent material, which are 8 0 To accomplish my object, the subject is sta-- painted or otherwise rendered opaque on the 0 tioned in a cabinet or apparatus the top, sides, outside; but instead of attaching the pieces or and rear walls of which aremadeof orcovered on sheets a a a to the frame A they may be seone side with translucent material, preferably cured to the sides and ceiling of the room; or line cotton cloth, and rendered opaque on its the said sides and ceiling of the room may be opposite side, and preferably on each side of painted of light color. Between the sides a 35 the said subject within the cabinet is placed a a, at the rear, is placed a background, I), of screen of cotton cloth or other translucent maany desired or well-known form, such as now terial. The screens referred to are placed in commonly used. an oblique position, the distance between the The subject to be photographed is stationed said screens at the front of the cabinet being in front of the background I), and the subject 0 less than that at the rearthat is, thesaid (if a person) maybe seated in the chair I). On screens diverge from the front toward the rear the sides of the subject are placed screens 0 c of the cabinet. Between one of the screens of cotton cloth or other translucent material, referred to and a side of the cabinet is located the said screens preferably resting upon the the artificial light, which will preferably be an floor, as shown, and extended above the source 4.5 electric-arc lamp. of light, being placed in a slanting or oblique My invention therefore consists, essentially, position and diverging from the front toward inaphotographers cabinet,in the combination, the rear of the cabinet, the length of the said with an artificial light, of a translucent screen screens being less than the height of the room, at the source of light to effect a diffusion of so as to leave a space between the top of the so the rays and an opaque or semi-translucent screen and the sheet a, the said screens being screen to effect a toning down of the diffused shown as resting against the background Z). light. Between one of the screens, as c, and one side of the cabinet, as a, is placedthe artificlal light, shown in the present instance as two electric-arc lamps, d d, the lamp d being preterably somewhat higher than the lamp d.
Each lamp is provided, as shown, with a porcelain or ground glass or other globe, d, by which the rays of light emitted from the are are intercepted and diffused through the room. Part of the rays of light pass upward over the screen 0, and, being reflected by the sheet a fall down over the subject. Another portion of the diffused rays of light falls upon the outer inclined side of the translucent screen 0, pass ing through the said screen and falling upon the subject.
By placing the screen 0 in an oblique position, as shown, the incident rays are not deflected as they pass through the said screen, but fall directly upon the subject, the said rays being softened by passing through the screen, so that the light surrounding the subject is softened and diffused over the said subject in a substantially even manner, so that the fine points of the subject may be more thoroughly brought out or produced in the photograph. Part of the rays of light fall down behind the screen 0', and, passing t-herethrough, assist to light the side of the subject nearest the screen 0. It will thus be noticed that the rays of light from the lamps d d are first broken up or diffused at the lamps by the globes d and that portion of the diffused rays passing over the screen 0 falls down on the subject, while the portion of the rays falling upon the screen 0 lights up the said screen evenly, thus assisting to produce an even light in whichthe subject may be stationed.
Shadows may be cast upon the subject should necessity require by means of an opaque or semi-translucent screen, 0, placed between the subject and the screen 0.
It has been demonstrated by actual practice that aharmonious blending of light and shadow may be effected and an artistic photograph be taken by first diffusing the light near its source and then causing the said diffused light to fall naturally upon the subject, a nicer effect is obtained, and a harmonious blending of light and shadow being effected.
The opaque or semi-translucent screen 6 is interposed between the screen 0 and the subject to tone down any seeming high lights upon the face, so as to further produce a proper balance or harmonious blending of the high light and natural shadow. To produce a desired effect, a second screen may be interposed between the screen 0 and the subject, if desired.
In practice a screen opaque on its outer side and white on its inner side will preferably be extended from the front of the screen A to the front of the screen 0 and 0, to thus shut in the light from the room.
The screens a a a are made opaque on their outer side to prevent the rays of light from penetrating through them and being lost, as it were.
I claim 1. A photographers cabinet or apparatus having sides a a and top 00 of translucent material rendered opaque on its outer side, and an artificial light located in said cabinet, combined with a translucent screen, a, between the said light and the subject to be photographed, and with a second screen located on the opposite side of the said subject, substantially as described.
2. A photographers cabinet or apparatus having sides a a and top a of translucent material rendered opaque on its outside, an artificial light located in said cabinet, a translucent screen between the said light and the subject to be photographed, and a second screen located on the opposite side of the said subject, combined with a screen, e, as and for the purpose specified.
In testimony whereof Ihave signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
FORREST B. GOULD. Witnesses:
G. W. GREGORY, B. DEWAR.