US 384376 A
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(No ModeL) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1.
' PIRE ESCAPE. No. 384,376. Patented June 12, 1888.
(No Modl.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
PIRE ESCAPE. No. 384,376. Patentedlue l2, 1888.
INVBNTOR L BY amg ATTORNEYS.
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UNITED STATES PATENT rrrcn.
'WILLIAM MCMULLTN, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOS.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 384.376, dated June 12, 1888.
Application filed December 12, 18E?. Serial No.257,700. (No model.)
T0 @Z5 whmn it may concern:
Be it known that I, WILLIAM McHULLiN, of Chicago, in the county of Cook and State of Illinois, have invented a new and Improved FireEscape, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact description.
My invention relates to an improvement in tire-escapes, and has for its object to provide a cheap, durable, permanent, and simple escape, whereby firemen may ascend to any door, being fully protected in the ascent,and wherein part-ies may make their escape from a burning building without danger of falling or suffocation.
The invention consists in the construction and combination of the various parts, as will be hereinafter fully set forth, and pointed out in the claim.
Reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, forming a partof this specification, in which similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in all the gures.
Figure l. is aperspective view of the escape; Fig. 2, a central vertical section through the same. Fig. 3 is a transverse section on line 1r of Fig. 2. Fig. ft is a detail View of one of the steps. tubular support, and Fig. Gis a section through oneV of the spacingings.
l'n carrying out the invent-ion, the escape consists of a well, A, built partially in the wall and partially outside, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The well is provided at the base a with a tireproof door, b, and also with others of a similar nature, leading out upon each door of the up per stories. The well is built preferably of common hard-burned brick and mortar, with or without an interior coating, and the doors may be made of Cast or malleable iron, prci erably the latter.
The walls of the well A are adapted to rise about six feet above the roof with a door leading ont thereon, and the said well at the top is provided with a hood or covering, B, also reproof, of greater diameter at the base than the diameter of the weil, the said hood being attached to the well in such manner that an opening, Zi', is left between the top of the well and the sides of the hood, as shown in Fig. 2, to permit a circulation of air and an exit of any smoke which may accumulate. Centrally Fig. 5 is a section of the central in the well a water-pipe, D, is vertically supA ported, adapted to rest upon a stone or other hard base, D. The pipe D is to be of a size usually employed by the fire-department, provided with nozzles d at each door, to which nozzles the lines of hose are applied. Aseries of stopcocks are also provided the stand-pipe at suitable points in its length to control the supply of water.
C, Fig. 4, represents one of a series of steps Or treads whcrewith a spiral stairway, C', is constructed around and about thepipe D. Each step is more or less triangular in shape and provided at the reduced end with an integral eye, e, adapted to be entered over the central supporting-pipe, D, as shown in Fig. 2, and E represents the platform used at each landing, which is supported in similar manner to the steps.
The rise ofthe steps and platforms are both regulated by metal rings E', having an inside diameter equal to the outside diameter ofthe pipe D, one or more rings, as the case may de mand, encircling the pipe D, and intervening each step and the steps and platforms, the wide end of the step being supported in the wall ofthe well.
A railing, H, is provided the steps at each side, the better to facilitate ascent and descent, which railing is preferably made of ordinary gas or water pipe. it will be thus observed that the narrow ends of steps are supported on the center pipe, as on a ncwel in ordinary winding stairs, and the wide end in the wall.l
The fact of resting one end of the steps upon or in the wall imparts strength to the structure,each step acting as a dovetail, bracing the walls of the well at little cost. Thus the well being independent of the walls of the building, should the latter fallthe former will stand intact. The well in private dwellings may be built in any convenient place and utilized as a back or servants stairway.
It is evident that the escape may be readil y attached to old buildings at a verysmall cost, and need not necessarily be erected with the building.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-n The combi natioinwith the fire-proof well A,
hnilt partly in a dwelling, having iire-proofl on saidpipeD andhaving their outer ends proro doors b, a standpipe, D, centrally secured in ject in the Wall of the Well, and the platforms said well, provided with nozzles d, a hood or E, secured at their inner ends to the pipe and top, B, secured centrally to the upper end of at their outer ends in thewall of the we1l,snb the pipeD and resting over the upper end of the stantially as shown and described.
Well and secured thereto7 as shown, and an air- WILLIAM MCMULLIN. opening, b, formed between said hood and top wWitnesses: of the well, of a spiral stairway composed 'of GRANVILLE I. CHITTENDEN,
triangular steps supported at the inner ends W. J. FAIRMAN.