US 3843976 A
The water used for flushing toilets is the effluent from kitchen sinks, bath tubs, showers and wash basins. A basin which receives excreta is so mounted that it pivots automatically when sufficient waste water has collected sending the collected excreta on toward the sewer. A toilet which envelopes solid excreta in foam is described. The foam prevents escape of odor prior to dumping.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
[ 51 Oct. 29, 1974 METHOD OF AND AN APPARATUS FOR SAVING WATER USED IN TOILETS  Inventors: Masami Miya; Shigeru Nemoto; Masanori Otsuka, all of Tokyo, Japan  Assignee: Nepon Kabushiki Kaisha Nepon Company Ltd.), Tokyo, Japan  Filed: Sept. 24, 1973  Appl. No.: 398,502
 Foreign Application Priority Data Man 3, 1973 Japan 48-25549 Mar. 3, 1973 Japan 48-26868[U] Mar. 3, 1973 Japan 48-26869[U] Apr. 12, 1973 Japan 48-43165[U] May 5, 1973 Japan 48-53686[U]  US. Cl. 4/1, 4/32  Int. Cl A47k 17/00  Field of Search 4/1, 12, 166, 167, 168, 4/169, 32, 10
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,112,497 12/1963 Call 4/1 3,183,525 5/1965 0 Brian et al. 4/1 3,259,918 7/1966 Walkar, Sr. ct a1 4/18 3,383,710 5/1968 Sumner 4/1 3,719,958 3/1973 Wilhelm... 4/1 X 3,731,324 5/1973 Moon .,4/11
3,732,577 5/1973 Moon .1 4/18 3,780,757 12/1973 Jordan 4/1 X Primary Examiner-Henry K. Artis Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Blum, Moscovitz, Friedman & Kaplan [5 7 ABSTRACT The water used for flushing toilets is the effluent from kitchen sinks, bath tubs, showers and wash basins. A basin which receives excreta is so mounted that it pivots automatically when sufficient waste water has collected sending the collected excreta on toward the sewer. A toilet which envelopes solid excreta in foam is described. The foam prevents escape of odor prior to dumping.
18 Claims, 26 Drawing Figures PNENWMN 29 am I I saw 2 W m mmm PATENIEMBI 29 m4 3; 843; 976
SHEW 8 ifs METHOD OF AND AN APPARATUS FOR SAVING WATER USED IN TOILETS This invention relates to a toilet water saving method and apparatus. Body wastes or excreta deposited in toilet bowls are nowadays most conveniently flushed away therefrom through a drain to a sewer system or to an individual excreta disposal station. However, the practice of flushing excreta requires a relatively large quantity of water, exceeding one-third the water requirement for each household, which accounts for a substantial part of the total quantity of city water consumption.
On the other hand, sources of water supply available as city water are limited, and it is becoming more difficult every year to introduce water supply from rivers and lakes to the city. Thus, there is an increasing demand for water, and it is becoming difficult to meet the demand for water in the urban areas.
Consequently, programs are under way to devise means for utilizing regenerated or recycled water for such purposed as flushing away body wastes deposited in toilet bowls, sprinkling lawns and washing cars. However, such programs have not as yet matured and regenerated water is not yet available.
The quantity of water alotted to household uses has shown a marked increase in recent years largely due to the popularization of flush toilets. This has created a demand in recent years for toilet facilities of a new type which help economize on pure city water by using effluent from other water-using devices such as sinks, tubs, showers, etc., to flush body wastes into the sewer system. Such effluent will be referred to as waste water.
A foam-containing flush toilet, which constitutes a part of the invention, is a highly hygienic special type of toilet which uses a very small quantity of water because the disposal of body wastes deposited in the bowl is effected by the foam which additionally has the effect of preventing odor release because the excreta are enveloped in the foam. One disadvantage is associated with this type of toilet bowl. A drain connecting the bowl to the sewer system must be inclined at to or more with respect to the horizontal. This can be achieved if the toilet is close to the sewer main or is at a level which is sufficiently higher than that of the sewer main. However, these conditions cannot be met if such foam-containing toilet must be replaced by a toilet of another type.
SUMMARY OF THE lNVENTlON An object of the present invention is to provide a method of and an apparatus for economizing on city water by utilizing an excreta flushing-away device and a foam-containing flush toilet which is as effective as ordinary flush toilets from the points of view of promoting sanitation and preventing odor production and which utilizes waste water at a volume no larger than conventional toilets. The device receives waste water containing dirt and other solid matter from the kitchen, bath-rooms, wash-tubs and wash basins and is free from the danger of being choked with its contents or of its contents leaking outside. The device is capable of automatically supplying a sufficiently large quantity of water to flush away body wastes coming from the foamcontaining toilet bowl, so that body wastes can be discharged to the sewer main or delivered to an individual excreta disposal station.
Another object of the invention is to provide a flush which comprises a discharged waste water control means.
Another object of the invention is to provide a flush which comprises a pivotally supported container having balancing control means including balance weights which can be attached thereto readily and economi cally.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a flush device comprising fixing means which can readily be detachably attached to the bottom portion of the pivotally-supported container and which has a long service life.
A further object of the invention is to provide a method of disposal of excreta adapted for use in a multi-storied building which is conducive to economy of water and which utilizes waste water from a waterboiling station, cleaning-water tank and the like provided on each floor.
According to the invention, there is provided a method of saving water used in conventional flush toilets comprising the steps of introducing waste water from a kitchen, bath-room and wash basin and the like and collecting the waste water in a flush device includ ing a pivotally-supported container and connected between a foamcontaining toilet bowl connected to a series of excreta-discharging pipes and a drain, depositing body wastes in the foam-containing toilet bowl which body wastes are enveloped in the foam and move downwardly by gravity through the excretadischarging pipes and are collected in a discharge port of the flush device or in a trap mounted between the excretadischaging pipes and the drain, and permitting said pivotally-supported container to automatically fall forwardly and empty itself of its contents when the quantity of waste water collected therein exceeds a predetermined level. At this point, the center of gravity of the container moves forwardly to tip the container ad thereby flush away the body wastes in the trap or in the discharge port to a sewer system, the pivotally supported container being automatically restored to its initial position to be ready for the next following operation after its contents are discharged.
According to the invention, there is provided an apparatus for carrying the aforementioned method into practice comprising a foam-containing toilet bowl lined with a mat impregnated with a surface-active agent adapted to continuously produce foam, a bend connected to a lower portion of the foam-containing toilet bowl and also lined with a mat impregnated with a surface-active agent adapted to continuously produce foam, a series of excreta-discharging pipes connected to the bend, a trap connected to a lower end of the excreta-discharging pipes, a drain connected at one end to the trap and a flush device comprising a pivotallysupported container adapted to receive and collect therein waste water from a kitchen, bathrooms and wash basins and connected to the trap, the container being constructed in such a manner that its center of gravity is disposed at all times above a pivot at which the container is supported and moves forwardly as the waste water contained therein increases in quantity until the container suddenly falls forwardly and empties itself of its contents when the contents exceeds a predetermined level, the center of gravity returning to its initial position when the contents are discharged so that the container pivots back to its original position.
Thereby, the body wastes collected in the trap or a discharge port in the container are flushed away through the drain into a sewer system without requiring the use of pure, clean city water for excreta-flushing purposes.
Particularly, the invention is a flush-device comprising a pivotally-supported container and a support supporting the container and protecting the same from the surrounding soil, the pivotally-supported container being formed at its top with an opening for introducing and discharging waste water therethrough into and out of the container, the pivotally supported container being constructed to balance in an unstable manner as its center of gravity shifts with an increase or decrease in its contents so that its center of gravity is disposed at all times below a pivot at which the container is supported but the center of gravity is disposed rearwardly of the pivot when the container is empty and moves forwardly of the pivot as the quantity of the contents of the container increases till the container suddenly automatically falls forwardly when its contents exceed a predetermined level, the center of gravity automatically returning to its initial position when the contents of the container are discharged, whereby a sufficiently large quantity of waste water can be supplied in a rush to flush away body wastes collected in the path of flow of the waste water from the waste water supply device.
Still other objects and advantages of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part be apparent from the specification.
The invention accordingly comprises the several steps and the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, and the apparatus embodying features of construction, combinations of elements and arrangements of parts which are adapted to effect such steps, all as exemplified in the following detailed disclosure, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS For a fuller understanding of the invention, reference is had to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. I is a side view of a first embodiment of the present invention in vertical section;
FIG. 2 is a side view of a second embodiment in vertical section;
FIG. 3 is a side view of a third embodiment in vertical section;
FIGS. 4 (A) to FIG. 4 (E) are vertical sectional side views of the excreta-container and support for same during successive filling and emptying steps;
FIG. 5 is a vertical sectional side view of the waste water adjusting means of the excreta flushing-away waste water supply device;
FIG. 6 and FIG. 7 are embodiments of the balancing control means for the pivotally supported excretacontainer;
FIG. 8 is a central vertical sectional front view;
FIG. 9 is a perspective view of the pivot and the pivot retainer at one side;
FIG. 10 (A) and FIG. 10 (B) are side views showing the operation of the pivot and the pivot retainer;
FIGS. 11 (A) and 11 (B) are plan views of the container; and
FIGS. 12 to FIG. 20 illustrate the method of disposal of excreta adapted for use in a multistoried building, FIG. 12 being a plan view;
FIG. 13 being a sectional view taken along line A-A' of FIG. 12;
FIG. 14 being a sectional view taken along the line BB of FIG. 12;
FIG. 15 being a sectional view taken along the line CC' of FIG. 12;
FIG. 16 being a sectional view taken along the line D--D of FIG. 12;
FIG. 17 being a sectional view taken along the line E-E' of FIG. 12;
FIG. 18 being a sectional view taken along the line FF of FIG. 12;
FIG. 19 being a sectional view taken along the line G-G' of FIG. 12, and
FIG. 20 being a vertical sectional side view of the tippable container, water supply and drain.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The apparatus adapted to carry the method according to the invention into practice comprises, as shown in FIG. 1, a foam-containing toilet B having a foamcontaining conduit A connected thereto, waste water supply device C for flushing away excreta, a drain D and piping associated therewith. The apparatus is constructed so that the foam-containing toilet B is disposed at the top and the flush device C is disposed below the foam-containing conduit or bend A and connected to the lower end of piping 5,5,5, with a waste water duct 1 being connected to the device C and the drain D provided with a trap 2 disposed at the bottom.
A bowl 3 of the foam-containing flush toilet B, the foam-containing bend A, a rubber screen 4 for effecting foam sealing disposed in the bend A and excreta discharge pipes 5, 5 and 5" are covered on the inner surface with a mat lining 6 impregnated with an aqeuous solution of a surface active agent which continuously produces foam. A large quantity of foam 6 is produced when a button (not shown) is depressed after the deposit of body wastes 7 in the bowl 3, so that the bowl can be cleaned and the body wastes 7 can be conveyed downwardly by the foam while being enveloped in same.
The foam 6 disappears with time, so that the excreta discharge pipes 5, 5 and 5" are never clogged with foam. However, part of the foam formation may remain on water 8 in the trap 2. The quantity of foam produced for effecting foam scaling is 2 to 3 cubic centimeters per minute (3 to 4 liters per day) in terms of an aqueous solution of a surface active agent. The mat is reimpregnated with surface-active agent as needed, i.e., when foam is no longer formed.
The device can be operated without said mat impregnated with surface-active agent, but, in general, the device is fitted with said mat. The agent can be supplied continuously from a container or the container can be fitted with a valve which opens only when the toilet is in use.
The flush device C is adapted to receive, through the waste water duct 1, waste water 21 containing dirt and food particles from the kitchen and from the wash basin, and keeps the waste water therein till its quantity exceeds a predetermined level, at which point the total quantity of stored waste water is discharged for flushing away the excreta 7 contained therein.
The device C comprises a pivotally supported watertight container with open top for receiving therein the waste water 21 and discharging the same there from, and a housing 17 for providing support to the watertight container 10 and preventing transfer of material to or from the surroundings.
The container 10 is a watertight container adapted to be disposed in a tilting position which includes an opening 9 for receiving and discharging the waste water 21 therethrough, and a pivot 12 for pivotally supporting same. (Said pivot 12 is a shaft in the embodiment of FIG. 1 and a knife edge in the embodiment of FIG. 3).
The degree of tilting of the container and the weight of balance weights 18 are so related that when the container is in positions shown in FIG. 4A to FIG. 4E, the pivot 12 is disposed in a position which is below the center of gravity Ga to Ge. When the quantity of waste water 21 collected in the container 10 exceeds a predetermined level L as shown in FIG. 4C, the center of gravity Gc moves leftwardly of the pivot 12 causes the container to tip and empty as shown in FIGS. 4D and 4E. When the container 10 has emptied it rotates clockwsie about pivot 12 and returns to the state shown in FIG. 4A.
Stated differently, the container 10 balances in an unstable manner as the center of gravity shifts with an increase or decrease in the quantity of the waste water 21 collected therein. The behavior of the container 10 when the waste water 21 is gradually delivered to the container 10 through the opening 9 will now be described with reference to FIG. 4A to FIG. 4E.
When the container 10 is empty, the container It) stands in a stable manner with a portion 12 of the bottom 11 being maintained in contact with a groove 13 formed in a housing 17 as shown in FIG. 4A. When the waste water 21 is poured in the container 10 but the quantity thereof is below the predetermined level L, the center of gravity moves from Ga to Gb or nearer to the pivot 12 while being maintained in its stable position without falling. When the contents of the container 21 increase in quantity and exceed the predetermined level L, as shown in FIG. 4C or when an impact is given to the container 10 by a large quantity of waste water 21 being suddenly delivered thereto in a short time interval, the center of gravity Gc moves leftwardly of the pivot and the container 10 rotates counterclockwise, as shown in FIG. 4D, so that the waste water 21 and the dirt and solids 20 are automatically poured out through opening 9.
When the container 10 has emptied itself, the center of gravity moves to Ge to the right and the container is restored to its original position. Thereafter, the same operation is repeated as the waste water 21 is supplied to the container 10 and the contents thereof increase in quantity, so that the supply of waste water for flushing away body wastes can be delivered at intervals.
The container 10 is disposed in the housing 17 including a discharge port 14 (FIG. 5) and a lid 17' formed therein and a waste water inlet port 15. As aforementioned, the housing 17 is formed with the groove 13 and bottom surface which is inclined and opens into the discharge port 14 for discharging therethrough overflowing waste waster from the container 10.
In order that the container 10 may not fall forwardly when the quantity of waste water therein is below the predetermined level even if an impact is applied thereto, the container 10 is constructed so that it is normally disposed in a stable position with the center of gravity disposed rightwardly of the pivot 12 or on the bottom side when empty or contains a small quantity of waste water. As aforementioned, the balance weights 18 or their equivalents may be provided so as to preclude premature tipping of the container 10. Preferably, the groove 13 is V-shaped in transverse crosssection and is located above surface 17" to prevent the outer face of container 10 from adhering to surface 17" by virtue of the surface tension of water.
Although the container 10 is very simple in construction as aforementioned, it is effective to discharge all the contents therein without a drop of waste water being retained, because the bottom surface 11 and side surface constitute a sharply inclined surface and a gently inclined surface respectively which are continuous with each other. Almost no dirt or solids contained in the waste water are left in the container 10. Even if they are left over, they are flushed away in the next operation and never stay there for long.
The body wastes 7 deposited in the bowl 3 move downwardly by gravity into the trap 2 (FIG. 1) or discharge port 14 (FIG. 3) of the waste water supply device C, and a drain passage D connected thereto through the excreta discharge pipes 5, 5' and 5" and stay temporarily therein. The body wastes 7 temporarily collected therein are flushed away by the waste water 21 supplied in a rush from the excreta flushingaway waste water supply device C as aforementioned, so that they move through the drain D to a sewer main or an individual sewage disposal station.
In a study, it was found that the quantity of water used with a flush toilet nowadays averages 35.7% of the total water consumption of each household. The quantitles of water used in each household for washing clothes and the like, for washing bodies and faces in the bath-room and at the wash basin and for cooking foods in the kitchen account for 17.5%, 4.6% and 27.5% respectively of the total water consumption, the total for non-toilet use being 49.6%. Thus the quantity of water which can be utilized as the waste water 21 according to the invention would be greater than the clean city water hitherto used for flushing away body wastes from the toilet bowl. If rain water were available, the quantity of water available for flusing away excreta would be over twice that of water hitherto used for the same purpose.
The quantity of waste water 21 supplied to each household cannot be too great; the larger its quantity, the better. No trouble would ensue even if emptying of the container 10 does not coincide with the deposit of excreta in the toilet bowl 3 and excreta are not flushed away each time they are deposited in the toilet bowl. Since body wastes are wet with an aqueous soltuion of a surface active agent which performs a lubricating action, they do not clog the drain and are discharged smoothly. Small pieces of body wastes are further broken down and partly rendered soluble and never adhere to the parts of the apparatus.
From the foregoing description, it iwll be appreciated that the method according to the invention can be carried into practice by an apparatus which comprises, in addition to a foam-containing toilet bowl B and a conventional drain, a waste-water supply device C of a very simple construction. The method is conducive to economy on clean city water adapted for drinking purposes because the body wastes deposited in the toilet bowl are flushed away by the waste water from the kitchen, laundry room and bath-room without using clean water. Popularization of the method and apparatus according to the invention would lighten the burden on the waterworks operated by the local governments and would elminate the need to provide a second system of city water supply for household use. Besides, the invention offers the advantage of permitting hygienic toilet facilities to be utilized even when water supply is restricted.
The presence of dirt and solid food residues in the waste water 21 does not interfere with the operation of flush-away of body wastes performed by the device C, the device C being free from the accident of being clogged or leaking. Since the quantity of water used for flushing away body wastes is generally larger according to the invention than in conventional flush toilets, and since the drain is covered on its inner surface with a surface-active agent which has a lubricating effect, the apparatus as a whole never gets clogged.
The provision of the trap 2 in the drain D and the rubber screen 4 in the foam containing bend A are effective to preclude counter-flow of sewage gases, thereby contributing to abatement of odor and prevent the growth of germs. The foam-containing toilet B is effective to continuously supply 2 to 3 cubic centimeters of water per minute to the trap 2 in foam form even when not in use, so that the water 8 in the trap 2 never disappears by evaporation.
Besides being very simple in construction, the waste water supply device C has no valves, plugs or links which could cause failure.
In some households, a foam-containing toilet bowl has been in use in combination with a night-soil plot. The invention offers the advantage of permitting such households to switch to a flush system when a sewer main is laid near their households, by additionally mounting some devices. In addition, it is the main characteristic of the foam-containing toilet bowl that the toilet bowl is clean at all times and superior in external view to the flush toilet. Experiments show that the noise produced when the container 10 falls and is restored to the original position is very small; the noise produced is much smaller than the noise produced in flush toilets of a low tank type.
Limits are placed on the height of the waste water supply device 10 or the head of water with respect to the drain D in order to smoothly receive waste water from the kitchen and the like. However, since the device C has no valve seat and plug seat and since the drain system has little bend, there is small loss of the head of water and water pressure can be effectively utilized. The trap performs cleaning and siphoning actions satisfactorily, and the aqueous solution of the surface active agent used with the toilet bowl and bend for producing foam is in diluted form and capable of destroying microorganisms, particularly in the sewer system. Thus, the use of the method according to the invention offers the additional advantage of reducing the total quantity of sewage handled by the sewer system, thereby easing the burden on such system.
An embodiment of the waste water supply device C according to the invention will now be described with reference to FIG. 2. The apparatus adapted to carry the method according to the invention of saving water used in flush toilets shown in FIG. 2 comprises the foamcontaining toilet B including the foam-containing bend A connected thereto, the device C, drain D and piping associated therewith. The apparatus is constructed in such fashion that the foam-containing toilet B is disposed at the top and the flush device C is disposed below the foam-containing bend A, with the waste water discharge pipe 1 being connected between the toilet B and device C. The drain D having the trap 2 mounted therein is connected to the lower portion of the flush device C. In this form of device C, body wastes 7 are introduced directly into the container 10, which also receives waste water 21 from the kitchen, etc., the container 10 being watertight and pivoted as described with reference to FIG. 1 and disposed in the housing 17 adapted to support the container 10. The container 10 is formed with the opening 9 for receiving and discharging the waste water 21 and body wastes 7 and supported at the pivot 12.
Like the container shown in FIG. 1, the container 10 shown in FIG. 2 is constructed to reciprocate as the center of gravity shifts depending on an increase or decrease in the quantity of waste water 21 and body esastes 7 in the container 10 as described with reference to FIG. 4A to FIG. 4E.
The waste water 21 and body wastes 7 introduced into the container 10 through the opening 9 behave in the same manner as the waste water 21 introduced into the container shown in FIG. 1.
The housing 17 for supporting the container 10 is formed with a body-wastes inlet port 16 in addition to the discharge port 14, waste water inlet port 15 and manhole 19. A manhole cover 22 is applied to the manhole 19 through a manhole cover support 23. The groove 13 inclined toward the discharge port 14 or the inclined bottom surface is formed in the support 17 for draining the excreta-containing waste water 21 overflowing the container 10 into the support 17.
Another embodiment of the waste water supply device C which represents an improvement on the basic form is shown with reference to FIG. 5. As aforementioned, the waste water supply device C comprises, in principle, the pivotally supported container 10 adapted to receive the waste water 21 from the sources mentioned (and the body wastes 7 too in some cases). As the quantity of waste water 21 (and the body wastes 7) in container 10 increases, the center of gravity of the container shifts so that it falls downwardly at intervals and is restored to its rest position. The device C also comprises the housing 17' for supporting and enclosing the container 10. When the quantity of waste water 21 and body wastes 7 is below a predetermined level (the quantity of water necessary for flushing away the body wastes is preferably from 12 to 14 liters), the container 10 does not tip. However, when the quantity exceeds the predetermined level, the container 10 quickly falls so as to flush away the body wastes 7 with a relatively large quantity of waste water 21.
The relatively large quantity of wabte water 21 containing the body wastes 7, when released from the container 10, surges toward the discharge port 14 (about millimeters in diameter). Because of this, there has hitherto been a tendency for part of the waste water 21 to impinge on and rebound from front wall 24 of the housing 17 and to flow backwardly or for part of the waste water 21 to remain in the housing 17 for a period before being discharged.
The housing 17 has a bottom 17" which has hitherto been connected to the discharge port 14 in almost a straight line, although it slopes slightly with respect to the discharge port 14. Thus, when the waste water 21 flows backwardly or remains in the housing 17 as aforementioned, it moves all the way back to a position on the bottom 17 which is disposed rightwardly of the pivot 12 or pivot support 25 of the container 10. As the waste water is gradually discharged through the discharge port 14 with time, the excreta, dirt or suspended solids may remain by adhering to the pivot 12 or pivot support 25, or the bottom 17" of the support 17 may become soiled with cooking oil or the like. Thus, the efficiency of the device C is lowered and the device C is unsatisfactory from the sanitary point of view.
The container 10 falls forwardly till part of its front wall touches the bottom 17" of the support 17. Because of this, the waste water flowing backwardly as aforementioned may return to the container 10, thereby preventing the container 10 from being restored to its original position. Thus, the waste water 21 is not collected in the container 10 but discharged to no purpose.
The form of the waste water supply device C shown in FIG. which obviates these disadvantages of the basic form will now be described.
The pivotal container 11) shown in FIG. 5 is supported in the housing 17. In addition to the manhole 19, bottom 17" and excreta discharge port 14, a front wall 24 is formed in the housing 17 which is connected to the excreta discharge pipe 5 and waste water inlet port 15 at the top wall and side wall respectively.
The container is supported at 12 at its bottom, and the housing 17 includes a pivot support 25 for supporting the pivot 12 disposed at the bottom 17" of the housing 17. The bottom 17" is offset in a portion disposed leftwardly of the pivot support 25 in FIG. 5 to provide a water sump 26 which opens at the discharge port 14.
The pivotal container 10 constructed as shown in FIG. 5 operates in the same manner as other forms of container. The waste water is introduced into the container 10 through the waste water inlet port while the body wastes 7 are introduced thereinto through the excreta discharge pipe 5'. As the quantity of waste water 21 and body wastes 7 in the container 10 increases, the center of gravity of the container 10 shifts leftwardly till the container suddenly falls forwardly to empty itself. When the contents of the container 10 are discharged, the container 10 returns immediately to its original position to receive the waste water 21 and body wastes 7 therein again. Thus, the device 10 is effective to intermittently discharge both the waste water 21 and body wastes 7 to the sewer main through the discharge port 14 and drain 2.
The water sump 26 has a volume such that the water flowing backwardly at the discharge port 14 does not overflow the water sump 26. In the embodiment shown, the water sump 26 is substantially a rectangular parallelepiped and has a volume of about 7.5 liters.
The provision of water sump 26 distinguishes the housing 17 shown in FIG. 5 from other embodiments. Although the water sump 26 is simple in construction, it is effective to preclude backward flow of water to the bottom 17 of the housing 17, even if part of the waste water and body discharges remains in the housing 17 or impinges on the front wall 24 and flows backwardly because all the waste water and body waste cannot pass through the discharge port 14 at once. Almost all the waste water and body wastes which fail to pass through the discharge port 14 gather in the water sump 26, so that adhesion of dirt and other solids to the pivot 12 or pivot support 25 is precluded. Soiling of the bottom 17" with cooking fats and the like is also precluded.
When the pivotal container 10 falls forwardly, its front end is disposed at a level higher than that of the discharge port 14, so that the waste water and body wastes never flow back into the container 10. As aforementioned, part of the waste water and body wastes stays in the water sump 26 without being discharged through the port 14. The dirt and solids mix with and float in the waste water in the water sump 26, so that the dirt and food scraps are flushed away with the waste water on the next cycle. Even if the bottom of the water sump 26 is soiled with cooking fats and the like, access can be readily had thereto through the manhole 19 to clean the water sump 26.
Referring to FIGS 6 and 7, the waste water from the kitchen, bathroom and wash basin and the body wastes from the foam containing toilet are introduced into the pivotally-supported container, which functions as aforenoted. In order to reduce production cost for the container, ordinary machining must be tolerated, and consequently there may be an individual variation in thickness from container to container. It is thus necessary to provide the container with balancing means to ensure that the container positively falls forwardly when the waste water therein reaches a predetermined level L and is restored to its original position immediately. Balance weights may be used to this end and are preferably connected to the inclined rear wall of the container.
The embodiment shown in FIG. 6 comprises a vessel 27 substantially in the form of an inverted L in crosssection having substantially trapezoidal side walls on opposite sides and open at the top. Container 10 rests in vessel 27 so that a space 29 substantially triangular in shape and open at the top may be defined by the vessel 27 and an inclined rear wall 28 of the container 10.
The balancing control means also includes weights 30, 30' of suitable weight which are placed in the space 29 after the container 10 is supported by the pivot 12 on the bottom 17" of the housing 17. Water is then poured into the container 10. In case the container 10 falls forward before the water therein has reached the desired level L, the number of weights 30, 30' is increased; in case the container 10 does not fall forward when the water therein has reached the predetermined level L, the number of weights is reduced. When the weights in the space 29 are optimum, a resin 31 is poured into the space 29 to fill the gap and cover the weights.
The weight of the resin poured into the space 29 is determined beforehand and reduced from the weight of the weights 30, 30' In this embodiment, the container 10 and vessel 27 are made of reinforeced plastic and the resin 31 may be an unsaturated polyester resin. The weights 30, 30 are preferably made of iron.
The arrangement described eliminates the need to attach the weights to the inclined rear wall 28 of the container 10. According to the invention, the weights 30, 30' can be embedded in the space 29. The resin 31 filled in the space 29 ensures that the vessel 27 is strongly bonded to the container 10.
The weights 30, 30' 111 may be attached to the rear walls 28 with screws or rivets. However, when weights are made of iron, which is suitable because it has a relatively large specific gravity and is low in cost, they may undergo corrosion. According to the invention, the weights are embedded in a resin so that there is no fear of the weights being corroded.
The vessel 27 may be replaced by a vessel 32 shown in FIG. 7 which is substantially triangular in shape and open at the top. The vessel 32 is attached to the inclined rear wall 28 of the container 10 and functions in the same manner as the vessel 27, except that it lacks the advantage of providing good bonding between the container 10 and the vessel 32 when a resin is poured in the latter.
Fixing means for the device C will now be described. As aforementioned, the pivotally supported container of the device intermittently falls forwardly to empty itself of the contents and is restored to its original position when its contents are discharged. Thus, an impact of considerable magnitude is exerted on the container when it reciprocates, so that some sort of restraining means is needed. Proposals have been made to employ a rotary shaft journaled by bearings. However, the bearings are readily damaged by oils, fats and food scraps contained in the waste water from the kitchen and their service life is very short. In addition, it is difficult to have access to the container and remove it from its regular position in maintenance and repair. The invention obviates the aforementioned disadvantages of the prior art.
In Fig. 8, pivots 12, 12' are secured to the underside of the bottom of the pivotal container 10 while pivot supports 25, for supporting the pivots 12, 12 respectively are secured to the surface of the bottom of the housing 17. Rods 33, 33' of a suitable length and diameter project outwardly from outer sides 36, 36' of the pivots 12, 12' respectively. Gently curved plates 34, 34' are secured either adhesively or with screws or rivets to upper outer sides of the pivot supports 25, 25'. The gently curved plates 34, 34' are mounted symmetrically on the outer upper surfaces of pivot supports 25, 25' and fixed thereto adhesively by rivets, by screws or other suitable means and each formed with a cutout in a position displaced from the central portion of the inner surface of each plate 34 (34) toward the discharge port (14), the central portion of each plate 34 (34) forming a vertex.
If the position of the cutout 35 in the curved plates 34, 34' is selected suitably, then the forward and rearward movements of the pivotally suported container 10 pivoted at 12, 12' on the support 17 at 25, 25' are in a range from to so that the pivots l2, 12 are securedly supported by the pivot support 25, 25 respectively and never dislodged therefrom.
The cutout 35 has a dimension which is slightly greater than the length of the rods 33, 33', so that the container 10 can be readily detached from the support 17 for cleaning and maintenance. Preferably, the gently curved plates 34, 34 and rods 33, 33' are made of a material which is immune to fats, oils and the like contained in the waste water from the kitchen and highly resistant to shock and abrasion. In the embodiment shown, the rods 33, 33' have a diameter of 5 millimeters and may be made of vinyl chloride while the curved plates 34, 34' have a thickness 3 to 4 millimeters and may be made of polyacetal resin. Other resins can, of course, be used.
The operation of the fixing means constructed as aforementioned will now be desibed. When the quantity of waste water 21 and body wastes 7 in the container 10 exceeds the predetermined level L, the container 10 suddenly falls forward to empty itself of the contents through the discharge port 14. As soon as the contents of container 10 are discharged therefrom, it is immediately restored to its original position. If the container 10 were not provided with fixing means, a point a shown in FIG. 5 would act as a pivot when it falls forward and a point b would serve as a pivot when it is restored to its original position. Thus, the container 10 would be subjected to forces of impacts oriented in directions a and b as shown in FIG. 10A and FIG. 108 respectively. As a result, the pivots 12, 12 would tend to jump on the pivot supports 25, 25, so that the container might be displaced either rightwardly or leftwardly.
If the container 10 is provided with fixing means, the jumping movement of the pivots 12, 12' is precluded because the upward movement of rods 33, 33' projecting outwardly from the outer side surfaces 36, 36' of the pivots 12, 12 is engaged by the gently curved plates 34, 34' as shown in FIG. 11A and FIG. 118. At the same time, rightward and leftward movements of the container 10 are precluded by the side surfaces 36, 36' of the pivots l2, l2 and the gently curved plates 34, 34, so that the displacement of the container 10 can be satisfactorily prevented.
In cleaning or inspecting the housing 17, the container 10 is pulled through the manhole 19in the direction of an arrow C in FIG. 5. This permits the rods 33, 33 to be readily moved through the cutout 35 in the gently curved plates 34, 34', thereby permitting the container 10 to be readily removed from its position.
After cleaning or inspection is finished, the container can be restored to its original position with the pivots 12, 12 resting on the pivot supports 25, 25' by reversing the aforementioned process. If the container 10 is moved to left or right after it is disposed in the regular position to see if there is no displacement, one can readily ascertain if the container is correctly positioned. The need to look into the manhole for this purpose is thus eliminated.
The fixing means according to the invention is effective to positively permit the container to be correctly positioned without being displaced from its regular position. It is impervious to the influences of dirt and food scraps in the waste water. It is low in cost, and readily permits the container to be removed from its position when the housing 17 is to be cleaned or inspected.
The applicalion of the invention to a multistoried building, such as an office building, where a large quantity of city water is consumed will now be described. The invention is effective in saving city water by using foam-containing toilets in place of flush toilets and urinals and discharging body wastes to the sewer system by utilizing waste water supplied from wash basins, water-boiling stations and cleaning-water tanks on each floor of the building.
An increase in the population in large cities has created a need for effective use of available land and hence a demand for multistoried buildings. This has in turn created a demand for city water for use in flush toilets, for operating air conditioners and for miscellaneous use. Thus, the demand for water is going to exceed its supply, and it is feared that restrictions may be placed on water consumption, and recycling of waste water for reuse may become the order of the day in the near future.
However, restraints on the use of water could not be effected without the citizens awakening to the situation. Recycling of waste water for reuse requires the building of a third water system, in addition to the existing water supply system and sewer system, which needs enormous expenses and takes a long time to construct. Building of a new water system which satisfies the needs of a lot of citizens cannot be completed in a day.
In view of this situation, the application of the invention to a multistoried building in which many company offices are located is signifcant. The tendency of water closets, wash basins, hot water supply stations and the like which use water being confined to a specific section of each floor of a building facilitates the application of the invention to such a building.
According to the invention, foam-containing toilets are substituted for conventional flush toilets and pushbutton-operated flush urinals are substituted for the conventional automatic flush latrine system, and the body wastes from these foam-containing toilets and flush latrines are collected in a transverse excretadischarge duct on each floor. A waste-water supply device for flushing away excreta is provided on each floor and disposed in a position in which access can readily be had to the device for maintenance and repair and the plumbing efficiency can be increased such as at one corner in the ceiling of the water closet of the floor below. The pivotally supported container of each wastewater supply device receives a supply of waste water from the floor above and empties itself of its contents at intervals so as to flush away at a rush to a vertical discharge duct the body wastes wrapped up in foam produced by the action of a surface-active agent and flowing through the transverse excreta-discharge duct. Thus, the body wastes from each floor can be flushed away to the sewer system by utilizing waste water from water-boiling stations, wash basins and the like on various floors.
The arrangement in which the waste-water supply device is provided atone corner in the ceiling of the water closet on each floor provides a water head to the device with respect to the transverse excreta-discharge duct and permits waste water from the water-boiling station, cleaning-water tank, wash basins and the like on the floor immediately above to be utilized for flushing away body wastes.
The embodiments will now be described with reference to FlG. 12 to FIG. 20. FIG. 12 shows, in a plan view, a water-utilizing section of a floor of a multistoried building in which urinals, mens wash basins, ladies toilets, ladies wash basins, a water-boiling station and cleaning-water tank are concentrated. Generally, the arrangement is similar on all the floors. In the Figures, the wash basins and water-boiling sections are on the floor immediately above the toilets and urinals.
Body wastes from ladies foam-containing toilets 38' are introduced into a transverse excreta-discharge duct 45 through inclined discharge pipes 38" connecting the toilets 38' to the duct 45. Body wastes from men's foam-containing toilets 38 are also introduced into the transverse excreta-discharge duct 45 through similar inclined discharge pipes 38'. The body wastes from them are combined in the duct 45 and flow through the duct 45 by virtue of the lubricating property of the foam till they are introduced into a vertical excretadischarge duct 46 extending through the building from top to bottom.
The urine from a urinal 39 is introduced through a urine-discharge connecting line 39' into the upper reaches of the transverse excreta-discharge duct 45 to which ladies foam-containing toilets 38' are connected. On the other hand, waste water is delivered to a waste-water supply device 47 of a suitable capacity disposed at one corner in the ceiling of the water closet through a drain 44 from mens wash basins on the floor immediately above and through another drain 44' from ladies wash basins 40', a sink 4] in a hot-water supply station, a cleaning-water tank 42 and a water boiler 43 on the floor immediately above.
When pivotally supported container 48 of a wastewater supply device 47 on each floor is filled with waste water to a predetermined level, the container 48 automatically falls forward by gravity and empties itself of the contents which move through a waste-water supply duct 47' and flush away at a rush the excreta moving through the transverse discharge duct 45 and 45. After its contents are discharged, the container 48 is restored to its original position, so that it repeats the operation at intervals in cycle.
Air supply lines may be suitably connected to the excreta-discharge ducts and lines by any known method.
According to the invention, rain water may be utilized for saving water used in flush toilets. For example, the apparatus adapted to carry the invention may comprise a rain-water-storing tank disposed below the outdoor advertisement facilities on the roof of the building or in any other suitable positions for receiving and storing rain water therein. The rain-water-storing tank is connected to the waste-water supply device disposed on each floor, so that rain water can supplement the waste water used for flushing away body wastes. This arrangement involves no special construction work and can be carried out without much additional cost not only in newly built buildings but also in old buildings.
It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efficiently attained, and since certain changes may be made in carrying out the above method and in the construction set forth without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above desciption and shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
What is claimed is:
l. A device for utilizing waste water from kitchen sinks, wash basins, showers and the like for the purpose of flushing toilets, comprising a housing having top inlet means connectable to toilet means, a container open at its top in said housing, a waste-water line entering said housing at a region such that said waste water pours into said container, said housing having an outlet proximate the bottom thereof, and a trap connected to said outlet and connectable to a sewer line, said container having pivot means and said housing having pivot support means operatively connected with said pivot means to permit said container to cycle between a fill position and a dump position, said container having a sloping face oriented toward said outlet proximate the bottom of said housing, said container being so shaped that when the level of waste water therein is below a predetermined height, said container remains in rest position and when said level rises beyond said predetermined height, the center of gravity of said container and water content therein moves to a position between said pivot means and said outlet, thereby initiating a dump cycle which consists of firstly causing said container to rotate toward said outlet and dump rapidly the waste water contained therein for outflow through said outlet and reposition said center of gravity on the side of said pivot means farther from said outlet, and of secondly causing said container to return to said fill position.
2. A device for utilizing waste water as defined in claim 1 wherein said device further comprises weights affixed to said container for predetermining the height of liquid in said container which will cause said container to dump.
3. A device for utilizing waste water as defined in claim 1 wherein said device further comprises a toilet free of flush means connected to said top inlet means in said housing whereby excreta deposited in said toilet descend by gravity into said housing.
4. A device for utilizing waste water as defined in claim 3 wherein said top inlet means is so positioned that said excreta drop into said trap.
5. A device for utilizing waste water as defined in claim 3 wherein said top inlet means is so positioned that said excreta drop into said container.
6. The device of claim 3 wherein said device further comprises a bent conduit connecting the bottom of said toilet with said top inlet means in said housing.
7. The device of claim 6 wherein at least one of said toilet and said bent conduit is lined with a porous mat suitable for impregnation with a surface-active agent for producing foam and enveloping solid excreta deposited in said toilet.
8. The device of claim 6 wherein said device further comprises a vessel adapted to deliver a surface-active agent to said mat at a predetermined rate.
9. A device for utilizing waste water as defined in claim 1 wherein the bottom of said housing is stepped to form a sump therein adjacent said outlet, whereby said container dumps its contents into said sump rather than against a wall of said housing proximate said outlet, said sump being large enough to hold temporarily that portion of waste water which cannot flow immediately through said outlet and drain.
10. The device of claim 1 wherein said pivot means comprises limiting means for undesired rotation of said container past said dump position and past said fill position.
11. The device of claim 10 wherein said limiting means are rods projecting in an axial direction from said pivot means and gently curved plates above said rods, said plates being cut out to permit removal of said pivot means and rods therethrough and removal of said container from said pivot support means.
12. The device of claim 8 further comprising a plurality of toilets connected to said top inlet means in said housing for delivering excreta thereto.
13. The device of claim 8 further comprising a plurality of housings and a plurality of toilets connected to said top inlet means in at least one of said housings for delivery of excreta thereto 14. A method of utilizing waste water for flushing away human excreta deposited in toilets wherein a toilet is connected by means of its bottom outlet to a housing having a tippable container therein, said housing and container being disposed to receive waste water directly into said container, said waste water being the effluent from kitchen sinks, showers, tubs and the like, said container being mounted for cyclic reciprocation through a limited arc and being so shaped and balanced that when waste water therein reaches and exceeds a predetermined height, said container tips, dumps its contents rapidly and returns to a rest position, comprising the steps of supplying waste water to a tippable container in a housing connected at its lower portion to a drain until said height of waste water in said container reaches and exceeds a predetermined value, thereby causing said container to tip and dusp its contents toward said drain.
15. A method of utilizing waste water as defined in claim 14 further comprising the step of introducing excreta into said housing in a position such that said excreta will be carried through said drain by said dumped contents.
16. A method of utilizing waste water as defined in claim 15 wherein said excreta are introduced into said drain.
17. A method of utilizing waste water as defined in claim 15 wherein said excreta are introduced into said container.
18. A method of utilizing waste water as defined in claim 15 wherein said toilet has a bent conduit connecting said toilet with said housing and at least one of said toilet and said conduit is lined with an impregnatable mat and further comprising the step of feeding a surface-active agent to said mat for the purpose of producing foam to envelop said solid excreta prior to entry of said solid excreta into said housing.