US 3844568 A Abstract A numerical manipulation board game, with: a game board ruled with at least two generally rectangular grid cells of uniform size; at least two playing tiles of uniform size, each being a block having at least two faces upon which the respective block may rest; each block being so shaped that, when both rest on one such face thereof on the game board, the two grid cells are both substantially filled and that, when both rest on another such face thereof and adjacent one another on the game board, one of the grid cells substantially contains both of the playing tiles; indicia on the playing tiles, so located that the indicia is apparent to observers regardless which of the two faces either playing tile rests upon. When the board includes a plurality of cells arranged in a rectangular grid the board game may be used with additional sign tiles to construct interlocking mathmatical equations vertically, horizontally and diagonally on the grid.
Claims available in Description (OCR text may contain errors) nited States Patent 1191 Armstrong 1 51 Oct. 29, 1974 GAME APPARATUS 22 Filed: Apr. 13,1973 21 Appl. No.: 350,988 [52] U.S. Cl 273/135 R, 35/31 G, 35/70, 46/25, 273/137 B [51] Int. Cl. A63f 3/00, G09b 23/02 [58] Field of Search........ 273/135; 35/31 G, 70, 69, 35/24; 46/25, 26 0/1946 Norway 46/24 Primary Examiner-Paul E. Shapiro Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Cushman, Darby and Cushman [5 7 ABSTRACT A numerical manipulation board game, with: a game board ruled with at least two generally rectangular grid cells of uniform size; at least two playing tiles of uniform size, each being a block having at least two faces upon which the respective block may rest; each block being so shaped that, when both rest on one such face thereof on the game board, the two grid cells are both substantially filled and that, when both rest on another such face thereof and adjacent one another on the game board, one of the grid cells substantially contains both of the playing tiles; indicia on the playing tiles, so located that the indicia is apparent to observers regardless which of the two faces either playing tile rests upon. When the board includes a plurality of cells arranged in a rectangular grid the board game may be usedwith additional sign tiles to construct interlocking mathmatical equations vertically, horizontally and diagonally on the grid. GAME APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The board game of Scrabble illustrated in Brunot et al., 2,752,158 issued June 26, I956 is representative of the prior art pertaining to the sort of board game of the invention, excepting that whereas the Brunot et al game primarily relates to the crossword puzzle-like arraying of words using lettered tiles on the cellular grid of a game board the game of the present invention in its presently preferred embodiment relates to the similar arraying of mathmatical equations using numbered and instructing sign tiles on the cellular grid of a game board. Other prior patents of interest include: UNITED STATES Patcntcc Number Issue Date Charles Adam Miller 82l,l ll May 22, I906 EJ. Gilmore 1,31 L810 July 29, I919 J.B. Allen 1,474,504 November 20, I923 M. Stcinberg 1,525,4l7 February 3, I925 .l.R. Bartclt 2,202,078 May 28, I940 MJ. Schoenberg et al. 2,320,832 June I, I943 H.W, Gutridge 2,484,026 October ll, I949 A.G. Sanders 2,743,]08 April 24, I956 AJ. Cohen 2,8l L360 October 29, I957 \V.S. Miller 3,174,753 March 23, I965 C.Pr Browning 3,267,590 August 23, I966 D.E. Crans 3,460,835 August l2, I969 James W. Lang ct al. 3,659,85l May 2, I972 OTHER Country Patentcc Number Issue Date Britain John Marchant 465,979 May 20, I937 SUMMARY OF INVENTION AND RELATION OF PRIOR ART THERETO A numerical manipulation board game, with: a game board ruled with at least two generally rectangular grid cells of uniform size; at least two playing tiles of uniform size, each being a block having at least two faces upon which the respective block may rest; each block being so shaped that, when both rest on one such face thereof on said game board, said two grid cells are both substantially filled and that, when both rest on another such face thereof and adjacent one another on said game board, one of said grid cells substantially contains both of the playing tiles; means providing indicia on the playing tiles, so located that the indicia is apparent to observers regardless which of the two faces either playing tile rests upon. When the board includes a plurality of cells arranged in a rectangular grid the board game may be used with additional sign tiles to construct interlocking mathmatical equations vertically, horizontally and diagonally on the grid. The invention herein disclosed in its presently most preferred form relates to a new and improved educational game apparatus for a mathematical game of the crossword-type whereby simple, movable number tiles and sign tiles are used to construct interlocking equations over a playing surface in all directions. The game apparatus disclosed in different from prior art board games in various respects, including the following: l. The apparatus disclosed may be played to produce a particular, interlocking number/sign pattern over the entire playing surface that maximizes the number of interlocking equations that can be constructed and the number of points that can be scored. 2. The apparatus disclosed provides a flexible method of creating multiple digit numbers which will fit into a single space on the playing surface in order to make a crossword-type equation game that actually works in practice with a drawn hand" of manageable size. 3. The usefulness and versatility of the disclosed apparatus provides the basis for a new and novel crossword-type game in which it is possible to construct truly interlocking equations in horizontal, vertical and preferably diagonal directions over the entire playing surface, thereby increasing the number of scoring possibilities over the prior art and creating a workable game which is inexpensive to manufacture and enjoyable to play. The prior art, has provided for the construction of connected vertical and horizontal equations crosswordfashion, either by extending previous equations, or by constructing new equations at right angles to the previous equations; and using for that purpose various tiles and markers having numerical indicia thereon which were in turn applied to the playing surface. Most of the tiles were marked with 2 or 3 digit numbers, and there was no provision for the construction, of members with different combinations of digits as the game progressed. Certain of the prior art patents limit play to only two directions on the playing surface. One prior patent permits the construction of new vertical and horizontal equations on either a number or signin a previous equation; experiment will show that the use of signs in previous equations destroys the vertical and horizontal symmetry of the number/sign pattern, and further reduces the number of possible plays over a given playing area. This patents apparatus also includes tiles for chemical and algebraic functions, and the use of these extra tiles also disrupts the number/sign pattern and further reduces the number of possible plays over a given playing area. The application of two or more digits to a single number tile by both Schoenberg and Browning does not work in practice, because the players chances of drawing usable numbers from such a vast assortment of different fixed numbers is too remote; and this lack of flexibility in the creation of new number combinations is fatal to the practical application of the equation board game apparatus prior art. Another prior patent apparatus does not require linear, connected equations to be correct when they are written, nor to remain correct thereafter, and therefore produces mathematical error. The presently most preferred embodiment of the new and useful game apparatus disclosed herein corrects the foregoing deficiencies and inadequacies, and represents an advance over the prior art by combining the following desirable qualities into a single, practical game apparatus: l. The variety of different number tiles is reduced from 144 or more to only 10 (0 through 9). 2. The tiles are of the same size and shape. 3. A playing board is not essential but may be used if desired as it establishes a visible pattern for play. 4. Players use single digit tiles to construct larger numbers in great variety as needed. 5. Numbers made with multiple tiles will fit into a single space on the playing board. 6. Equations are always mathematically correct, if sign conventions are followed. 7. Equations may be made horizontally, vertically and in both diagonal directions. 8. Equations may cross or meet in any direction, at any place on the playing surface. 9. Play is symmetrical over the entire playing surface, and every equation can interlock perfectly with its adjacent equations regardless of orientation and extent. 10. The maximum number of equations can be constructed over any given playing surface. The principles of the invention will be further hereinafter discussed with reference to the drawing wherein a preferred embodiment is shown. The specifies illustrated in the drawing is intended to exemplify, rather than limit, aspects of the invention as defined in the claims. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In the Drawing FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the game board showing a typical game in progress using the tiles of the invention; FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a portion of the arrangement of tiles shown in FIG. I; and FIG. 3 is a top plan view on a smaller scale, of the preferred arrangement of game board grid cells. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PRESENTLY MOST PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION The game apparatus includes tiles 12, 13 of unique design and application. together with preferably used playing board 14 upon which the tiles may be ap plied. The playing tiles 12, 13 are preferably square and each has a thickness equal to one-half its width and a length equaling its width. Each number tile 12 has one of the single digit numbers from 0 through 9 applied to at least one large side face 16, and one of the single digit numbers aforesaid applied (sideways) to at least one half-size edge face 18. Each sign tile 13 has e.g., a X, or sign applied to at least one face to respectively denote the instructions add, subtract", multiply", divide and equate. The tiles l2, 13 may be made out of wood, plastic, or any other suitable material. The edge side markings on the number tiles 12 are used to create 2 digit numbers; and in use, two such number tiles 12 bearing the desired indicia are placed edgewise within a single grid cell, playing space or square with the desired indicia uppermost, thereby forming the 2 digit number desired. The tiles l2, 13 may be applied to any fiat, smooth playing surface, but in the preferred embodiment they are applied to a playing board of suitable shape and design. A suitable board 14 may have vertical and horizontal rulings 22, 24 only, with the number tiles 12 placed upon alternate squares in all directions; or it may have alternate colored rows and alternate colored columns, with the number tiles placed on the squares where the colored rows intersect the colored columns. In such an instance (FIG. 3) alternating ones of the individual grid cells in alternating rows and columns of the grid being of sensibly different appearance 30 than the remainder 32 of the individual grid cells to establish a definite pattern for construction of physical representations of mathematical equations on the game board using the first-described and second-described playing tiles in mutual conjunction. The board 14 may have various other designs, superficial characteristics or indicia applied thereto to mark the alternate squares upon which the numbers are to be placed. The fundamental principles governing the preferred use of the game apparatus hereinabove described are as follows: 1. The first equation is made anywhere on the playing surface. 2. Both sides of every equation completed must be equal. 3. Each equation is made in a straight, unbroken line. 4. Equations may be made in any direction; vertically, horizontally or on either diagonal. 5. Numbers and signs occupy alternate, single squares or spaces on the playing surface. 6. Each equation after the first must use part of at least one previous equation. 7. Numbers must be separated from one another by one intervening square in every direction; i.e.. vertically horizontally, and diagonally. The pattern of play is conveniently provided by observing the contrasting portions 30, 32 of the board 14. 8. New equations cannot destroy the quality of prior equations. 9. As an arbitrary sign convention equations built horizontally or on either diagonal are worked from left to right and vertical equations are worked from top to bottom", except when a X or sign is mixed with a dif ferent sign on the same side of the equation, in which case multiplication is done first, division second and addition and subtraction last. In addition to or instead of any of the foregoing principles for the construction of uniformly interlocking equations in all directions over the entire playing surface, players may make such additional playing rules as may fit their purposes in respect to their use of the novel apparatus disclosed, but the same are not essential to the operation of the game apparatus, nor are they necessary to the attainment of the objectives stated. It should not be apparent that the game apparatus as described hereinabove possesses each of the attributes set forth in the specification under the heading Summary of the Invention hereinbefore. Because the game apparatus of the invention can be modified to some extent without departing from the principles of the invention as they have been outlined and explained in this specification, the present invention should be understood as encompassing all such modifications as are within the spirit and scope of the following claims. What I claim is: l. A numerical manipulation board game, comprismg: a game board ruled with a plurality of generally rectangular grid cells of uniform size; a plurality of playing tiles each constituted by a generally rectangular block having a plurality of mutually perpendicular adjacent sides, some ones of said sides being substantially as long and substantially as wide as individuals of said grid cells and the remainder of said sides being substantially as extensive in one dimension as the comparable dimension of individuals of said grid cells and so inextensive in the other dimension that more than one such block may rest side-by-side on such remaining sides within individuals of said grid cells; at least one of the first-described sides and at least one of the last-described sides bearing an item of numerical indicia, whereby the block may rest in a grid cell upon a first-described side, substantially fill the cell and have an item of numerical indicia presented upward for viewing, and the block may rest in a grid cell upon a last-described side beside at least one other such block so disposed, together substantially filling the cell and having a multiple character item of numerical indicia presented upward for viewing. 2. The board game of claim 1 wherein each such block is substantially half as thick as it is long and wide and each such grid cell is substantially square. 3. The board game of claim 1 further comprising: an additional plurality of game board playing tiles each constituted by a block sized to fit in individual ones of said generally rectangular grid cells, each such block having at least one face whereupon the block may rest in individual ones of said generally rectangular grid cells and at least one other face provided with an item of mathematical instruction exemplified by an instruction to add an instruction to subtract", an instruction to multiply, an instruction to divide and an instruction to equate. 4. The board game of claim 3 wherein the grid cells are compactly arranged in a rectangular grid of columns and rows thereof, alternating ones of the individual grid cells in alternating rows and columns of the grid being of sensibly different appearance 30 than the remainder 32 of the individual grid cells to establish a definite pattern for construction of physical representations of mathematical equations on the game board using the first-described and second-described playing tiles in mutual conjunction. 5. A numerical manipulation board game, comprismg: a game board ruled with at least two generally rectangular grid cells of uniform size; at least two playing tiles of uniform size, each being a block having at least two faces upon which the respective block may rest; one such face of each block being of substantially said grid cell uniform size and another such face being as long or wide as said one face thereof, but of half said uniform size; two of said grid cell playing tiles, when both rest on one such face thereof on said game board, substantially filling two said grid cells and, when both of said playing tiles rest on said other such face thereof and adjacent one another on said game board, both being substantially contained within one of said grid cells; means providing indicia on at least two faces of each of the playing tiles, so that the indicia is apparent to observers regardless which of the faces either playing tile rests upon. 6. The board game of claim 5 wherein each tile has at least two additional faces respectively generally parallel to the two first-recited faces; the indicia being constituted by a single character provided on each said additional face. 7. The board game of claim 6 wherein the characters on the two additional faces on the blocks are of identical denotation for each individual one of the blocks. 8. The board game of claim 5 wherein the characters are each one digit numbers so that when both blocks have the respective one face thereof face down on the game board, both grid cells are filled with tiles indicating one digit numbers and when both blocks have the respective other face thereof face down on the game board so that one grid cell substantially contains both blocks so that such grid cell is filled with tiles indicating a two digit number. Patent Citations
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