US 3844706 A
A candle having a shaped, thermoplastic blend with a wick extending therethrough. The thermoplastic blend includes ethylcellulose and at least one glyceride. Preferably the blend is transparent and preferably it also incorporates a minor amount of an additive, such as an oxa- or oxo- group containing compound, or even a heavy petroleum hydrocarbon.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent [1 1 Tsaras Oct. 29, 1974 CANDLES AND MANUFACTURE THEREOF Elefterios Tsaras, 92455 Irving Park Rd., Schiller Park, Ill. 60176 Filed: Oct. 30, 1973 Appl. No.: 411,050
US. Cl. 431/288, 44/7.5, 44/7 B Int. Cl. F23d 3/16 Field of Search 44/7.5, 7 B, 7 C, 7 D;
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 5/1965 Mohick 44/7 B 3,645,705 2/l972 Miller et a]. 431/288 Primary Examiner-Carroll B. Dority, Jr.
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Hill, Gross, Simpson, Van Santen, Steadman, Chiara & Simpson [5 7] ABSTRACT 23 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures GLYCERIDE ADDITIVE COMPOUND OILY HOT MIXTURE ET HYL CE LLULOSE HOMOOENEOUS VlSCOUS l l l l HOT MELT WICK MOLDED TRANSPARENT CANDLE PATENTEHINII 29 m4 3344.706
Fig 3 GLYCERIDE ADDITIVE COMPOUND 'OILY HOT MIXTURE HOMOGENEOUS VISCOUS- ,J ETHYL CELLULOSE HOTMELT MOLDED TRANSPARENT CANDLE WICK CANDLES AND MANUFACTURE THEREOF BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Historically, a candle is formed of a solid or semisolid body of tallow, or wax, especially paraffin wax or bees wax, containing imbedded therein a loosely twisted fibrous (e.g., cotton or linen) wick which when burned gave light, although candles having a liquid 1 body are known.
More recently, efforts have been made to find materials other than tallow or wax which could be used for the body portion of a solid or semi-solid candle. The incentive for such efforts has come from a variety of sources. For one thing, the currently rising cost and and seamingly increasingly limited availability of paraffin wax helps generate a desire to find substitutes suitable for use in candle body manufacture strong. For another thing, conventional tallows and waxes are inherently opaque or translucent, not transparent, which limits and even prevents their utilization in a solid or semisolid body portion of a transparent candle, such as is desired for esthetic reasons, or special decorative effects, and the like.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION There has now been discovered a new and very useful candle construction having a solid or semi-solid body whose body portion can be fabricated of readily available and economical materials other than tallow or wax, and which can be substantially transparent. There have also now been discovered methods for making such candle construction.
The candles of this invention can be easily and simply manufactured using commonly available equipment.
A candle of this invention can be made in a form such that the body portion thereof is comprised of combustible solid or semi-solid thermoplastic material which can be, and preferably is substantially transparent, so that a wide variety of candle applications and decorative effects become possible and practical.
An aim of this invention is to provide compositions suitable for use in the body portion of such candles.
Other and further aims, objects, purposes, advantages, utilities, and features will be apparent to those skilled in the art from a reading of the present specification and drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings:
FIG. I shows a side elevational view of one embodiment of a candle of the present invention;
FIG. 2 shows a similar view of another embodiment; and
FIG. 3 is a simple flow diagram illustrating one technique for making candles of this invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION The present invention is directed to a candle comprised of a body having therein a wick. The body is preferably shaped, as by molding or the like, and comprises on a I weight percent basis a preferably substantially uniform, thermoplastic blend of I. from about 6 to 55 weight percent ethyl cellulose (preferably about to 45 weight percent) and 2. from about 45 to 94 weight percent of at least one glyceride (preferably about 55 to weight percent).
which blend is adapted to be in a solid or semi-solid fonn at room temperatures and pressures.
The wick in such a candle is combustible and can be constructed similarly to those used in prior art candles. A suitable wick can obviously be formed of many different materials and compositions, but presently pref- 0 erably comprises a plurality of discrete combustible organic fibrous members disposed in generally adjacent relationship to one another. A typical wick thus can be comprised of organic fibers of natural or even synthetic origin which are stable to conditions used in making a candle of this invention and which fibers are preliminarily twisted, woven, braided or the like (e.g., cotten, linen, flax, polyester, etc.). A wick is adapted to I. be impregnated by a candle body blend used in this invention when such a blend is in a heated, liquified form, and
2. provide capillary action, or equivalent, for such a I heated liquified form of such blend.
Preferably, a wick extends longitudinally through one such thermoplastic body. More than a single wick may be used in spaced relationship to each other in a single candle body used in this invention, although it is usually convenient to employ a single wick member centrally disposed in a shaped candle body. One can use a type of wick which has a wire-like metallic member extending therethrough among the organic fibers, such as a small lead wire, or the like. The composition of the metal therein, together with the cross-sectional size thereof, are preferably such that this member melts as the product candle incorporating such burns. The amount of metal thus generated is preferably insufficient to interfere with the normal, desired functioning of such candle.
In a candle of this invention the combination of the body portion and the wick is such that, when an upper end of said wick is in a generally vertical configuration in said body and is ignited, said wick burns with a generally luminous flame, and this ignited wick is adapted to combust gradually, but preferably substantially completely, both said body and said wick.
Most preferably, a candle of this invention has a body which is transparent, or substantially so. A semi-hazy candle body can become substantially completely or partially (in the region of the wick) clear during burning. In such body the ethyl cellulose is preferably substantially completely dissolved in the glyceride. Such body characteristically is in a solid or semi-solid condition whose viscosity is at least such that it cannot be poured, as from a water-glass sized container at room temperature and pressure. Preferably such body is at least sufficiently rigid to support itself in a free standing, unsupported condition in a candle product of this invention.
The Glycerides Glycerides are esters of glycerol. Glycerides useful in this invention can be partial glycerides (e.g., monoor diglycerides), but triglycerides are generally'preferred. Preferred triglycerides for use in this invention have molecular weights above about 650. Glycerides occur in all forms of animal and vegetable life. Triglycerides of fatty acids in which all the fatty acid radicals are alike are called simple triglycerides. Most natural fats contain only a minor percentage of simple triglycerides, and consist mainly of mixed triglycerides, which have two or three different kinds of fatty acid combined in a single molecule. When only one or two of the hydroxyl groups of a glycerine molecule are esterified with fatty acid, the resulting glycerides are called monoglycerides and diglycerides, respectively. There are two types of monoglycerides, since the fatty acid radical must be attached either at the end or at the middle of the glycerol residue. There are four types of diglyceride structures, simple and mixed, with two possible positions in each case for the unesterified hydroxyl. Preferably monoglycerides are used in combination with di or tri glycerides in this invention.
Triglycerides are found in seeds. Examples suitable for use in this invention include com, peanut, (groundnut), cottonseed, soybean, rapeseed, coconut, olive, linseed, (flaxseed), sunflower sesame, palm, palmkernel, castor (presently most preferred), Chinawood (tung), and the like.
Glycerides may be classified by any convenient means, such as according to their ability to form dry films by oxidation and polymerization on exposure to air, or according to the specific fatty acids from which they are derived.
In terms of drying capacity, the principal glyceride oils can be grouped as follows:
(Linolenic-linoleic types). Linseed,
The glycerides of Groups ll and II] are a preferred class of glycerides for use in this invention.
As those skilled in the art appreciate, the most abundant of the unsaturated fatty acid in glycerides are ol eic, linoleic, and linolenic, which are quite distinctive acids because of having one, two and three double bonds, respectively, per molecule. Castor oil is an exception in that it comprises typically about 80 to 90 weight percent ricinoleic acid which is an IS-carbon atom monocarboxylic acid with a double bond in the 9-10 position and a hydroxyl group in the l2 carbon atom position. Among the saturated acids, palmitic is predominant, accompanied usually by a small and not highly significant amount of stearic. For present purposes, glycerides are preferably characterized by the specific fatty acids incorporated thereinto (and from which they are usually derived). As used herein, the term fatty acid" includes the entire homologous series of normal, odd and even numbered aliphatic acids, homologs and isomers of the unsaturated acids and various substituted acids, from, for examples, acetic to noctatriacontanoic (C H COOH). However, for practical purposes, it is preferred to employ, in glycerides used in the present invention, fatty acids containing from about four to 25 carbon atoms per molecule and more preferably from about 12 to 22 carbon atoms per molecule. Glycerides containing lower fatty acids (e.g., certain fatty acids containing below about 12 carbon atoms per molecule) tend to produce in product candles undesirable odors during burning thereof.
One presently much preferred triglyceride is castor oil, which tends to form, when used as the sole component with ethyl cellulose, relatively soft, relatively nonbrittle candle bodies. Except for linseed oil and possibly a few other glycerides, most other glycerides tend to form harder and more brittle candle bodies. Also castor oil seems to resist oxidation during aging in candles of this invention.
One presently preferred class of triglycerides whose members behave somewhat similarly in the present invention comprises corn oil, soya bean oil, and safflower oil and like oils. Castor oil in combination with ethyl cellulose has the capacity to form two-component single-phase compositions which are well suited for use in the shaped body portion of a candle of the type of this invention; such shaped body portions characteristically produce little or no sweating during combustion in a candle and have long storage ability.
Castor oil and such preferred class of corn oil, safflower oil, and soya bean oil is characterized by being in the form (at room conditions) of light yellow, clear, oily liquids. They can have a faint characteristic odor and taste except for castor oil which is available commercially in odorless or nearly odorless, forms. Odorless, or nearly odorless such oils are preferred. They also have a density d in the range of about 0.914 to 0.980, a saponification number in the range from about 170 to 205, an iodine number in the range of about to 150. They usually and preferably contain not more than about 5 weight percent (total weight basis) of unsaponifiable matter. Some glyceride oils used in this group may have an acidic additive therein, owing to their method of manufacture. For example, while higher acid number corn oils are known (e.g., having acid numbers greater than two, for example), those skilled in the art will appreciate that such higher acid number corn oils have a tendency to contain more than a single type of glyceride component and also nonglyceride components.
All glycerides, with the possible exception of castor oil, or some combination of castor oil with another glyceride, are presently generally somewhat prone, when combined only with an ethyl cellulose and used in a candle body in accord with the teachings of this invention, to display, when in such a two-component system, a tendency to exude, sweat, or bleed the glyceride oil from the candle body composition as when being combusted in a lighted candle, or even, sometimes, when the product candle is in storage, particularly for prolonged periods. In addition, such a two-component system can display an initial tendency to embrittlement, which is generally undesirable from the standpoint of candle handling, storing and shipping, but later in storage, the embrittlement tends to gradually diminish.
Mixtures of different glycerides are desirable as a means of obtaining some particular intended result, such as a lower cost for starting materials, or as a technique for using generally less desirable glycerides with more desirable glycerides, or as a technique for obtaining special aromatic effects during burning of a product candle, or as a technique for avoiding or as a means for minimizing oil bleeding, or the like. For example, from about 1 to 30 weight percent of at least one glyceride oil selected from the group consisting of safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil and olive oil mixed with a balance up to weight percent (e.g., 70 to 99 wt. percent of a given composition of castor oil provides a useful class of glyceride mixtures for use in this invention. Olive oil, for example, by itself used as the glyceride tends to produce candle body compositions which are somewhat brittle and semi-opaque; yet, in such a combination with castor oil, useful and desirable candle body compositions characteristically result.
Glycerides which are liquid at room temperature and pressure are generally preferred for use in making candles of this invention, although amounts of up to about 30 weight percent of glycerides which are solid at such conditions, such as hydrogenated glycerides, can generally be incorporated with such a liquid glyceride and the preferred transparent candles of this invention can still be produced.
In general, heat treated glycerides of the drying oil type appear to be generally less desirable for use in this invention than are the corresponding raw glycerides. However, the opposite situation may prevail with respect to glycerides of the semi-drying oil type.
The Ethyl Cellulose Ethyl cellulose is a cellulose ether made, for example, by reacting ethyl chloride with alkali cellulose. Any one or more of a wide variety of different such ethyl celluloses is useful in this invention.
The structure most widely accepted for the cellulose molecule, as those skilled in the art appreciate, is a chain of B-anhydroglucose units joined together by ac etal linkages. Each anhydroglucose unit has three replaceable-OH groups, all or a part of which may be replaced with ethoxy units. Complete substitution of all three-OH groups gives a triethyl ether having a substitution value of 3, or 54.88 per cent ethoxyl. The completely substituted triethyl cellulose has little value in the present invention because it lacks thermoplasticity and has limited compatibility and solubility.
Preferred ethyl celluloses for use in this invention have a substitution value between about 2.15 and 2.60 ethoxyl groups per anhydroglucose unit, or about 43 to 50 per cent ethoxyl content. More preferred ethyl celluloses have about 45.0 to 49.0 percent ethoxyl content (same total ethyl cellulose weight percent basis).
Similarly, the ethyl cellulose used in this invention can have a very large molecular weight, but a preferred class of ethyl cellulose materials has a molecular weight such that the viscosity thereof ranges from about 3 to 350 centipoises when measured in a 5 weight percent concentration at C. in an 80:20 toluene/ethanol solution using a sample dried for minutes at 100C. More preferred ethyl celluloses have a viscosity of from about 50 to 300 centipoises when so measured. Different viscosity types of starting ethyl cellulose can be blended to produce a product ethyl cellulose of a desired viscosity, using the Arrhenius equation which relates viscosity and concentration, for use in making candles of this invention.
One class of ethyl celluloses which is now preferred for use in the present invention combusts without leaving substantially any ash. Such a material is available commercially, for example, the material sold the trade designation K-200 from Hercules, Inc. of Wilmington, Del., and such a material can be made by the following procedure:
About 100 grams of ethyl cellulose are mixed and wetted with 2 liters of deionized, or preferably distilled water, after which about 20 cubic centimeters of glacial acetic acid are added and mixed therewith. The mixture is steeped for 2 to 3 hours at a temperature in the range of from about 60 to 80C., and then the aqueous phase is decanted. The remaining solids are repeatedly washed with water to remove all acetic acid, and then these washed solids are dried in an oven at about 105C until completely dry. Such procedure serves to remove substantially all sodium ions from the ethyl cellulose.
6 Additives Preferably, a candle body of this invention has additionally incorporated thereinto preferably uniformly an amount ranging from 0 up to about 40 weight percent, or even somewhat higher (total candle body weight basis), of at least one compound selected from the group consisting (0) organic compounds containing at least one =C-O-group or at least one =C=O (e.g., at least one oxa or oxo group) and from about 7 through 50 carbon atoms per molecule, and (b) viscous petroleum hydrocarbons containing at least about 15 carbon atoms per molecule. Organic compounds of such type (a) have the carbon atom adjacent the oxygen atom bonded to one or more atoms, such as especially carbon. Such an additive compound is additionally further characterized by being soluble in corn oil at the rate of 10 parts additive per parts corn oil and by having when so dissolved in corn oil the capacity to dissolve ethyl cellulose in such corn oil solution at the rate of about 20 parts by weight of such ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content in the range from about 45.0 to 49.0 weight percent total ethyl cellulose basis per 100 parts by weight of such corn oil solution at about C. within a time interval of about 15 minutes (.with mixing). The quantity of any given additive compound used in any given candle body composition is preferably so chosen as not to interfere with the normal and desired properties of the product candle. Usually, and more preferably, the total amount of such additive compound(s) employed in a given candle body falls in the range from about 3 to 20 weight percent (total candle body weight basis).
Such an additive compound functions as a sort of plasticizer with one or more of the following capacities: Hardness control agent; clarification control agent; dissolution rate accelerator (or dissolution time shortener) of the ethyl cellulose in the glyceride, combustion control agent; oil exudation or sweating control agent; or the like. Thus, such an additive compound can either strengthen or soften a candle body, depending upon concentration, can lessen the tendency of a candle body to exude oil during burning or storage, can shorten the dissolution time of ethyl cellulose in glyceride and thus reduce and minimize discoloration in a' candle body caused by the initial heating and dissolution of ethyl cellulose in glyceride, can contribute to the clarification desired in a dissolved blend of ethyl cellulose and glyceride, and/or the like.
One suitable class of additive compounds is characterized by the generic formula where:
R, is a hydrocarbon radical containing from about 5 through about 37 carbon atoms and X is selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, carboxyl, the radical theadicar" and the radical 8 --CH;CHi k0I-I where k is an integer of from about 4 through 18; in this class, a formula 3 compound can include a polyethylene, or a polypropylene, or a mixed polyolefin chain terminating the ends of the dicarboxylic acid type mais hydrogen, or the radical lenal' Yet another suitable class of additive compounds includes the polyolefin glycols, such as those of polyethl ll) ylene, polypropylene or mixed systems.
Although polyolefin glycols havmg a molecular n and m are each integers of from about 1 through weight of about 200 are compatible as additives, these 50 and materials have a tendency to be hydroscopic and may R is hydrogen or a hydrocarbon radical Containi ventually absorb into a candle body sufficient moisfrom about 5 through 20 Carbon atoms ture from the atmosphere to result in generally unde- R, and also R can each be a straight or a branched Sued effect after maflufacturechain, and contain cyclic hydrocarbon structures, and A T051" and aclducts are known to 9 R and R can each be saturated or unsaturated. R and hlgh molecular welghl acld Fomponems and E R can each contain one or several functional groups, cllmstance m y pl usual charactfn'lstlceflly such as hydroxyl or carboxyl. high compatibility with an ethyl cellulose/triglyceride Another suitable class of additive compounds is charmlxture- The m 13 true f the nfltural resins Such as acterized by the generic formula gum, gum elemi, vmsol (a pine resin), and the like. Al-
though many natural gums are compatible with ethyl cellulose, only a few are compatible with both ethyl cel- (2) O f lulose and glyceride in combination. An example of this 2 type of incompatibility is the gum pontianac. mo on, The compatibility of phenolic resins with candle body compositions is somewhat different; many of h them are compatible, but they tend to discolor on heatw h I R f I l d ing, and they also tend to produce candle flames that f t s f 2 m g smoke. Styrenated alkyds are compatible also, but likef}; l g i mug t l d wise are prone to produce candle flames that smoke. f Se g an f t ate i are l Typically, not all additives are useful over the entire ere mem 0 t e ormu a( Compoun e above indicated weight percentage ranges because of various undesired side effects sometimes produced by f particular additives in particular candle body systems. cH,-
A For example, certain additives if used ll'l relatively high amounts can sometimes produce a candle body which chain can be straight or branched, and may sometimes ignites and burns as a sort of torch (called herein the include unsaturated moieties. R can be the radical of torch effect"). Illustrations of such additives in particthe type ular candle bodies are shown in Table 1 below.
'rAnru l Estimated Maximum Material weight percent (Iommenr (total) usable IMMWMFWM fatty alcohols (e.g. isostear- 2O (1) a second additive uuct] in combination yl alcohol) therewith apparently permits use of amounts less than such 20 weight percent withot't such flammability fatty acids (e.g.isostearic acid) 20 (2) some plasticizers when compatible when used in combination therewith apparently permit use of amounts less than such 2C weight percent without such flammabllitv Diburvl phthnlate l0 Abietvlnlcohol 20.0 (3) catches fire Glycerol ester of Rosin 10.0 (ilvct-rol (.Stur of Rosin 40% (4) very hard structure, smokes heavily when burning t;lvct-rol ester of Rosin 20 (5) composition bleeds oil badly within 24 isostcnrlc acid 10 hours. There is no synergism between acids and Rosinesters. blonvI-phcnol-(polyeth0xy) 40% (6) good plastic structure, light color, ethanol catches fire Rosin alcohol (including 40% (7) excellent light colored structure, but ablctyl alcohol) catches fire and bleeds oil in 24 hours.
Footnotes for Table l:
I. The glyceride used here was castor oil.
2. The composition also included 15 wt. percent K200 type ethyl cellulose from Hercules, with the balance up to 100 weight percent being corn oil.
3. Composition included 20 percent ethyl cellulose and 40 percent safflower oil (100 weight percent basis).
4. Composition included 15 percent ethyl cellulose and 45 percent safflower oil (lOO weight percent basis).
5. Composition included 15 percent ethyl cellulose and 55 percent safflower oil (lOO weight percent basis).
6. Composition 15 percent ethyl cellulose and 45 percent corn oil (100 weight percent basis).
7. Composition included 15 percent ethyl cellulose, 45 percent corn oil (100 weight percent basis).
The torch effect is eliminatable either by using a torch effect-prone additive at a level which does not cause this effect or by using a different such additive altogether, as respects a given candle body.
As a class, the well-known organophosphates appear to be generally compatible with the ethyl cellulose/- glyceride candle body compositions used in this invention. Because of their (known) flame flow retardant properties, such organophosphates can be employed to supress such a torch effect in a candle body of this invention. Suitable organophosphates include triphenyl phosphate, tricresyl phosphate, crysel diphenyl phosphate and the like. Usually amounts less than about or even 10 weight percent thereof (total candle body weight basis) are sufficient, provided the amount of the flame-causing additive present in a given candle body composition is not large enough to overcome the suppressant effect of the quantity of organophosphate employed and this latter value can vary from one candle to another, but is usually less than about 25 weight percent (total weight basis).
Another example of a generally undesired side effect occasionally seen with additive usages is the so-called bleeding effect. Thus, a freshly made candle made i with certain glycerides can tend to bleed within about 24 hours of initial fabrication. This bleeding effect can be promoted or suppressed through the use of additives. Also, a candle of this invention can sometimes show a tendency to bleed during normal burning, particularly in the region where the candle body is warmed by the flame about the wick. After the wick is extinguished, the exuded oil may be reabsorbed by the candle body. It appears common that candle body struc.-'
tures with components (i.e., too little ethyl cellulose, too much additive, or the like) exhibit oil exudation within 24 hours after manufacture.
In general, candle body structures that tend to bleed oil upon being manually squeezed between a pair of fingers at room temperature and pressure also tend to bleed oil during burning, although it appears that most if not all such oil so bled from such candle body structure is absorbed back into the candle bodies upon cooling after the wicks are extinguished. Castor oil, for example, seems to give candle body structures which when balanced (a generally optimized blend of ethyl cellulose, glyceride and/oradditive of the latter is present) apparently exude substantially no oil when pressured manually between a pair of fingers, or when burned, even for indefinite periods of time over the life of a candle. it is possible that a candle body structure which exudes an excessive amount of oil at room temperature and pressure can catch fire after the wick thereof is ignited. Illustrations of such additives in particular candle bodies are shown in Table ll below.
Footnotes f0? Tau en;
1. Composition included l5 weight percent ethyl cellulose and weight safflower oil (100 weight percent basis). 7 I
2. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 61 weight corn oil (100 weight percent ba sis).
3. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 65 weight castor oil weight percent basis).
4. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 65 weight castor oil (100 weight percent basis).
TABLE II Additive Comment good structure, good flame but sweats illi lL' Zlc'iti I07:
abietyl alcohol 81 glycerol ester 20% of rosin 107 (1) badly nonyl-phcnol-(polyethoxy) -ethano synergism. light color structure nol 20% (2) but it bleeds.
isosteuric acid 4% houvv mint-rail oil 15% (3) clear, medium flame, bleeding.
sum fully :Icid 5% lmivl lt' rHtL 207. (4) clear, good flame, bfeeding.
dilultyl phrhnlutc 10X. (5) bleeds while burning, this additive firms I up structure considerably.
lullyl sit-unite 207. (6) good plastic structure, but tfleeds too much.
5. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 75 weight corn oil (100 weight percent basis).
6. Composition included 15 weight percent ethyl cellulose and 55 weight corn oil (100 weight percent basis).
The bleeding effect is eliminatable by using a mixture .of additives, by reducing the amount of bleedproducing additives or by using a different such additive altogether. or by increasing relatively the total amount of ethyl cellulose present, as respects a given candle body composition.
Certain rosin adducts such as the glycerol ester of pentaerythritol, for example, inhibit the bleeding effect and are highly compatible with the glyceride and ethyl cellulose mixture. Usually amounts less than about 30 weight percent of such a compatible rosin adduct additive (total candle body weight basis) are sufficient to inhibit bleeding in a candle body composition, provided the amount of the bleed-causing glyceride component present in a given candle body is not large enough to overcome the inhibiting effect of the particular quantity of such rosin adduct present.
Some additives especially when used in higher amounts within the additive ranges indicated herein can sometimes produce opacity in a candle body used in this invention (herein termed for convenience the opacity effect). in general, if an additive is used in an amount beyond its solubility limits at a given temperature and pressure in a given glyceride system, then the resulting candle body can become opaque at least when cooled. Some candle bodies will remain opaque until the candle is lighted, then, as the body warms by the flame about the wick, the region warmed becomes transparent for so long as the body remains suitably so warmed.
Hydrogenated glycerides by themselves can tend to result in opacification of a candle body, apparently. In addition, additives such as saturated fatty acids and alcohols, higher esters such as those of the spermacetti type, and monoesters of saturated long-chain acids can tend to cause opacity in a candle body of this invention when used in amounts typically above about to weight percent (total weight basis), the exact amount depending upon the individual candle body involved (similarly to the additives causing the torch effect and the bleeding effect). Illustrations of such additives in particular candle bodies are shown in Table lll below.
Footnotes for Table lll:
1. Balance included 15 percent ethyl cellulose, percent corn oil (100 weight percent total weight basis).
2. Balance included 62 percent corn oil, 15 percent ethyl cellulose (lOO weight percent total weight basis).
3. Balance included 15 percent ethyl cellulose, 73 percent corn oil (100 weight percent total weight ba' sis).
4. Balance included l5 percent ethyl cellulose and 75 percent corn oil weight percent total weight basis).
5. Balance included 30 percent ethyl cellulose, 59 percent castor oil 100 weight percent total weight basis).
6. Balance included 63 percent castor oil, 10 percent safflower oil, 15 percent ethyl cellulose. (I00 weight percent total weight basis). All ethyl celluloses used here in Table lll are Hercules K-2OO type.
The opacity effect is eliminatable by minimizing the use of opacifying additives, by non-use thereof, and/or by using mixtures of, different additives with a glyceride, as those skilled in the art will appreciate. As indicated earlier, candles of this invention preferably have their body portions in a transparent condition (as at room temperatures and pressures) so it is preferred to avoid the opacity effect or opacification in candles of this invention.
In general, a given candle body of this invention contains a quantity of a given additive compound which does not produce a deleterious or unwanted side effect, such as the torch effect or the bleeding effect, and which also preferably does not produce opacification. Owing apparently to the complex nature of the glyceride and ethyl cellulose materials employed in the candle bodies utilized in this invention, it is unfortunately not possible to make sweeping quantitative generalizations about the optimum quantity of some particular additive compound which should be used in some particular ethyl cellulose/glyceride system, or even about the maximum or minimum quantity of such additive compound which could or should be used in such system in all circumstances. The best that can be done is to indicate the levels at which identified classes and types of; additive compounds may be employed in candles of this invention, and also to indicate the known types of problems which can occur with the use of such TABLE III estimated Maximum weight percent (total) usable Additive Comment isostearic acid 5.0 (1) opaque.
lsostearic alcohol 5.0
glvcerol monostearare 5.0
abieryl alcohol 207 (2) semi opaque, turns clear on burning. glycerol monostearate 3";
isosteai'ic acid 10 7 (3) semi hazy, almost clear, turns clear g lvccrol monostearate 2.0 on burning.
heavv mineral oil 15% (4) opaque.
cervl alcohol 15% (5) opaque.
isostearvl ulcohol I07 (6) semi hazy, turns clear on burning. spermacetri 2% additive compounds, all of which has been earnestly undertaken herein to the best of currently available technical information. It is preferred to dissolve additive compounds in the glyceride before adding the ethyl cellulose to the glyceride. Preparation Procedures A candle of this invention can be prepared by any convenient procedure, as those skilled in the art will appreciate. One preferred procedure is illustrated in FIG. 3 which shows a self-explanatory process flow diagram. In this procedure, one initially dissolves at a temperature ranging from about 100 to 200 C (preferably 160 to 195C) the ethyl cellulose in the glyceride desired to produce a uniform, heatfused liquid blend.
Then, by one (preferred) process, one deposits the so-heated and so-produced liquid blend in a mold cavity of predetermined dimensions. This cavity is equipped with a wick extending usually through a mid region thereof in one direction. If the candle body solidifies, next, one cools such so deposited blend in such cavity at least until said liquid blend solidifies, and, finally, removes, if desired, such so solidified blend with said wick therein from such mold cavity, thereby separating the desired candle from such cavity.
By another process, the so-heated and so-produced liquid blend has a wick inserted or immersed thereinto, the wick being in an extended condition. Thereafter, one removes such so immersed wick from such liquid blend with a portion of said liquid blend deposited thereon. Next, one cools such so deposited blend while maintaining such resulting wick in a generally vertical configuration at least until such liquid blend solidifies. Finally, one sequentially repeats the preceding steps until a candle body of desired dimensions is built up about such wick. This is one method of making multicolored multilayered candles (each being the same or different in composition).
Preferably the ethyl cellulose used is preliminarily dried, as in an oven at about 100C for about 1 hour. Glass-lined blending kettles or stainless steel kettles are preferably used to avoid or minimize discoloration in candle bodies. Also direct heating as with a flame should be avoided for the same reason. Steam-heated, or gas-fired varnish type kettles provided with adequate stirring are presently preferred kettle types. The thicker candle body compositions containing higher ethyl cellulose contents can be handled better in a heated Banbury mill than in a simple stirred kettle, and then a blend is conveniently made with the ethyl cellulose, the additive and the glyceride oil within transformed to a desired homogeneous colloid. The product is passed conveniently through a hot two-roll mill before being molded into a candle body.
Candle Products Candles of the present invention, as those skilled in the art will appreciate, can have any convenient form or shape as is true of conventional candles formed of wax. Fluid candles can be made if desired, but candles with solid bodies are much preferred. A particularly preferred candle shape is in the conventional crosssectionally circular, cylindrically tapered form such as is depicted in FIG. 1, accompanying this application.
The burning characteristics of the candles of the present invention are somewhat different from those of conventional paraffin, tallow or Beeswax candles. Thus, while conventional candles are comprised of materials which produce highly luminous flames, in contrast, vegetable and animal oils, although used since antiquity for illumination, produce less luminous flames.
The rate of burning of the conventional candles seems to be generally higher than that of a candle of similar hardness of the present invention. Generally, just as the rate of burning of a conventional candle is affected by the melting point of its constituents so is the rate of burning of the candles of this invention affected by the amount of ethyl cellulose present. Thus, for one class of three component candle bodies of this invention the higher the amount of ethyl cellulose, the slower the rate of burning. This phonomenon occurs for two reasons; first, because the softening point of the higher ethyl cellulose composition is higher; and, second, because although ethyl cellulose burns, it does so with a shorter, not as highly luminous flame compared, for example to a flame from a paraff'mic candle.
Conventional candles generally have sharper melting and setting points, and seem to conduct heat not as readily as those of the present invention. Thus, if one takes a parafln wax candle having a certain type of wick and a candle of the same size of the present invention equipped with the same wick and burns therein for the same length of time one will notice that the sides of this candle of this invention are warmer than those of the conventional wax candles. This fact makes it possible for conventional waxes to form Petals or produce foliating or angel winged candles. Petals are formed, as those skilled in the art appreciate, when a candle mass has an undersized wick relative to its mass diameter. During burning a thin wall of unburned wax is formed at the sides of the candle. When this wass becomes too thin, it buckles outwardly, splits down from its own weight and starts the petal formation. The candles of the present invention are warmed uniformly in region of burning generally apparently moreso than a conventional candle and when in a pet-al" situation they appear to tend to buckle inwardly. A candle of this invention tends to burn generally downwardly forming a hole of about 5 to 15 times that of the diameter of the wick (although I do not wish to be bound by this estimate) while the conventional candles generally characteristically burn across their top surface. This characteristic makes possible the use of multiple wicks in candles of this invention.
One can formulate candles of the present invention which are initially hazy, semi-hazy and all-together opaque and will become completely clear upon burning. Certain of the additives listed elsewhere herein such as the saturated higher alcohol and acids, hydrogenated glycerides, and the like, if used at a relatively high concentration will form such hazy candle body compositions. These bodies when warmed somewhat, such as occurs during the normal burning of a candle, turn completely clear. If suspended inert decorative objects are positioned in the candle mass (coins, metalic flowers, and the like during fabrication), these objects will appear a few minutes after illumination starts apparently because the rise in temperature throughout the mass of the candle and especially the top portion, during illumination extends the limits of solubility of that particular additive in the rest of the ingredients, although I do not wish to be bound by theory herein. Generally candles of this invention lend themselves to creations not possible with conventional paraffinic candles. For one thing, conventional paraffinic candle bodies typically could not be perfumed with more than about 2 to 3 weight percent perfume oil without the appearance of esthetically unpleasant bleeding. It is now possible to make candles that contain several times higher weight percentages of perfume oil concentrations using the present invention. Also, due to the fact that candles of this invention burn downwardly rather radially symmetrically, outwardly with the wick vertically positioned, one could use various different perfumes and even colorants at various portions of the candle structure. It is thus possible and practical to have several multicolored, multiperfumed regions or layers in a structure. Because the amount of ethyl cellulose used in a candle controls somewhat the rate of burning, it is possible to create softer compositions around a wick which are, in turn, encircled with a higher softening point composition, all compositions being as described in this invention. The later or radially outward portions can be decorated with inert decorative objects such as coins, pearling agents, and the like which can be suspended in a candle body during the molding process.
One preferred form of candle of the present invention has a small solid body, or a plurality of solid small bodies imbedded within the clear ethyl cellulose and glyceride composition, so that a special decorative effect may be achieved, such bodies being introduced into the candle body during the molding process. Such a decorative candle of the present invention is illus trated in FIG. 2.
Characteristically, candles of this invention display an aging tendency because of oxidation of the glyceride portion thereof due to the action of ultraviolet light and atmospheric oxygen which combination serves to induce the well-known free-radical oxidation of olefinic double bonds (such being present in typical candle bodies used in this invention). The effects of such oxidation can sometimes be determined in about a month's time following fabrication if a candle is continuously open in air and in daylight. However, if the sample is maintained in air but is not exposed to daylight, then the effects of such oxidation can sometimes be determined in about four months time following fabrication. As a result of the effects of oxidation, those candle body compositions which are brittle tend to soften with age, and those body compositions which display an initial tendency to exude glyceride oil (as when manually squeezed) seem to loose this tendency, or to have a reduced such tendency, with aging in air. In addition, the burning rate of an aged candle of this invention tends to be somewhat suppressed compared to that of a freshly made, or adequately preserved, candle, and, also, a certain blackness can develop in an aged, combusting candle body owing to the above-indicated oxidation. Such blackness appears to be more pronounced with the drying and semidrying oil type glycerides than with other types. Oxidation may progress to such a degree as to make a candle of this invention seem to burn only with difficulty when a wick is ignited. This oxidation, however, seems to take place only at the surface of a candle body mass. Thus, if a portion of the film formed on the body surface by scraping or the like, especially around the wick, the resulting candle burns with a flame comparable to that of a freshly made candle. Apparently the film formed around the body mass sort of seals the rest of the candle body from atmospheric oxygen and thus retards further oxidation during actual combustion.
To offset such oxidation effects, conventional, compatible u-v absorbers may be incorporated into the formulation of a candle body of this invention. Suitable UV absorbers are known to the prior art and include benzophenone type materials (such as 2,4 dihydroxybengophenone or 2-Hydroxy-4-n-octyl Benzophenone). Such absorbers are usually employed in amounts less than about 5 weight percent (total candle body weight basis). Besides UV absorbers, common antioxidants of the phenolic type, such as butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), diamyl phenol, 2, 6-tertiarybutyl-para-cresol, and the like, can be used, usually at levels of about 3 weight percent or less (same basis). UV absorbers and antioxidants are preferably added to a completely dis solved mixture of glyceride and ethyl cellulose to avoid potential discoloration problems.
EMBODIMENTS The present invention is further illustrated by reference to the following Examples. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that other and further embodiments are obvious and within the spirit and scope of this invention from the teachings of these present Examples taken with the accompanying specification and drawings.
Examples 1 A series of candles of the present invention are prepared. For each candle, the procedure followed involves first heating the glyceride to a temperature in the range from about l60 to 200C. Then ethyl cellulose is gradually added until dissolution and homogeneity are obtained. Since dissolution and homogeneity are facilitated through the use of mixing, in these examples, a so-called lightening mixture" is utilized to mix together the glyceride and the ethyl cellulose within the temperature range indicated. In general, the ethyl cellulose swells as it dissolves, and the more it swells, the clearer the resulting mixture becomes. Bubbles characteristically form during this mixing process, but these bubbles usually collapse substantially completely at the end of the dissolution process; in fact, the collapse of bubbles may be taken as a sign that dissolution is substantially complete. Near the completion of ethyl cellulose dissolution, the mixture temperature is reduced to a level about l60l70C to avoid and minimize any discoloration in the product composition, such as seems to be sometimes induced by overheating when all or substantially all the bubbles have been eliminated. Finally, the product composition is cast into a glass or polyolefin mold each having a diameter of l to 2 inches of predetermined cylindrical dimensions. Each mold is equipped with a wick axially located in said mold.
After solidification, the resulting candle is ready for use. Unless otherwise noted, or unless the mold is glass, the candle is removed from the mold and burned. The results are summarized in Tables lV through VI below.
TABLE I Glyceride Ethyl Cellulose Dissolution Comments Example Type Amount (1) Amount (2) Ethoxyl Viscosity Time No. wt. wt. content (3) (cps) (4) (min.)
1. Olive Oil 85 47.9-49.0 100 structure semiopaque, brittle,
burns for l/2 hour then stops due to accumulation of ash.
2. 85 15 47.9-49 300 structure firmer than #Lsame comments as above 3. 85 15 45.5-46.8 200 25 strength of structure between #1 8 #2. Still scmiopaque and brittle burns with small flame to the end, in 3 l/2 hours.
4. castor oil 85 15 45.5-46.8 100 mass solft, sticky composition discolors upon heating, flame stops in 1 hour.
5. 85 15 47.9-49 300 discolor; badly, brittle structure, sticky, flame small, stops in 1/2 hour.
6. 85 T5 45.0-46.5 200 30 less discoloration than =5, sticky brittle, semiopaquc, burns with small flame to th e end soy-bean 85 15 i q 200 25 light color, cloudy, brittle, bleeds oil oil in squeezing -good flame, burns to the end.
8. Peanut 85 15 45.5-46.5 200 15 light color, cloudy, brittle, bleeds oil in squeezing-good flame, burns to the end.
9. sunflower 85 15 45.5-46.5 200 20 light color, cloudy, brittle, bleeds oil in squeezing-good flame, burns to the end 10. I 85 15 45.5-46.5 200 20 light color, cloudy, brittle, bleeds oil in squeezing-good flame, burns to the end.
11. sesame oil 85 15 45.5-46.5 200 30 light color, cloudy, brittle, bleeds oil in squeezing-good flame, burns to the end.
12. linseed oil 85 15 45.5-46.5 200 15 best two component system, af e cas tor oil. dark'color. bad odor.
l3. tung oil 85 15 45.5-46.5 200 20 opaque, brittle, green color, bad
14. castor oil 85 15 45.5-46.8 200 15 soft, clear, not much bleeding in. corn oil as 15 45.5-46.8 5000 120 lfiitf z iih i s gttggigit 52 5RP 3 f l ithoiiy l contentbas ed on 100 weight percent total *FOOTNOTES TABLEIV ethyl Ceu,oSe
1. Weight percent Glyceride based on 100 weight 4. Viscosity in centiposes measured as a 5 weight perpercent total candle body composition. cent concentration at 25C. bases in a :20 toluene/e- 2. Weight percent Ethyl cellulose based on thanol solution using a sample dried for 30 minutes at weight percent total candle body composition. 45 100C.
Ethyl Cellulose Ex mpl Additive ssolution Comments No. ype mount iscosity Time (4) min.)
lo. olelcucid l0 45.5-46.8 5000 soyo tty acid 5ft owcr Sill CI si-snmc 111 1 11 45.5-46.8 200 Glivc 45.5-46.8 200 TABLE v -continued Example Glyceride Additive Ethyl Cellulose Dissolution Commems Amount (1) Type Amount(5) Amount(2) lithoxyl Viscosity Time Type \vt. I. wt. wt. content(3) (cps) (4) (min.)
34. safflower 52 isostearic l l5 45.5-46.8 200 15 (24) 81 olive oil 23 acid 35 corn oil 75 buivl 1O 15 45.5-46.8 200 40 (25) stearate 36. corn oil 75 isostearic 5 acid & l5 45.5-46.8 200 15 (26) isostcaric 5 alcohol 37. safflower 65 glycerol 20 15 45.5-46.8 200 15 (27) oil ester of rosin 38. 55 glycerol 20 ester of rosin 8t 15 45.5-46.8 200 15 (28) isostearic 1O acid 39. 55 glycerol 20 ester of 15 45.5-46.8 200 I5 (29) rosin & hydrogenat- :d rosin 3'. 5" .Nl'... l h i-Lfi. .Z. l2 C ll -i N os s .s 21m [2 .ll 12. llllIlWUl' .55 H- MAH 7 i k ml L'slc'i ul rosin 2t) 415.468 5 (I32) rll llll LLB-"@915" m-..
43. s lffluwcr 5i) 2\') 45. 5-46. 8 200 7 (3'3) |)ll 44. corn ml ()5 .3171 20 I5 45.5-46.8 200 a 777 p'lt'noxyxvlwtlioxy) -15. msiur oil 58 cL.'l "'n Ilcohol & ll) diliultl- 3U 45.5-46.8 200 ll) (35) p'itlnlntc 2 46. 55 (lihutyl phth'llate 15 3t) 45.5-46. 8 200 10 (36) 47. c-Isror oil 64 isosrcuryl l0 sifflowcr 10.0 ulc-lhul l5 45.5-45.8 200 10 (37) SDLXIHACCIII I. 0 V 48. Castor oil heavy lubri 1O 45.5-46.8 2'00 15 (38) cating oil 49. Castor oil dibutyl- 15 30 45.5-46.8 200 15 (39) phthalate 50. Castor oil 30 isostearic 2O 5O 45.5-46.8 200 18 (40) alcohol 51. Safflower 50 glycerol 10 ester of Rosin l cohols 2O 2O 45.5-46.8 200 10 (41) 52. Castor oil 75 Soya fatty l0 l5 45.5-46.8 200 12 (42) acids 53. safflower 65 Arlamgl E 2O 15 45.5-46.8 200 5 (43) *FOOTNOTES- TABLE V esthetically unacceptable. Because the high viscosity L Same as footnote 1 of Table L ethyl cellulose IS difficult to dissolve the finished prod 2. Same as footnote 2 of Table L uct 1S highly; d scolored. ljilame stopsdm 30 minute: dge 3. Sa e as footnote 3 of Table l q l2:(3Cl.lfl'll.l atlOl'l 0 OX! atlon PTO UCtS aroun e 4. Same as footnote 4 of Table 1. Each of the ethyl cel- Y h b luloses used in this Table is a Hercules material; the ame ast e a f' 8. Candle structure is soft, clear, exudes Oll in 24 hours,
200 cps material is always the Hercules K200.
5. Weight percent additive based on weight percent total candle body composition.
6. Structure of resulting candle is soft, pliable, sticky and exhibits the torch effect after 3 minutes of burning.
9. Candle structure is not soft as that of example 18, but it is still soft. lt exhibits the torch effect more reluctantly, but it still catches fire. lt exudes less oil than example l8.
l0. Candle structure is harder than that of l8, 19; still rather soft. it burns without exhibiting the torch effect although a minimum oil exudation occurs after 3 days.
I 1. Structure a bit soft, but burns well. Suitable for a candle that is enclosed in a glass container.
12. Soft structure, bleeds oil in 24 hours, exhibiting the torch effect in 3 minutes.
13. Light color, no bleeding at room temperature, very good structure, burns very well. Some oil exudation occurs during burning, but practically all of this oil is absorbed with several hours after cooling down to room temperature. It produces an odor similar to that of butyric acid on burning due to a probable degradation of isostearic acid to butyric acid.
l4. Same comments as in comment l3, structure is firmer, harder. All glycerides except castor oil show aging effects due to air oxidation catalized by UV. light. Remedies for this are discussed in the section that deals with preservatives.
15. Same comments as in comment 13, except there is not butyric acid odor on burning.
l6. Firmer structure than example 25, again no butyric acid odor, both examples 25 and 26 are good free standing candles.
l7. Lighter color than example 23, and also a bit softer than example 23. Other comments: the same as comment l3.
18. A bit lighter color than example 23, also softer than example 23. It exhibits a shorter dissolution time.
19. Examples 27 through 31 exhibit very similar properties. They showed good firm free standing structures that burn well with some oil exudation while burning. Most of this oil is absorbed back upon cooling except some at the base.
20. same as the preceeding.
21. same as the preceeding.
22. Firmer than example 23, but a bit hazy, also it burns with a smaller flame. Apparently tall oil fatty acids do not have quite the same synergistic effect that isostearic acid, oleic acid, and soya fatty acids have when combined with a triglyceride and ethyl cellulose.
23. Olive oil and tung oil do not produce clear structures with fatty acids. Apparently the synergistic effect does not work in these two cases.
24. ln example 33, comment 23, it was noted that olive and tung oil do not produce clear structures with fatty acids. If a blend of olive oil with other oils like corn, safflower, etc. is made the synergistic effect of the fatty acids appears again. This structure is as good as 23 or 25. Structure is a bit hazy, exudes oil on squeezing. Esters like isopropyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, isopropyl palmitate, behave similarly. The synergistic effect shown by fatty acids is not as pronounced here. Although esters-triglyceride-ethyl cellulose compositions are better that the two component triglyceride-ethyl cellulose, the combination of esters-fatty acidstriglycerides-ethyl cellulose give certain special effects to candles that possess such combinations, like higher flame. The fatty alcohols act very similarly to esters. Both esters and fatty alcohols combine very successfully when the triglyceride is castor oil. For as it is mentioned elsewhere castor oil does not produce brittle and semi hazy two phase compositions with ethyl cellulose.
Brittleness and semi hazy compositions are typical of many non-castor oil containing triglyceride starting systems evaluated. Fatty alcohols and esters do not shorten glyceride dissolution time as much as fatty acids.
26. As noted in comment 25, fatty alcohols and esters do not show the pronounced synergistic effect of the fatty acids. Combinations of fatty acids-fatty alcohols or esters do so, however. This is a light, clear, firm structure.
27. Very good, very hard structure, good flame, it smokes here and there. Glycerol, pentaerythritol, ethylene glycol and methyl esters of rosin exhibit a synergistic effect which is not as pronounced with ordinary fatty esters. The glycerol ester of rosin seems to be better in this respect than the rest of the esters. As opposed to fatty esters-fatty acids compatibility, however, there is incompatibility between rosin esters-nonrosin-fatty acids as seen below, especially at low ethyl cellulose concentrations (comment 28).
28. Incompatibility, structure bleeds oil.
29. Good structure, compatible, as good as example 37. Rosin esters are compatible with rosin itself (whether hydrogenated, dehydrogenated or disproportionated).
30. Highly compatible, very hard structure, as good as example 37, but harder with smaller flame. Only congo gum at the same concentration is harder. Congo gum is also very dark and thus unsuitable. Singaporedamar gum was not as compatible as congo and elemi gum. 31. Castor oil again is our exception in that it makes a soft composition with gum elemi, as well as congo gum, and glycerol esters of rosin. These compositions may be suitable for a glass container not free standing candles.
32. A bit discoloration. as good as 37, good flame. Some oil exudation at the base after burning the candle for some time.
33. Good structure, firmer than example 42, less oil exudation on burning candle than 42.
34. Fair, a bit hazy, but good elastic structure fair flame.
35. Excellent structure, no bleeding, burns heavily around wick. Very good for free standing candle. 10 percent cetyl alcohol seems to be the limit in this formula without causing the opaqueness' effect.
36. Very good structure, light color, burns heavily around wick.
37. Very good firm structure, kept in glass container. Good flame. 38. Structure very hard for a two component system. Considerable discoloration due to prolonged heating. Small flame, but candle burned to the end.
39. Very good candle structure, very good flame, burns a little heavily around the wick.
40. Hard structure; exhibits the torch effect.
41. Very hard structure, burns with good flame, minimum oil exudation while it burns. Most of this oil is reabsorbed by the candle structure upon cooling of the g nqlg wsaw 42. Composition softer than example 25 Table I]. medium flame. V 7 43. Composition a bit hazy. it produces a very good flame. Exuded oil is reabsorbed upon cooling. (Arlamole E is the trade mark for a polypropylene glycol fatty radical made by l.C.l. of America formerly Atlas Chemical.
TABLE VI 1.11/12 111 Table ll Candle dimension .gxrimfiic's examples Wicktype size Comments 23 Atkins & Pearce 1 1/8 x 1 6/8, Free Standing wick burns an area of 5/8" around metal w re w it. Structure takes 3 1/2 hours 44-32-18 to burn completely wick burns an area of 1 1/8" 55 53 around it. It burns in 2 hours & 45 minutes. wick burns 6/8 around it. It 56. 26 takes 3 hours 8: 45 minutes to burn Atkins Pearce wick burns an area of 1" around 26 metalwlck it. 2 hours and minutes Atkins & Pearce wick burns an area of 1 1/8" 58' 26 3 square braided around it. it takes lhour and 45 wick minutes to burn. It smokes due to large flame. 59' 26 A g. p 4; la wick burns 1" around it. it takes lflfled wick (1) .2 hours to burn (;0 .57 A & P 44-32-18 1 1/8 x 1 6/8; Free Standing smokes the least of this group 61. 37 A 81 P 60-44-18 smokes A 81 P #3 square 62, 39 braided wick smokes 63. 51 A & P 44-32-18 small flame, no smoke 64 51 A 81 P #3 square braided wick some smoke (15 S1 A 8; 1 60-44-18 some smoke A 81 P #11 square in glass container of 2 5/8" wick burns an area of 1 1/2" 66. 52 braided wick diameter around it. Smokes here &
there, too large for this container 'A 8! P #3 square wick burns an area of 1 1/2" 67. braided wick around it. Smokes here 81 there, too large for this conrainer-a bit better than 4 l3.
* FOOTNOTES TABLE VI 1. The designation of A & P disignates Atkins & Pearch company of Cincinatti, Ohio. Example 68 Composition of candle: 1. Castor oil 64.0 2. lsostearyl alcohol 10.0 3. Santopen 67 (antioxidant) 1.0 4. safflower oil 10.0 5. Ethyl cellulose 200 cps 15.0 (Hercules K200 type) Ingredients 1 through 4 are heated to 180C in a 500 cc glass beaker and ethyl cellulose is added while mixing the mixture with a lightning mixer. Dissolution is complete in about 10 minutes; A glass container of 3 inches diameter and 5'inches height is used to hold the candle contents. The above described hot uniform mixture is poured into the glass up to 1 inch height from the bottom. Then a wire wick is inserted in the center and held there straight. The lower part of the glass container is forcibly cooled in a water bath of 10C. When the mixture in the glass is semisolid or starts to set two previously polished dimes are inserted in a non-flat position. The cooling continues till the whole mass in the glass has solidified completely. Then more of the molten mass is poured into the glass container up to 2 /2 inches from the bottom. This new layer is cooled till it sets in a water bath. To the remaining molten mass in the 500 cc glass container is added a red oil soluble color (DuPont) and a perfume composition that is fit for a red color. (imitation carnation) After mixing until uniform at 170C and after the bubbles rise to the top, the system is poured into a glass mold. The final composition in each glass container contains three layers; the bottom one is light yellow in color with two dimes suspended in it; the second layer is the same color with nothing suspended in it; the third layer is red in color and perfumed with 3 percent perfume. The above described procedure is used to create similar other effects as well as radially layered compositions. Thus a 2 inches X 2 inches candle structure with the above described composition is formed, taken out of the glass mold and placed at the center of a new mold of 3 inches X 3 inches diameter. Then, a harder composition is poured around the 2 inches X 2 inches structure. The temperature of this resulting outside layer on pouring does not exceed the melting point of the inside softer composition. This outside layer comprises:
Weight 71 Total Composition Components 1. Castor oil 61.0 2. Cctyl alcohol 7.0 3. Dibutyl phthulutc 2.0 4. Ethyl cellulose, 200 cps 30.0
mold, but not touching the walls before pouring the (total candle body weight basis), the total amount of higher softening point composition around the 2 inches any given such additive used in any given said candle X 2 inches candle. body being generally insufficient to cause either the The claims are: torch effect or the bleeding effect. 1. A candle comprising a body having therein a wick, 5 9. The candle of claim 6 additionally containing less than about 10 weight percent (total candle body weight A. said body comprising on a 100 weight percent basis) of an organophosphate.
basis a thermoplastic blend of 10. The candle of claim 6 additionally containing less I. from about 6 to 55 weight percent ethyl Cellulose than about 30 weight percent (total candle body weight and 10 basis) of a material selected from the class consisting 2. from about 45 to 94 weight percent of at least f osin add cts,
one glyceride, 11. The candle of claim 5 wherein said triglyceride is B. said wick being adapte IO selected from the group consisting of corn oil, soybean 1. be impregnated by said blend when said blend is il d ffl iL in a heated, liq ifie o and l5 12. The candle of claim 1 wherein said glyceride is PrOl/ide Capillary action for Such heated, q selected from the group consisting of semi-drying oils fled form of said blend, a d non-drying oils, C. the combination of said body and said wick being 13, Th dl f l i 1 h i id l id Such that, an pp 0 of i is comprises from about 1 to 30 weight percent of at least generally lertlcal Configuratlon lgmted, 531d one glyceride oil from the group consisting of safflower Wick bums Wlth a gener?lly lummolls flame and oil, corn oil, soybean oil, and olive oil mixed with a balcombusts gradually both itself and said body. ance up to 100 Weight percent f Castor 2. The candle of claim 1 wherein said wick comprises 14' The candle f claim 1 wherein i body i a plurality of combustible, organic fibrous members stantiany transparem disposed in f x adjacen} P to W 15. The candle of claim 6 wherein said body is subother and wherem said body is in a solid or semi-solid stamiany transparem form at room temperatures and P 16. A process for making a candle comprising the 3. The candle of claim 1 wherein said wick and said Steps of: I Q are Substantially compietely combusted as Sald A. dissolving at a temperature ranging from about Wick 59 bums- 100 to 200C. from about 6 to 55 weight percent f- The Candle of clam 1 531d blend ethyl cellulose in from about 45 to 94 weight perl (a) m about 15 to 45 Welght 139mmt of ethyl cent glyceride on a 100 weight percent total basis cellulose having an ethoxyl content of from about 45 to to produce a if heat f d liquid blend, 49 weight percent (total cellulose basis) and a viscosity depositing the So heated and Somroduced liquid of from about 50 to 300 centipoises when measured as blend in a l cavity f predetermined di a 5 613m P c9ncentfauon 25 C "I 8020 sions, said cavity having a wick extending through toluene/ethanol solution using a sample dried for 30 a mid region thereof in one direction, Said wick mmutes at and fromflbiut 5 to 85 we'ght comprising a plurality of combustible fibrous mempercent of at least one triglyceride having a molecular hers in generally adjacent relationship to one am weght above about 40 other and adapted to 5. The candle of claim 4 wherem said triglyceride is I L be impregnated by Said bkmd when in a heated Castor liquified form, and
6. The candle of claim 1 wherein said body has lncorprovide capillary action for Such heated, liqui porated theremto from 0 up to about 40 weight percent fled form of Said blend, and
(total candle body weight basis) of at least one additive C cooling Said so deposited blend selected from the group consisting of (a) organic compounds containing at least one oxa or at least one oxo group and from about 7 through carbon atoms per molecule, and (b) viscous petroleum hydrocarbons containing at least about 15 carbon atoms per mole- 50 cule, said additive being further characterized by being soluble in corn oil at the rate of 10 parts additive per 100 parts corn oil and by having when so dissolved in corn oil the capacity to dissolve ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content ranging from about 45.0 to 49.0 weight percent total ethyl cellulose basis in such com 17. The process of claim 15 wherein from about 15 to 45 weight percent ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content of from about 45 to 49 weight percent (total centipoises when measured as a 5 weight percent concentration at 25C in an :20 toluene/ethanol solution using a sample dried for 30 minutes at 100C, is dissolved in from about 55 to weight percent of at least one triglyceride having a molecular weight above about 650 (total l00 weight percent composition basis).
oil solution at the rate of about 20 parts by weight of The Process of claim 17 wherein Said triglyceride such ethyl cellulose per parts by weight of such Castor corn oil solution at about l80C within a time interval 19. The process of claim 16 wherein said glyceride of about 15 minutes, the total amount of any given such 60 initially has dissolved therein from 0 up to about 40 additive used in any given said candle body being genweight percent, total compsition weight basis, of at erally insufficient to cause either the torch effect, or least one additive selected from the group consisting of the bleeding effect. (a) organic compounds containing at least one oxa or 7. The candle of claim 6 wherein the amount of any at least one oxo group and from about 7 through 50 given such additive used in any given said candle body 65 carbon atoms per molecule, and (b) viscous petroleum is additionally generally insufficient to cause opacity. hydrocarbons containing at least about 15 carbon 8. The candle of claim 6 wherein said additive is ematoms per molecule, said additive being further characployed at the rate of from about 3 to 20 weight percent terized by being soluble in corn oil at the rate of 10 cellulose basis) and a viscosity of from about 50 to 300 parts additive per 100 parts corn oil and by having when so dissolved in corn oil the capacity to dissolve ethyl cellulose having an ethoxyl content ranging from about 45.0 to 49.0 weight percent total ethyl cellulose basis in such corn oil solution at the rate of about 20 parts by weight of such ethyl cellulose per 100 parts by weight of such corn oil solution at about 180C within a time interval of about l minutes. the total amount of any given such additive used in any given said composition being generally insufficient to cause either the torch effect/or the bleeding effect.
20. The process of claim 19 wherein the amount of any given such additive used in any given said composition is additionally generally insufficient to cause opacity in the resulting cooled such composition.
21. A process for making a candle comprising the steps of:
A. dissolving at a temperature ranging from about 100 to 200C. from about 6 to 55 weight percent ethyl cellulose in from about 45 to 94 weight percent glyceride on a 100 weight percent total basis to produce a uniform, heat fused liquid blend,
B. immersing a wick in an extended condition in said liquid blend, said wick comprising a plurality of combustible fibrous members in generally adjacent relationship to one another and adapted to 1. be impregnated by said blend when in a heated,
liquified form, and 2. provide capillary action for such heated, liquifled form of said blend,
C. removing said so immersed wick from said liquid blend with a portion of said liquid blend deposited thereon,
D. cooling said so-deposited blend while maintaining said resulting wick in a generally vertical configuration at least until said liquid blend solidifies, and
E. sequentially repeating steps (B), (C) and (D) until a body of desired dimensions is built up about said wick.
22. The candle of claim 1 wherein said ethyl cellulose is substantially ashless.
23. The candle of claim 6 wherein said ethyl cellulose is substantially ashless.