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Publication numberUS3844813 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 29, 1974
Filing dateMar 27, 1972
Priority dateDec 17, 1969
Publication numberUS 3844813 A, US 3844813A, US-A-3844813, US3844813 A, US3844813A
InventorsBurns C, Kunak A, Leonard W
Original AssigneeLowenstein & Sons M
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Precision deposition onto a textile substrate
US 3844813 A
Abstract
A process for precisely depositing a composition onto a textile substrate so as to closely control the amount added on while simultaneously controlling the placement of the composition onto the substrate. A textile substrate is fed, in a smooth condition, to an applicator roll where a metered amount of a composition is continuously applied to the substrate while simultaneously therewith, tension on the substrate, speed of the applicator roll relative to the speed of the substrate and contact between the substrate and the applicator are controlled, and after which the composition is evenly distributed across the substrate. Plural applicators may be arranged in tandem for applying the same or different materials to one or both sides of the substrate. The invention is also directed to textile products having materials precisely deposited thereon by the process of the present invention.
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United States Patent [19] Leonard et al.

[ Oct. 29, 1974 1 1 PRECISION DEPOSITION ONTO A TEXTILE SUBSTRATE [73] Assignee: M. Lowenstein & Sons, Inc.,

New York, NY.

[22] Filed: Mar. 27, 1972 [21] Appl. No.: 238,250

Related US. Application Data Continuation of Ser. No. 885,831, Dec. 17. 1969,

l l 'l gued.

[52] US. Cl 117/7, 28/74 R, 117/38, 117/47 R, 117/47 A, 117/68, 117/76 T,

ll7/102 L, 117/111 R, l17/lll A, 117/111 [51] Int. Cl. B05c 3/20, B44d 1/02 [58] Field of Search 117/7, 47 A, 47 R, 111 R, 117/111 F, 111A, 38, 68, 76 T, 102 L;

3,265,529 8/1966 Caldwell et a1. 117/7 3,290,752 12/1966 otmilnd 28/74 R 3,519,460 7/1970 Erb 117/111 R 3,023,482 3/1962 Gilboy et a1. 1 17/1 1 1 R 2,989,423 6/1961 Malmquist et a1 1 17/145 2,689,545 9/1954 Nelson ..117/7 3,036,927 5/1962 .lerothe 1 17/7 OTHER PUBLICATIONS C.A. Litzler, The Surface Coating and lmpregnation of Fabric," Rubber Age, July 1952, pp.501506.

Primary Examiner-Wil1iam D. Martin Assistant Examiner-William R. Trenor Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Wellington M. Manning, Jr.

[57] ABSTRACT A process for precisely depositing a composition onto a textile substrate so as to closely control the amount added on while simultaneously controlling the placement of the composition onto the substrate. A textile substrate is fed, in a smooth condition, to an applicator roll where a metered amount of a composition is continuously applied to the substrate while simultaneously therewith, tension on the substrate, speed of the applicator roll relative to the speed of the substrate and contact between the substrate and the applicator are controlled, and after which the composition is evenly distributed across the substrate. Plural applicators may be arranged in tandem for applying the same or difierent materials to one or both sides of the substrate. The invention is also directed to textile products having materials precisely deposited thereon by the process of the present invention.

30 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures PMENIEnum 29 m4 18448 13 arm 1m FIG.

PAIENIEDmzs m4 4 3.844181 3 am am. a 1

FIGZ

300/ SOI PRECISION DEPOSITION ONTO A TEXTILE SUBSTRATE CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION This application is a continuation of application, Ser. No. 885,83l, filed Dec. 17, 1969, now abandoned.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Various chemicals, dyestuffs, resins, and the like in the form of finishes have been applied to textile fabrics for as long as textile fabrics have been produced. Basically, however, the means for applying these materials to textiles has not drastically departed from the age-old process of dipping the fabric into the composition or padding the composition onto the fabric, after which the fabric must be dried prior to being exposed to a further finishing or processing step. Up to the present time, processes for adding the various compositions onto the textile substrate have in general involved approximate saturation of the substrate with the composition, after which the substrate having the composition thereon is passed through squeeze rolls or the like to expell a large portion of the composition from the fabric. The fabric or substrate is then transported to a dryer where the remainder of excessive and unwanted materials are removed from the textile substrate and the substrate is dried to a point suitable for accepting additional materials in a further processing step.

In general, the major constituent of a textile treating composition as referred to above is water or some suitable carrier for the materials being applied. This water or carrier is not per se, necessarily beneficial to the textile substrate itself, but generally only provides a medium for applying the effective constituent of the composition to the substrate. In this regard, the effective constituent as applied to the substrate is represented in the composition as per cent solids. Technological deficiencies to this arrangement are not the compositions per se, but are the means of applying the compositions to the textile substrate. Heretofore, processes for pre cisely applying a predetermined amount of a particular material to a textile substrate without almost completely saturating the substrate have been nonexistent. Moreover, these saturation processes are not indigenous to one specific area of textile finishing or preparation, but are, in general, found throughout the textile industry. In other words, prior to the present invention, there has been no truly feasible process in the textile industry by which the various textile finishes, dyestuffs and the like could be applied to the textile substrate in a precise manner without the addition of a tremendous excess of unwanted materials to subsequently be removed from the substrate. Even excess amounts of the effective ingredient are generally applied to insure retention of the desired amount.

To cite a specific example as indicative of the antiquity of textile finishing, it is assumed that one has a textile substrate having a very open weave construction, and that it is desired to upgrade the particular substrate, to dye the fabric and to print a particular design onto the fabric. Under normal conditions the fabric would first be batched into a large roll suitable for a long processing run. The batched roll would then be dyed a particular color where, in applying the dyestuff to the fabric, total add on would represent in the neighborhood of 100 per cent by weight of the fabric. The

now very wet fabric must be dried or treated according to the dictates of the particular dyestuff before being further processed. After dyeing the fabric it is next necessary to preframe the fabric and apply additives to stablize the particular construction thereof. Prior' to printing, the fabric is subjected to what is known as a prebackfill operation. In the prebackfill operation starches and various chemicals and fillers are added to partially fill the interstices of the fabric so as to present a more substantial fabric to the print machine. The fabric is then dried again, transported to the print machine and printed with the desired design. The printed fabric is then topped with more of the backfill composition, calendared, inspected and shipped to the converter.

In conducting the abovementioned normal operations for producing a printed, upgraded, fabric. numerous areas are encountered that appreciably add to the overall cost of the fabric. For instance, in providing a per cent add on of composition to the fabric, there are always materials lost in the process. Though not effective for improving the quality of the fabric, these lost.

materials are accepted as necessary to achieve the desired results using present commercial processes. Further, a 100 per cent add on to the fabric necessitates extensive drying of the fabric preparatory to further processing. A very large factor that is also paramount in carrying out the abovementioned process is materials handling. Most textile plants are arranged such that the various aforementioned operations of the overall process are physically located in different areas of the plant. Hence, after each operation, the treated fabric must be transported, in general by forklift trucks, to another area of the plant where the next operation of the process is to be conducted. During many particular runs, the fabric will even return, at least once, to the same machine for further treatment before being shipped to the converter. Materials handling therefor represents several possible sources of excessive cost. The first of these is obviously labor, since someone must remove the fabric from the various machines and transport it to the next operation in the process line. Also, however, such additional physical manipulation of the fabric unavoidably increases the likelihood of damage to the fabric. Continued exposure of the fabric to this potential damage both decreases the efficiency of the overall process and increases the number of yards of seconds fabric that are produced. Moreover, even if the fabric is not damaged to the extent of being classified a second, the probability of reprocessing needs is greatly increased. Lastly, the abovementioned commercial processes require large capital expenditure either in form of additional process equipment or in the physical plant for housing the equipment.

One may readily ascertain from the above description of an overall process currently being practiced in the textile industry, that there is tremendous opportunity for improvement in textile finishing. Such improvements will permit significant reductions in processing costs, and simultaneously lead to the realization of a far superior final product. The present invention provides such improvement by eliminating one or more of the aforementioned steps, reducing processing costs, improving plane efficiency and production, and improving the general quality of the fabric. Moreover, a very important attribute of the present invention is the capability of printing an upgraded fabric, calendaring same, and then forwarding the fabric to the converter without topping the print. A new fabric dimension results for as a result of this improvement, the converter may now receive a fabric having a print color value that was heretofore unavailable.

The prior art is replete with patents and other references directed to improved processes for the finishing of textile substrates. There is, however, no teaching in the prior art of the present process for precisely depositing a certain amount of a material at a certain place on a textile substrate. Moreover, while there is no teaching of the present invention, it is also felt that none of the prior art either alone or in combination would render the present process obvious to one having ordinary skill in the textile art. By way of example, the following listed US. Pat. Nos. are felt to be representative of the present state of the art, and include Willcox, 2,131,777; Billing, 2,288,432; Johnson, et al., 2,949,391; Tornquist, et al., 2,526,301; Abrams, et al., 2,840,442; Griswold, 2,860,068; Malmquist, et al., 2,989,423; Musser et al., 2,048,500; Griswold, 3,120,449; Smith et al., 3,326,7 l 3; and MacKenzie, Jr., et al., 3,365,329.

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION Generally speaking, it is an object of the present invention to precisely deposit a metered amount of a composition onto a textile substrate.

A further object of the present invention is to apply a desired amount of composition onto a textile substrate without excessively increasing the moisture content of the textile substrate.

Still further, another object of the present invention is to precisely apply a predetermined amount of the same or different materials onto a textile substrate by one or more of several types of applicators.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a novel textile substrate that is produced by the process of the present invention.

Generally speaking, the present invention is directed to a process for precisely depositing a composition onto a textile substrate comprising the steps of feeding a smooth textile substrate to an applicator; applying a metered amount of said composition to the textile substrate while controlling the substrate speed relative to the applicator speed, tension of the substrate at the applicator and contact between the substrate and the applicator and evening the applied composition across the substrate.

The present process more specifically involves the application of a metered amount of composition onto the substrate while the substrate passes the applicator in such a condition and at such a speed that the predetermined amount of composition is applied thereto. In accomplishing the intended result, it is important that the substrate make even and proper contact with the applicator, that the substrate be subjected to constant tension at the applicator and that the precisely metered amount of composition be applied evenly across the surface of the substrate.

The process of the present invention is conducted at ambient temperature instead of at elevated temperatures as is the norm for the current commercial processes. At room temperature, viscosity of the composition is easily and accurately controllable, whereas at elevated temperatures it is virtually impossible to maintain a constant viscosity, even across the surface of the composition in the process equipment. Moreover, op-

eration at elevated temperatures increases operational costs of the process.

Numerous compositions may be applied to the textile substrate by the process of the present invention to comply with the dictates of the desired end product. For instance, the composition applied to the substrate may contain as essential ingredients, dyestuffs; backfill formulations; textile resins; water repellent constituents; oil repellent constituents, or the like. Specific formulations for these different additives will vary considerably, depending on the nature and construction of substrate, the operating conditions of the process and the intended use for the final product. Hence, the composition viscosity for instance must be controllable at room or ambient temperature to permit precision deposition thereof onto a textile substrate.

Use of the techniques of the present invention permit wide variety in available processing combinations that may now be realized in textile finishing. These combinations have heretofore been impossible due to inherent problems found in the current textile finishing processes as discussed above. For example, various applicator units may be arranged in tandem to apply different compositions to the same or opposite sides of the substrate. A prime example of this versatility is the ability to dye the fabric at a first applicator unit and then coat the substrate at a second applicator unit without additional intermediate processing steps. Precisely controlled moisture content of the substrate by the teachings of the present invention allow this combination to be realized. Further, the applicator units themselves may be arranged according to the dictates of the desired end product. A simple kiss coat applicator unit may precede a direct gravure unit or vice versa. Flexographic or offset units may be employed as desired. In fact the choice of the type applicator unit and the particular arrangement of applicator units is discretionary with the user so long as the controls taught herein can be maintained.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of an arrangement of apparatus to practice a preferred facet of the process of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic design of a direct kiss coat applicator unit that may be used to practice the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a schematic design of a further direct kiss coat applicator unit that may be used to practice the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a direct gravure applicator unit that may be used to practice the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a reverse roll kiss coat applicator unit that may be used to practice the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a two roll flexo graphic applicator unit that may be used to practice the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS The specific embodiments of the present invention will now be described, making reference to the Figures where appropriate. Generally, a roll of a textile fabric or other textile substrate is prebatched to provide a longer, uninterrupted run through machinery. Fabric from the batched roll is then fed through an accumulator, subjected to the action of a warp tension control device, fed past a vacuum extractor, a barrel expander and to one or more applicator units where a precise amount of composition is metered onto the fabric at a predetermined specific location. Once treated the fabric is then dried and taken up on a roll for further processing or shipping.

FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a suitable arrangement for the process line of the present invention. Substantial yardage of a substrate S is prebatched on a feed roll for processing according to the teachings of the present invention. Substrate S is fed from roll 10 to an accumulator generally indicated as which comprises a series of guide rolls 22. Accumulator 20 provides a buffer between roll 10 and the remainder of the process equipment and facilitates ease of the piecing up of a new roll of substrate to be processed.

Subsequent to accumulator 20, the process control units begin. A suitable warp tension regulator 24 is the first control element in the line. After being subjected to initial warp tension regulation, substrate S is treated on its topside by a vacuum extractor 26, the purpose of which will be fully explained hereinafter. Vacuum extractor 26 should be positioned to treat the side of substrate S that is to be coated. A barrel or slat expander 28 next contacts substrate S to properly align filling picks that may have been disoriented in the substrate, and to apply tension in the filling direction of the substrate so as to present a substrate that is as uniform as possible. Substrate S normally makes an approximate 90 wrap around the expander, thus allowing the multidirectional action on the filling yarns, etc. that are produced by the expander.

The substrate then passes directly into a nip 33, that is produced by two rolls 31 and 32. As shown in FIG. 1, nip 33 is a part of a direct gravure applicator unit generally indicated as 30. As will be fully explained hereinafter, depending upon the particulars of the process, nip 33 may be produced by two rolls such as 31 and 32 separate from any applicator unit. Direct gravure applicator unit 30 generally comprises a fountain or box 34, an applicator roll 32, an impression roll 31 and a metering blade 15. Direct gravure applicator units such as unit 30 will be further discussed below.

Substrate S after leaving nip 33 passes over guide rollers 38 which support and reverse substrate S to present the proper surface thereof to an applicator unit generally indicated as 40 for the precision deposition of a composition thereon. Prior to being presented to unit 40, substrate S passes over a second barrel expander 39 to again align the substrate and apply tension in the filling direction or equivalent thereof.

Applicator unit 40 is shown in FIG. 1 to be a direct kiss coat applicator unit. As will be seen later, any of a number of applicator units may be employed in lieu of a direct kiss coat unit. The direct kiss coat applicator unit 40 generally comprises a fountain or box 41 for containing the composition to be applied to substrate 5. A driven applicator roll 42 is suspended into fountain 41 to remove composition therefrom and apply it to substrate S. Adjacent applicator roll 42 on the upstream side is an adjustable metering blade 43 while on the downstream side, an adjustable scraper blade 44 prevents extraneous materials from adhering to applicator roll 42. A wrap angle roll 45 is positioned just upstream of applicator 42 and is adjustable to vary the degree of contact between substrate S and applicator roll 42. Downstream of applicator roll 42 and over fountain 41 or a portion thereof is a composition evening means 47 which smooths composition across the surface of substrate S and, if necessary, removes any excess composition therefrom. As shown in FIG. 1, composition evening means 47 is an adjustable blade, though other apparatus such as for example Mayer rods or polishing bars may be successfully used as will be seen throughout the remainder of this specification. A throw off roll 46 is positioned adjacent composition smoothing means 47 to be on the opposite side of substrate S. Throw off roll 46 is adjustable to be coordinated with composition smoothing means 47 to facilitate proper pressure between substrate S and composition smoothing means 47.

After applicator unit 40, substrate S contacts an adjustably weighted dancer roll 50. Dancer roll 50 is moveable along the directions shown by the arrows to maintain constant tension on substrate S. In this regard, dancer roll 50 is operatively associated with roll 32 of nip 33 through a suitable servo mechanism to adjust the speed of roll 32 and thereby retain constant tension on substrate S. Should substrate S become tight at dancer roll 50, dancer roll 50 is moved toward applicator unit 40. Movement of dancer roll 50 toward applicator unit 40 actuates the servo control mechanism in turn increases the speed of roll 32 to permit faster passae of substrate S through nip 33 and causes a passage lessening of tension on substrate S which is immediately taken up by movement of dancer roll 50 to its original position. The reverse situation is likewise true. Therefore, the interaction between dancer roll 50 and nip 33 maintains a constant tension on substrate S regardless of the speed of substrate S.

After leaving the desired applicator unit or units, the substrate is negotiated by dancer roll 50 and guide roll 51 and passes into a drying zone such as is provided in a tenter frame 70, as shown in FIG. 1. A light L is position under the path of travel of the substrate after the applicator unit. This light allows the operator of the process equipment to visually inspect the substrate immediately after application of the composition thereto. Once the desired composition has been applied to substrate S, it is important that the treated area of substrate S should not come into contact with any object until dry. Accordingly, care is taken to present the treated surface of substrate S face up as it passes into tenter frame 70. Prior to the point where a series of tenter clips, (not shown) engage each selvage or edge of substrate S for passage through tenter frame 70, optical edge guides 68 are utilized to insure proper alignment between substrate S and the tenter clips. Since however, it is necessary to handle substrate S without contacting the treated surface and since the treated surface at this point contains certain amounts of moisture, the edges of the substrate naturally tend to curl upwards. To alleviate this curl before passage under the optical guides 68 and engagement by the tenter clips, air jets 67 are positioned over each edge of substrate S. Air jets 67 direct high velocity air against the edges of substrate S to insure that the edges remain flat so as to be properly sensed by guides 68 for alignment with the tenter clips.

Tenter frame 70 may be operated as necessary to properly dry substrate S having the composition precisely deposited thereon. Normally much less moisture is applied to substrate S by practice of the present invention and tenter 70 may be operated at full speed. In fact in actual operation of the present process to date, speed of the process has been limited by the maximum speed of the tenter being employed. A much faster tenter will thus allow much faster processing speeds than are shown herein. Substrate exiting from tenter 70 is passed over cooling cans 75 and then wound on take up roll 80. Scrapers 77 positioned just prior to take up roll 80 contact the selvage of the substrate to remove any composition build up thereon. This build up, if not removed, is subject to flaking off during printing where it contaminates the print machine.

Having thus generally described suitable equipment for conducting the process of the present invention, examples of some suitable applicator units that may be employed will be shown and described. FIG. 2, for instance, schematically illustrates a direct kiss coat applicator unit as shown in FIG. 1, generally indicated as 200. For the sake of clarity and for discussion of control of the present process, this unit will be more fully explained. Direct kiss coat applicator unit 200 comprises a fountain or box 201 for containing a composition C that is to be applied to a substrate S moving in the direction shown by the arrow. An applicator roll 202, driven in the direction of substrate movement, picks up composition from fountain 201 and deposits same on the contact surface of substrate S. Roll 202 may, however, be reversed whereby the one roll system becomes a reverse kiss coat applicator unit. When roll 202 is reversed, the functions of metering blade 203 and scraper blade 204 are also reversed. lnsofar as unit 200 is relevant to controls, a metering blade 203, positioned adjacent roll 202 contacts the composition being removed from fountain 201 by roll 202 and allows only a predetermined amount thereof to pass. Metering blade 203 is adjustable as to angular relationship to roll 202 and also as to the opening or gap between blade 203 and roll 202. As roll 202 contacts substrate S, lint'and other extraneous materials that were not removed from the substrate by the vacuum extractor are picked off. If these materials are allowed to remain on roll 202, repetitive streaks and faults might be produced on the coated surface of substrate S. A scraper blade 204 is thus installed to lightly touch roll 202 to remove the aforementioned extraneous materials. After deposition of composition C onto substrate S, it is necessary to even the composition across the surface of substrate S and sometimes to remove excess composition therefrom. The smoothing and removal of composition is accomplished by an adjustable blade member 205. Blade 205 may be angularly adjusted, depending upon the process conditions to evenly distribute composition C across the full width of substrate S. Cooperating with blade 205 in this smoothing or evening capacity is a throw off roll 206. Throw off roll 206 is adjustable up or down to permit varied pressure of substrate S against blade 205. Contact between substrate S and roll 202 is also quite important to successful precision deposition. Contact between substrate S and roll 202 is controlled by the position of an adjustable wrap angle roll 207. Roll 207 may be moved up or down to precisely control contact between substrate S and roll 202.

A second direct kiss coat applicator unit 300 is rods 305 are used to even the composition across the surface of substrate S instead of a blade. A Mayer rod is a helical coiled wire in rod form that is driven to produce a conveyor screw type effect on the composition across substrate S. The degree of movement or replacement of composition can be varied by the different sizes of Mayer rods and also by the rotational speed of the Mayer rods. Generally the Mayer rods 305 are rotated in a direction oposite to the direction of substrate movement and though two Mayer rods 305 are shown in FIG. 3, any desired number could be used. Otherwise the component parts of the applicator unit are the same, except for the prefix to the number identification.

FIG. 4 schematically illustrates a direct gravure unit generally indicated as 400 as also was shown in FIG. 1. Again, however, it is felt best to briefly describe the unit which includes a fountain or box 401 for containing a composition C, an etched applicator roll 402, a metering blade 403, and an impression roll 405 that, in conjunction with roll 402 creates a nip through which substrate S passes. in controlling the amount of composition applied from a direct gravure unit the only unit considerations are the type etched roll 402 that is employed and the hardness of the rubber covered impression roll 405. Hardness and position of impression roll 405 are also used to control contact between substrate S and applicator roll 402. A soft roll 405 may be depressed against roll 402 to partially surround same, for instance.

A reverse kiss coat applicator unit generally indicated as 500 is illustrated in FIG. 5 and includes a fountain 501 for containing the composition, a pickup roll 502, a transfer applicator roll 503, a smoothing blade 505, a wrap angle roll 507 and a throw off roll 506. As substrate S passes the transfer applicator roll 503, composition C is applied thereto while roll 503 rotates in a direction opposite to the direction of substrate travel. An important consideration with the reverse kiss coat unit is the continuous maintenance of a flooded nip between rolls 502 and 503.

FIG. 6 schematically illustrates a flexographic applicator unit generally indicated as 600. Unit 600 comprises a fountain 601 for containing a composition C, a pickup roll 602, a metering blade 603 adjacent said pickup roll to control the amount of composition removed, a transfer applicator roll 604 above and touching pickup roll 602, an impression roll 605 and two guide rollers 606 and 607.

The process of the present invention may be practiced for many varied applications and situations where it is desirable to precisely deposit a certain composition onto a textile substrate. As such, several of the variables should be discussed. While the introduction of one variable may create the need for further changes throughout the process, the possible combinations that may be satisfactorily accomplished are almost unlimited.

Numerous textile substrates may be processed according to the teachings of the present invention. In fact, virtually any type of textile substrate may be treated so as to, under controlled conditions be tinted, dyed, coated, printed, etc. or various combinations thereof. Woven fabrics, knit fabrics or nonwoven goods may, for example, be successfully treated. Further, there is practically no limit to the type of yarns, fibers, etc. that may be employed to manufacture the textile substrate. Both natural and synthetic products are acceptable as is illustrated by, but not limited to cotton, rayon, polyester such as Dacron, Kodel, Fortrel and the like, polyacrylamides, polyamides, and the like as well as natural and synthetic blends of unlimited proportions. Of course, the composition to be applied to the substrate must be compatible with and adhere to the substrate, but once such compatability has been determined, then the particular composition may be precisely applied to the particular substrate by way of the present invention. By way of end product use, substrates have been treated and used as mattress ticking, drapery material, rainwear, and conductive tape just to mention a few.

Variation as to the types of composition that may be employed in the present process is also almost unlimited. A major criteria is viscosity control at room or ambient temperature. Viscosity of the treating composition must be such that the composition will not immediately wick into the substrate to wet out the substrate, and at the same time, must be capable of being precisely metered onto the substrate. Also, as mentioned above the composition must be compatible with the substrate to which it is applied. Compositions that may be applied by the present process include, but are not limited to composition containing binder resins; fillers, such as clays, talcs, silicas, and the like; crease proofing resins; water repellent agents; oil repellent agents; fire retardent agents; loading compositions; dyestuffs; tints; printing inks and the like. Specific compositions including certain of the abovementioned ingredients are illustrated in the examples.

A primary use of the process of the present invention is to coat a textile-substrate. The term coat is being used generically to include the application of compositions other than print inks, dyestuffs or tints onto the substrate. Significant use may be made of the present process in the coating of a low or flimsy constructed textile substrate with a loading composition containing a suitable binder and filler to upgrade the substrate to the appearance and quality of a much more highly constructed substrate. The loading composition is applied to the substrate in such a manner that all of the composition remains on the side of the substrate on which it was applied, with none of the composition striking through to the opposite surface of the substrate. Such coating is performed at speeds of more than 100 yards per minute, if desired, which is much faster than any currently used commercial textile finishing process. At the same time, the coated fabric may be printed and calendared without the necessity of topping of the print with further loading composition. The present process thus permits the attainment of previously unseen color value of the prints while not experiencing any diminution of other fabric qualities.

Loading compositions include a binder resin, a filter, and suitable other plasticizers, wetting agents, catalysts, viscosity control agents or the like. Acrylic polymers make very excellent binders, and especially the self crosslinking acrylic polymers such as are exemplified by POLYCRYL TF-30, sold by Polymer Industries, lnc., Springdale, Connecticut. These polymers have good flow characteristics and are non tacky on the substrate. Also the binder resin suitably has a high loading characteristic meaning that it will accept a large amount of filler and suitably bind same to the substrate. The filler used in the loading composition may be clays,

silicas, talcs or the like. Non spherical magnesium silicate clays as exemplified by Clay 602, sold by Engelhard Minerals & Chemicals Corporation, Menlo Park, New Jersey provide excellent coverage, luster and loading, especially when used with the POLYCRYL TF-30 acrylic referred to above.

Tinting of a textile substrate is a further very prominent use of the present process. Tints may be precisely applied to a textile substrate to provide complete coverage of the treated side while not striking through to the opposite side of the substrate. Such tinting reduces chemical costs on fabrics intended for use where only the tinted side may be seen by the consumer. Also, the moisture add on to the substrate is much lower than presently used processes which effectively reduces the cost of drying the substrate, and very significantly, permits the tandem operation of more than one operation as mentioned earlier. Tinting as referred to herein refers to ground shade tinting, to dyestuff application in general and to printing. Hence with the proper applicator system, one is able to advantageously arrange a one pass tandem operation of the present process.

Tandem operation of the present process may be accomplished in various ways. The types of applicator units shown in the drawings as well as other ways may be included in the process line to treat either or both sides of the substrate. Likewise, equipment other than the applicator units may be connected in tandem with the present process. Placement of the equipment will depend upon the necessary state of the substrate prior to being treated by the particular equipment. For instance, it is well within the purview of the present invention to tint one surface of a substrate, coat the opposite surface with a loading composition, dry the substrate, feed the substrate directly from the tenter to a print machine, dry the substrate again and feed directly to a calendar. Such a continuous line of equipment would not, in general, be presently feasible since the various units normally operate at different speeds. The quality of fabric produced by the present invention has, however, advanced the state of the art of textile finishing to the point where previously existent process limitations are no longer valid. In other words, the accuracy with which the present process deposits a composition onto a substrate renders a treated product of such quality that after treating equipment may now be streamlined without danger of reducing the quality of product from the particular after treating equipment. For instance, print machine tolerances may now be and should be much more limited due to the accurate and even coating of the substrates by the present process. Hence print machine speeds may now be increased. Likewise, while calendaring is normally conducted at speeds much lower than the feasible speeds of the present process, fabric conditions might now be such that calendaring speeds may be increased. The speed advantage alone with justify the tandem connection of the several processes since the present process can be very successfully operated at speeds in the order of at least four times those of normal presently available processes.

Success of the present process is very dependent upon maintenance of close control of the process. Numerous variables must be simultaneously controlled to insure a good end result.

The substrate, at the applicator unit must be in a flat, smooth condition so as to make even and uniform I contact with the applicator roll. Hence controls are instituted to take a normally prepared textile substrate and condition it to assume a flat, smooth attitude at the applicator roll. This feature, though obviously more important for a kiss coat application, is likewise important where the composition is applied as the substrate passes through a nip. Before reaching the applicator unit the substrate is placed under tension necessary for accepting the metered amounts of composition, is treated so as to insure proper alignment of the components of the substrate, and is treated so as to remove loose lint and other extraneous matter from the substrate on the side to be treated. Also, while the substrate does perform as intended in a dry state, it is sometimes preferred to prewet the side of the substrate opposite to the side that will be treated. This prewetting obviously must be done in a controlled manner which is conveniently handled by a direct gravure applicator unit. Preferably the moisture content of the substrate after prewetting should be in the range of about 15 to about 40 per cent by weight, through substrates containing up to 50 per cent moisture by weight may still be successfully coated on the opposite side. Prewetting of the substrate allows relaxation of the textile components of the substrate which permits the substrate to assume a flat condition at the applicator unit.

Tension in the substrate is maintained constant in the warp or longitudinal direction. Constant tension is produced by first passing the substrate through a nip, which may be only a nip or may be the nip of an applicator unit. The driven roll that is used to form the nip is operatively associated with a dancer roll as described in FIG. 1, such that the position of the dancer roll dictates the speed of the nip roll to maintain the constant tension, regardless of the linear speed of the substrate. Tension is also produced in the filling or transverse direction by action of the barrel expander which is located immediately prior to the applicator unit. Thus the substrate entering the applicator unit is under tension in both directions.

Contact between the substrate and the applicator is also important. The position of the warp angle roll is used to create the proper contact when using a kiss coat applicator while the impression roll controls contact with applicator where the substrate passes through a nip. Contact with the applicator roll of a kiss coat system should also compensate for the factor that a cohesive action exists between the composition and the substrate which increases slightly the contact between the substrate and the applicator roll.

Once the preconditioned substrate is presented to the applicator unit. the applicator unit must be set so as to apply the proper amount of composition onto the substrate surface. The variables for the applicator unit depend upon the particular type unit that is being utilized. Regardless of the type unit, however, the same end result must be present. In other words, the applicator unit must be operated such that a predetermined specific amount of composition is continuously applied in a constant fashion to the moving substrate. Even though the composition is accurately metered and evenly applied to the substrate, it is sometimes necessary to contact the composition with an evening means to insure complete coverage of the substrate in an even and uniform manner.

Referring to FIGS. 2-6 of the drawings, unit variables will be discussed. For a direct kiss coat unit as shown in FIG. 2 the wrap angle roll 207 determines the degree of contact between the substrate S and the applicator roll 202, and generally is set in the range of about 10 to about 30 below horizontal with respect to the top of the applicator roll. The metering blade is generally set in the range of from about 0.020 inches to about 0.050 inches from the applicator roll 202, though preferably in the range of about 0.025 to about 0.040 inches. The evening blade 205 is generally set at an angle in the range of from about 15 to about 45 forward from vertical, toward the applicator roll, though a preferred evening blade setting is in the range of from about 25 to about 35 forward of vertical. Equivalent linear speed of the applicator roll compared to linear speed of the substrate should, for acceptable results, be in the range of from about 0.3:] to about 3.0:] while preferably the ratio range is from about 0.9:] to about ].4:l.

In FIG. 3, unit variables are the same as those described above except for the Mayer rods 305. The Mayer rods 305 are controllable as to size and speed to even the coating and, if necessary, to accurately meter off any excess.

The direct gravure unit in FIG. 4 is controlled by proper selection of the etched applicator roll 403 and hardness of the rubber covered impression roll 405. For a stiff or uneven substrate, the harder an impression roll, the greater the ability to empty the cells of an etched roll. Conversely, for a very flexible substrate a softer roll may be used to depress the substrate into the etched cells for proper emptying thereof. Speed relativity between the substrate and the applicator roll must be 1:].

FIG. 5 illustrates a reverse kiss coat applicator unit where contact and evening control variables between the substrate and the applicator roll are as described for the direct kiss coat unit. With the reverse kiss coat unit, however, the range of speed ratios of applicator roll to substrate are preferably in the range of about 1:] to about 1.4:].

The process of the present invention permits the attainment of results heretofore impossible under economically feasible conditions in the textile industry. For instance, as mentioned previously, using the precision deposition techniques according to the present invention, a textile substrate may be upgraded with a polymeric compound whereby after drying, a design may be printed onto the substrate without the necessity of a top coating over the printing. Such a feature is advantageous in that less chemicals are required, less labor is involved, less handling of the material is involved, and very importantly a color value is obtained that heretofore was unknown to converters. Specifically speaking, according to conventional techniques after loading a fabric with a polymeric compound to upgrade the fabric and printing the fabric, the fabric was then topped with a further loading treatment to arrive at the desired weight, handle and drape of the fabric. In so doing, the excellent color values directly from the print machine are destroyed and the consumer must accept a lesser color value to realize the desired hand and drape. According to the teachings of the present invention, however, the consumer may now receive a fabric having a desired weight, handle and drape and at the same time receive the identical color value as was obtained at the print machine. A further advantage is natural color fastness. No color transfer occurs to the back of adjacent fabric when the fabrics treated according to the present invention are in roll form.

The following examples are set forth to display the versatility of the present invention. One reading the examples should bear in mind the various substrates that are being treated, the various compositions that are being precisely deposited onto the substrates, the various process arrangements insofar as the type of applicator units employed and the various machine settings to achieve the desired results. Furthermore, it should be pointed out that the substrates have been treated as set forth in the following examples are intended for use in various end products. In the examples all formulations are weight per cent and fabrics are in the prepared state unless otherwise noted.

Example 1 A suitable composition was prepared for upgrading or loading a substrate with a binder and a filler which are bonded to the substrate to close the interstices of the substrate. In preparing the formulation 16.0 pounds of POLYCRYL TF-30, a self crosslinking acrylic polymer, sold by Polymer Industries, Inc., Springdale, Connecticut; 43.0 pounds of a clay filler identified as Clay 602 and sold by Engelhard Minerals and Chemicals Corporation, Menlo Park, New Jersey; 35.5 pounds of water and 4.5 pounds of POLYCRYL THICKENER 72, a carboxylated acrylic thickener, purchased from Polymer Industries, Inc. were used. This composition, hereinafter referred to as Formula A, was used to make up the ultimate composition that was precisely deposited onto the substrate. One Hundred gallons of Formula A were mixed with 48.5 gallons of water, 1.0 gallons of a glycerol monostearete softener and 0.5 gallons of ammonia to produce the ultimate composition, hereinafter referred to as Formula B. Formula B has a good shelf life and a viscosity which may be controlled by changing the amounts of thickener and/or ammonia that are added to the composition.

Example 2 A strike of about 50 yards of a rayon osnaburg fabric, 65 inches wide and having a weight of 2.25 yards per pound was treated according to the teachings of the present invention. A loading composition, Formula B, was applied to one side of the fabric using a direct kiss coat applicator unit. The fabric had a construction of 36 ends per inch in the warp direction and 34 picks per inch in the filling direction. Processing equipment was arranged as illustrated in FIG. I. The fabric was then fed past the warp tension control device, the vacuum extractor, over the slat expander where the filling picks were straightened and tension was applied in the filling direction, and through the nip of a first applicator unit which was run dry and used solely for tension control. After exiting the tension control nip, the fabric traveled over guide rolls and a second slat expander and then to the kiss coat unit which was controlled as follows:

Wrap angle roll Metering blade angle Metering blade gap .040 inches Fabric speed 16 yards per minute Applicator roll speed A sufficient amount of Formula B was placed in the fountain under the applicator roll to enable the applicator roll to pick up the prescribed amount and apply same to the contact surface of the substrate. For this particular trial, Formula B had a pH of 8.0 and a viscosity of 17,500 cps as determined by a Brookfield viscometer using a number 6 spindle at 20 rpm. The fabric after being coated at the direct kiss coat applicator unit passed over the dancer roll which is, as mentioned hereinbefore, operatively associated with the roll speed at the tension control nip to maintain a constant tension on the substrate at the applicator unit regardless of speed of the substrate. After leaving the dancer roll, the substrate then passed over a series of guide rolls and into a tenter frame for drying. Prior to entering the tenter frame the substrate passed over a light that extends completely across the width of the substrate and is used to facilitate visual inspection of the coating before drying. Also prior to entering the tenter frame, the substrate encountered air directed against the selvages to hold them flat, and optical edge guides to line up the selvages with the tenter clips for passage through the tenter frame. For this particular run the tenter frame was operating at a temperature of 325F. After exiting the tenter frame, the substrate passed over cooling cans and was collected on a take up roll. Though not specifically mentioned, all of the substrate treating and control devices mentioned herein are operational in the following examples unless otherwise noted. The present run was successful insofar as application of the composition onto the substrate, but was sot successful insofar as precise placement of the composition on the substrate. Specifically, the composition that was applied to the substrate struck through the substrate and did not remain only on the side which it was applied. There was, however, an even application of the composition onto the substrate.

Example 3 Example 2 was repeated, with the exception that the Mayer rods were rotated at a speed of 157 rpm instead of 319 rpm. The osnaburg fabric that was treated showed excellent results. Formula B was applied at an average add on of 35 per cent based on the weight of the fabric without strike through. The coating on the effected side of the substrate was very even and provided excellent coverage of the interstices. When flexed, the coated fabric showed good dusting properties. During the run it was noted that the side being coated was wet, whereas the opposite side of the substrate was dry to the touch, thus indicating accurate placement of the composition onto the substrate. After coating, the osnaburg fabric, now in an upgraded condition, was printed with a floral design on a conventional gravure roll printing machine under normal operating conditions. The loaded substrate properly received the ink from the print machine; there was good print coverage; no flushing of the print, and excellent color depth was achieved. The now printed osnaburg fabric was then calendared in a Perkins calendar at 300F, 15 tons pressure and a speed of 20 yards per minute. The resulting calendared fabric showed a goo leathery type hand, excellent luster, no appreciable dusting, and no coating or printing ink was lifted off the substrate during calendaring. It was further noticed that after the calendared fabric was rolled up, upon unrolling at a later time, there was no color transfer from the print to the back of the adjacent layer of fabric. The color transfer problem, has, however, been noticed with roll fabrics that have been treated according to conventional processes.

Example 4 A rayon osnaburg fabric having the same weight, width and construction as used in Examples 2 and 3 was processed according to the present invention where the composition of Formula B was applied to one side thereof. Insofar as machine conditions are concerned the following differences are noted from those set forth in Example 2. Instead of using the Mayer rods to smooth or even the applied composition across the face of the substrate, a scraper blade set at 30 forward from vertical was utilized. Also the substrate speed and equivalent applicator roll speeds were 50 yards per minute, and the first applicator unit was used for tension control and also for prewetting the fabric in a controlled manner. At the first nip, water whose viscosity had been adjusted to 1,000 cps with POLYC- RYL THICKENER 72, and ammonia was added to the side of the substrate opposite to that which was to receive Formula B. At this nip, an applicator roll and rubber impression roll were used so as to provide a moisture content of approximately per cent by weight in the fabric. Observations and testing of the coated rayon osnaburg showed no strike through, an average add on of Formula B of 35 per cent based on the weight of the fabric, very even coating of the fabric, very good coverage of the interstices of the fabric and upon flexing showed excellent dusting properties.

Example 5 Substantial yardage of a 100 per cent rayon sateen fabric 86 inches in width and having a weight of 1.45 yards per pound was processed according to the present invention. The sateen fabric had a construction of 88 ends per inch in the warp direction and 54 picks per inch in the filling direction. The loading composition described as Formula B was applied via the direct kiss coat arrangement previously described. Formula B had a viscosity of 17,500 cps and a pH of 8.5. The applicator unit settings were as follows:

Wrap angle roll 15 Metering blade 25 Metering blade gap .040 inches Lint cleaner blade touching roll Scrapcr blade 25 forward Fabric speed 50 yards per minute Applicator roll equivalent speed 50 yards per minute During the run and after the fabric had been coated, it was observed that there was no strike through of composition to the opposite face of the fabric, that the coating coverage was excellent and uniform and that there was very little if any dusting. The upgraded fabric was then printed, and calendared in an Appleton calendar at 370F tons pressure and a speed of 30 yards per minute. Results were excellent. The printing showed no flushing, was well received by the substrate and after calendaring a good leathery type hand resulted. the interstices were effectively filled and there was very little if any dusting upon flexing of the fabric.

Example 6 A per cent cotton osnaburg fabric, 48 inches in width and having a weight of 3.48 yards per pound was processed utilizing the same conditions set forth in Example 5 with the exception that the fabric speed and the applicator roll equivalent speeds were set at 20 yards per minute. Results of the coating were excellent, in that, there was no strike through, an average add on of 33.7 weight per cent resulted, there was very little dusting and good coverage of the interstices was apparent.

Example 7 A composition was prepared for application to drapery fabrics to provide durability to washing. This formulation comprised 35 per cent of RHOPLEX E-358, an acrylic polymer sold by Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 30 per cent clay filler, 4.2 per cent POLYCRYL THICKNER 72, a carboxylated acrylic polymer purchased from Polymer Industries, Inc., Springdale, Connecticut, 0.4 per cent ammonia; 0.5 per cent of a softner and 29.9 per cent water. This formulation had a viscosity of 19,000 cps and pH of 8.0 and is hereinafter referred to as Formula C.

Example 8 A soft fill sheeting drapery fabric was processed using the machine settings as set forth in Example 4. The fabric, in the greige, was a 100 per cent cotton fabric, 46 inches wide and having a weight of 4.44 yards per pound. This fabric contained 40 ends per inch in the warp direction and 30 picks per inch in the filling direction. A quantity of Formula C, as described in Example 7, was placed in the fountain and was precisely applied to one side of the cotton fabric. After the fabric was coated with the composition and dried in the tenter frame, the per cent pickup was determined from a series of samples and averaged. The average pickup of composition onto the greige cotton fabric was 91 per cent based on the weight of the fabric. At the same time there was no strike through, good coverage of the interstices, a uniform coating and insignificant dusting. As mentioned earlier this fabric is a drapery fabric and is felt to need good wash and dry cleaning durability insofar as the loading compound is concerned. Accordingly, after the fabric was treated as described above, it was padded with a composition that comprises 10 per cent HYLITE, a dihydroxy dimethylol ethylene urea resin sold by Proctor Chemical Company; 2 per cent of a magnesium chloride catalyst; 5 per cent DISCOSOF'I" 51 I, a softner sold by Dixie Size and Chemical Company, Columbus, Georgia; 5 per cent ATCOPEL S-20, a silicone softner sold by Metro Atlantic Chemical Company, Providence, Rhode Island; and 0.1 per cent of a wetting agent. After topping the coated fabric with the above formulation, the fabric was dried at 300F and cured for two minutes at 320F. Samples of the resin topped fabric were then subjected to five home washings at F and additional samples were given five commercial dry cleanings. Evaluation of the durability of the coating was made by determining the per cent weight loss of the samples after the washing and the dry cleaning. The washed samples experienced a weight loss of 5.7 per cent while the dry cleaned samples experienced a l.l per cent loss.

Example 9 Example 8 was repeated except that the cotton fabric was prepared instead of being in the greige state. In other words, prior to treatment, the cotton had been bleached. Results of the bleached 40 by 30 cotton fabric showed an average pickup of US per cent of Formula C based on the weight of the fabric without showing strike through. Additionally, cover and uniformity of the coating were excellent. After resin. topping with the formulation described in Example 8 and drying and curing as described in Example 8, fabric samples were again subjected to five home washings at l20F and five commercial dry cleanings. Per cent weight loss for the prepared cotton 40 by 30 fabric samples was 6 per cent after five washings and 1.05 per cent after five dry cleanings.

Example 10 Example 8 was repeated with a 100 per cent cotton fabric in the greige, 46 inches wide, 4.62 yards per pound and having a count of 40 ends per inch in the warp direction and 28 picks per inch in the full direction. The pickup for the present greige fabric was an average of88- per cent based on the weight of the fabric. There was no strike through, and good cover and uniformity were apparent. The coated fabric was then topped with the resinsystem described in Example 8 and dried and cured as described in Example 8. Thereafter, sampleswere subjected to five home washings at lF and five commercial dry cleanings. Weight loss was determined to be 5.8 per cent after the five home washings and 1.0 per cent after the five dry cleanings.

Example I 1 Example 8 was again repeated with a 100 per cent prepared cotton fabric, 47 inches wide and weighing.

4.62 yards per pound and having a count of 40 ends per inch in the warp direction and 28 picks per inch in the filling direction. After exiting from the tenter frame the average pickup on. the prepared cotton fabric was 92.8 per cent based on the weight of the fabric without striking, through and good uniformity and coverage were noticed. The prepared cotton fabric was then topped with the resin formulation described in Example 8 and thereafter dried and cured. Samples of the cured fabric were then subjected to five home washings at l20F and additional samples were subjected to five commercial dry cleanings. After the five home washings, a weight loss of 6 per cent was determined. After five commercial dry cleanings a weight loss of 1.2 per cent was determined.

Example 12 Example 8 was again repeated with the exception that a 100 per cent sateen fabric, 36 inches wide and L45 yards per pound was processed. The sateen fabric had a construction of 88 ends. per inch in the warp direction and 54 picks per inch in the filling direction. After being coated and dried in the tenter frame, the sateen fabric averaged a pickup of 34.8 per cent based on the weight of the fabric. The coating was uniform, filled the interstices and did not strike through. After resin topping with the formulation described in Example 8, drying at 350F and curing for two, minutes at 320F, separate samples of the cured sateen fabric were submitted to five home washings at l20F and five commercial dry cleanings. Weight loss exhibited by the sateen fabric after the five home washings was l.7 per cent, while the weight loss exhibited due to the commercial dry cleanings was 2.95 per cent.

Example 13 A coating formulation, hereinafter referredto as Formula D was made up to serve as a loading composition. for rainwear fabric. This formulation comprises per cent X-279'74, an acrylic polymer sold'by Polymer lndustries, lnc., Springdale, Connecticut; 6 per cent POLYCRYL THICKNER 72; 6-per cent ammonia; l.5 per cent POLYSOFTNER. 1726, a plasticizer sold by Polymer lndustries, lnc.,,withthe remainder being water. Formulation D had a viscosity of 1 1,000 cps using a- Brookfield viscometer, No. 6 spindle at 20 rpm, and a pH of 8.0.

Examples 14-17 Four shades of a fabric comprising 55 per cent FOR- TREL polyester and 45 per cent AVRIL rayon, 64.75 inches wide and having a weight of 1.33 yards per pound was treated according to the process of the present invention. The FORTREL/AVRIL fabric; had a construction of 1 l2. ends per inch in the warpdirection and 50 picks per inch in the filling direction. In this example, the direct kiss coat applicator was not used, but instead, a reverse roll kiss coat applicator was used as is described in FIG. 5. The machine settings insofar as the reverse roll kiss coat applicator unit is concerned are as follows:

Applicator roll speed l5 yards per minute l5 yards per minute, but in the opposite direction Aquantity of Formula D was placed inthe fountain and precisely deposited onto the substrate. After coating and drying in the tenter at 340F, the four shades of fabric, namely, navy, blue, beige, and tan, were tested.

, There was nostrike through, good coating uniformity and excellent coverage of the interstices. Formula D add ons based on the weight ofthe fabric were as follows:

navy l l per cent blue 9 per cent beige l2 per cent tan 12 per cent Each of the fabric shades were then padded through a water proofing composition comprising 30 per cent HYLITE, adihydroxy dymetholethylene urea resin sold by Proctor Chemical Company; 6 per cent of an amine hydrochloride catalyst; 6 per cent of FC-208, a

fluorocarbon water repellent composition manufactured and sold by Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company; per cent of AMPITOL PE-30, a low density polyethylene softner; and 2 per cent methocel, a wetting agent, with the remainder being water. After padding the above water proofing composition onto the previously coated fabrics, the fabrics were dried at 300F and cured for two minutes at 340F. Each of the fabrics was then tested for water proofness by the test method prescribed in AATCC Test Method 35-l967. The particular test procedure used, however, is more stringent than that described in the above AATCC Test Method. Using the Slowinske tester, water penetration was measured after spraying for 5 minutes with a 6 foot water level. Even after five home washings at 120 F or five commercial dry cleanings, all of the fabric samples then subjected to the water proofing test showed passage of less than 1.1 grams of water. 1n other words, all of the samples passed the Slowinske test modified for water proofing. In addition to the above, all of the samples were visually observed to have good coating, good cover, good water repellency, and good oil repellency. Additionally, the hand of the fabrics was soft and flexible and there was no color degradation due to strike through.

Example 18 A 100 per cent rayon osnaburg fabric, 64.75 inches wide and having a weight of 2.25 yards per pound and a construction of 36 ends per inch in the warp direction and 34 picks per inch in the fill direction was direct gravure coated according to the process of the present invention. The equipment arrangement for this example was as shown in FIG. 1 except that there were two double roll units in tandem, the first of which was used for tension control while the coating was applied by the second which is the direct gravure unit. The composition of Formula B was placed in the fountain and applied to the substrate by a 25 trihelical lines per inch applicator roll. The impression roll was a rubber covered roll having a durometer hardness rating of 35. Fabric was passed through the system at yards per minute with the effective linear speed of the 25 TH applicator roll likewise being 15 yards per minute. Temperature of the tenter was 300F. The resulting coated osnaburg showed no strike through, good coverage and uniformity of the coating and excellent dusting properties. The fabric was then printed in a conventional manner and calendared as described below. Some yardage was calendared cold in a 3 nip calendar at 25 tonspressure, and after calendaring exhibited a nice soft hand with a low luster. Other yardage was calendared hot and passed through a one nip calendar at 300F,'and tons pressure. This not calendared osnaburg exhibited a full round leathery hand and appearance, high luster and almost no pinholes in the fabric, indicating that the loading of the fabric had been achieved successfully and that upon calendaring, the binder flowed properly to close up the pinholes.

Example 19 A ground shade formulation was prepared to exhibit the tinting capability of the present process. This formulation identified as Formula E, contained 30 grams of Sherdye Yellow W3W; 13.5 grams Sherdye Red TR3w; 10.9 grams Sherdye Gray R3W; 6.9 grams Sherdye Green GB3W; 2 pounds of RHOPLEX HA-l 2, an acrylic polymer sold by Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 2 pounds of Sherdye padding emulsion, 1% pounds of salt; 1% pounds of Super Clear, a modified natural gum sold by Sandoz, lnc., Hanover, New Jersey; 181 grams of ammonia and 50 grams of a defoamer.

Example 20 A 100 per cent rayon osnaburg fabric having a width of 65 inches and a weight of 2.25 yards per pound was tinted on one side by the present process. The osnaburg had a construction of 36 ends per inch in the warp direction and 34 picks per inch in the filling direction. Equipment was arranged as shown in FIG. 1 with the exception of the fact that the second applicator unit was a direct gravure unit instead of a direct kiss coat unit. A quantity of Formula E dey, having a Brookfield viscosity of 1,000 cps was placed in the fountain at the second applicator unit. A 50 trihelical lines per inch applicator roll was used with the metering blade in contact with the roll. The impression roll immediately above the applicator roll was a rubber covered roll having durometer hardness of 35. Fabric was fed through the equipment at 20 yards per minute with the applicator roll of the direct gravure unit likewise having a linear speed at 20 yards per minute. Tenter frame temperature was set at 300F. After tinting, the fabric showed no strike through except along the selvages where a build up of dyestuff in the nip flowed back onto the selvages. Average moisture add on by weight at side, center, side for the tinted osnaburg are as follows:

Side 50.8 per cent Center 55.8 per cent Side 56.7 per cent This application of dyestuffs to the fabric is very satisfactory insofar as tinting per se is concerned.

Example 21 Example 20 was repeated with the exception that instead of a 35 durometer rubber impression roll, a 65 durometer rubber impression roll was used. Additionally, air jets were positioned adjacent the rolls of the direct gravure unit and directed toward the nip to alleviate a dyestuff build-up in the nip. After making the aforementioned changes, no strike through occurred at all on the tinted fabric, an even dye shade resulted and average moisture add on was determined to be 28 per cent based on the weight of the fabric.

Example 22 Example 20 was repeated with the exception that an trihelical lines per inch applicator roll was used with the direct gravure unit and a 65 durometer hardness, rubber covered roll was used as the impression roll. Additionally, as in Example 21, air jets were employed to alleviate the problem of dyestuff build-up in the nip adjacent the selvages being treated. The fabric having been treated in this manner exhibited an average moisture pickup of 30 per cent by weight with no strike through across the width of the fabric. Additionally, a very even shade of tinting resulted.

Example 23 A per cent rayon osnaburg fabric having a width of 65 inches and a weight of 2.25 yards per pound was treated according to the process of the present invention so as to tint one side of the fabric and coat or backfill the opposite side of the fabric. The construction of the osnaburg fabric was 36 ends per inch in the warp direction and 34 picks per inch in the fill direction. The equipment was set up as shown in FIG. 1 wherein the first applicator unit was a direct gravure unit and also served as a means for tension control and the second applicator unit was a direct kiss coat unit. The direct gravure unit was equipped with an 85 trihelical lines per inch applicator roll and a 65 durometer hardness, rubber covered impression roll. The doctor blade was touching the applicator roll to limit the amount of pickup from the fountain to that contained in the cells. Dyestuff of Formula E was placed in the fountain of the direct gravure unit and applied as the fabric passed that station. Fabric speed and relative applicator roll speeds were increased to 50 yards per minute. The amount of pickup of dyestuff from the fountain was found to be an average of 30 per cent based on the weight of the fabric. The fabric then proceeded around the appropriate guide roll system where the reverse side thereof came into contact with the direct kiss coat applicator unit. The kiss coat applicator unit was set up as follows:

30 fo Throw off roll I The loading composition identified as Formula B was placed in the fountain and transferred from the fountain by the applicator roll to the fabric. After leaving the direct kiss coat applicator unit the fabric negotiated the dancer roll and guide rolls and was dried in the tenter frame at 325F. The resulting tinted and upgraded fabric evidenced an average total pickup of 35 per cent based on the weight of the fabric. The coated side of the fabric showed an even, uniform coating with excellent coverage of the fabric interstices. There was no strike through of coating through the fabric nor was there strike through of tinting through the fabric. The now upgraded, tinted fabric was printed in a customary manner on a roll gravure print machine where a floral design was applied thereto. During printing there was good receptivity of the ink onto the tinted side of the fabric and there was no evidence of flushing. After printing the fabric was then calendared at 290F and 15 tons pressure at 20 yards per minute. The resulting calendared fabric showed a good round leathery hand having high luster, superior dusting properties and exhibited a very superior color value insofar as the print and tint colors were concerned.

Example 24 Example 23 was repeated with the exception that the direct gravure unit for applying the tint contained an l guadrangular cells per inch applicator roll and a 65 durometer hardness, rubber impression roll. Moreover, the fabric speed through the system and the equivalent applicator roll speeds were set at 1 10 yards per minute. The fabric after passing the direct gravure unit where the tint was applied exhibited a moisture content of per cent by weight. After passing the kiss coat unit, the

three nip calender at 25 tons pressure. This fabric after calendaring likewise exhibited an excellent color value of both tint and the printed design, a very soft and full hand, good drape, and very good dusting properties.

Example 25 A series of nonwoven fabrics, DuPont REMAY 2408, 24024, 2017 and 2011, DuPont nonwovens made of rayon bonded with acrylic fibers, were coated according to the present process with an electrically conductive polymer formulation, Polymer Carbon Black No. X-263-l05-3, obtained from Polymer lndustries, lnc., Springdale, Connecticut. Viscosity of the above formulation was 3040,000 cps. Equipment was arranged as in FIG. 1 with the second applicator unit being direct gravure with a 50 trihelical lines per inch applicator roll and a durometer hardness, rubber covered impression roll. Fabric speed and equivalent applicator roll speeds were l0 yards per minute. Immediately following the direct gravure unit was a chrome polishing bar that was driven at 25 rpm opposite to the direction of fabric travel. After single passes through the equipment, all of the nonwovens exhibited good An overall survey of the Examples set forth above will indicate clearly the tremendous versatility of the present process. For instance, treatment of various types and styles of fabric with widely differing construction, is truly indicative of the broad range of substrates that may be treated according to the present process. Likewise, loading compositions, dye compositions, resin compositions and the like were shown to have been successfully applied to a substrate. All but two of the Examples produced excellent results. These results are attributable directly to control of the process during treating for the particular substrates. While the various settings are shown to be specifics in the Examples, there are ranges for these controls as discussed above. Operation within these ranges should afford a good end product through certain types of substrates will require possible adjustment during the run to continuously achieve a precise deposition onto the substrate.

In addition to the various types of substrates that have been shown by the Examples to be suitable for treatment by the present process, many of these substrates are intended for different end uses. Accordingly, the Examples are demonstrative of truly varied operating conditions for treating diverse substrates with diverse compositions for 'widely varied end uses. For instance, the osnaburgs of the various Examples are in general used as for mattress ticking and drapery fabrics. The sateens are of primary interest as mattress ticking. The 100 per cent cotton fabrics were of interest for pocketing and draperies. The polyester/rayon blends were used in the preparation of water proofing rainwear, and the nonwovens were made into electrically conductive type. Additionally, various and sundry other substrates have been successfully treated by the present process, such as for example polyester/cotton blends, pocketing twills, l per cent cotton drills, and the like.

A further very important feature of the present invention as shown by the Examples is the ability of the process to permit successful tandem operation of two or more steps that heretofore have been normally conducted independent of each other, such as, tinting and coating, printing and coating and the like. Furthermore, though the present application is drafted in the context of two applicator units in tandem, more than two units may be employed with equal success.

Having described the present invention, it should be truly obvious to one skilled in the art that there are numerous variations and modifications to the teachings specifically set forth herein. Accordingly, the present invention should not be restricted to the contents of thedisclosure, but the breadth of the invention should be governed only by the scope of the claims appended hereto.

What is claimed is:

l. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate on one side only comprising the steps of:

a. feeding said substrate to a roll type applicator unit at a predetermined speed, said substrate being in a smooth, flat condition;

b. controlling tension on said substrate;

0. engaging said substrate with a roll means prior to said applicator, said roll means being preset with respect to said applicator to limit the degree of contact between said substrate and said applicator, said presetting of said roll means being based on the particular substrate being coated, a particular composition being applied to said one side thereof, tension on said substrate and the speed of said substrate; v

d. applying a metered amount of said composition onto said one side of said substrate only without forcing any of said composition through said substrate to an opposite side thereof and controlling the viscosity of said composition during application thereof, said substrate being contacted only on said one side during application of said composition thereto;

e. passing said substrate over an evening means and immediately thereafter under a further roll means, said evening means and said roll means being prearranged and combining to even composition across said one side of said substrate and metering off any excess composition therefrom without forcing any of said composition through said substrate to said opposite side thereof; and

drying said substrate, said one side of said substrate having been out of contact between said evening means and said drying step.

2. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein said smooth condition of said substrate is caused by passing said substrate over an expander whereby any creases or wrinkles are removed from said substrate.

3. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein longitudinal and transverse tension of said substrate are positively controlled.

4. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 3 wherein longitudinal tension is controlled by passing said substrate through a nip prior to said applicator and around an adjustable dancer roll subsequent to said applicator, said dancer being associated with said nip, whereby the position of said dancer determines the speed at the nip.

5. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein said substrate is preconditioned to a moisture content of not greater than about 50 per cent prior to application of said composition to said one side only thereof.

6. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 5 wherein said substrate is preconditioned by passing same through gravure type applicator unit under controlled speed and tension conditions, said applicator unit providing a predetermined amount of moisture to said opposite side of said substrate only, said applicator unit comprising an applicator roll and an impression roll, said impression roll having a predetermined hardness and being positioned at a predetermined location with respect to said applicator roll for the particular substrate being preconditioned.

7. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 6 wherein the said roll means guides said substrate to said roll type applicator at an angle of up to 30 below the top of said applicator roll.

8. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein said evening means is a blade positioned at an angle of up to 45 forward of vertical.

9. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein said evening means is a smooth roll, said roll being rotated at a predetermined speed in a direction opposite the direction of movement of said substrate.

10. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 1 wherein said evening means is at least one helical wound wire rod, said at least one rod being rotated at a predetermined speed in a direction opposite the direction of movement of said substrate.

11. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 2 wherein said substrate is cleaned prior to said applicator on said one side to be coated to remove loose, extraneous materials therefrom.

12. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 11 wherein said substrate is a woven fabric and wherein said composition comprises a self crosslinking acrylic polymer, an inorganic non spherical filler and a thickener for the acrylic polymer.

13. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 12 wherein said substrate is printed on said opposite side thereof subsequent to drying of said substrate.

14. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate on one side only comprising the steps of:

a. feeding said substrate to a roll type applicator unit at a predetermined speed, and under controlled tension;

b. subjecting said side of said substrate to be coated to cleaning means to remove loose, extraneous materials therefrom;

c. contacting said substrate with an expander and aligning components of said substrate and removing creases and wrinkles therefrom;

d. engaging said substrate prior to said applicator with a roll means, said roll means being preadjusted to direct said substrate to said applicator roll from a predetermined angle and limiting contact between said substrate and said applicator roll to a predetermined amount for the particular substrate and a particular composition being applied thereto;

e. applying a metered amount of a controlled viscosity composition onto said one side of said substrate only without forcing any of said composition through said substrate to an opposite side thereof, said substrate being contacted at said applicator only on said one side to be coated;

f. passing said substrate over an evening means and immediately thereafter under a further roll means, said evening means and said roll means in combination, evening said composition across said one side of said substrate and metering off any excess composition without forcing any of said composition through said substrate to said opposite side thereof; and

g. drying said substrate without disrupting said composition.

15. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 14 wherein tension on said substrate is controlled by passing the substrate through a nip prior to said applicator and around an adjustable dancer roll subsequent to said applicator, said dancer roll being associated with said nip to determine the substrate speed thereat.

16. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 15 wherein said one side of said substrate is cleaned by subjecting said one side to a vacuum extractor.

17. A method of coating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 16 wherein said substrate is a woven fabric and said composition comprises a self crosslinking acrylic polymer, an inorganic, non spherical filler and a thickener for said polymer.

18. A method of coating a textile fabric on one side only comprising the steps of:

a. feeding said fabric to a roll type applicator roll at a predetermined speed;

b. subjecting said side of said fabric to be coated to a vacuum extractor;

c. engaging said fabric before and after said applicator and automatically controlling tension on said fabric thereby;

d. passing said fabric approximately 90 degrees around an expander;

e. engaging said fabric with a wrap angle roll positioned up to degrees below the top of said applicator roll, said wrapangle roll being preset to limit contact between said fabric and said applicator roll;

f. applying a metered amount of a composition onto said one side of said fabric only, said composition comprising a self crosslinking acrylic polymer, an inorganic filler and a thickener, and controlling the viscosity of said composition during application thereof;

g. passing said fabric over an evening means and immediately thereafter under a throw off roll, said evening means and said throw off roll being preset and evening said composition across said one side of said fabric and metering off any excess composition without forcing any of said composition through said fabric to said opposite side thereof; and

h. drying said fabric, said opposite side of said fabric only being contacted between said evening step and said drying step.

19. A method of coating a textile fabric as defined in claim 18 wherein said evening means is a blade set forward of vertical at an angle of up to 45.

20. A method of coating a textile fabric as defined in claim 18 wherein said evening means is a smooth rod, said rod being rotated at a predetermined speed in a direction opposite to the direction of fabric travel.

21. A method of coating a textile fabric as defined in claim 18 wherein said evening means is at least one helical wound wire rod, said rod being rotated at a predetermined speed in a direction opposite to the direction of fabric travel.

22. A method of treating a textile fabric comprising the steps of:

a. coating one side only of said fabric according to the method defined in claim 18;

b. printing a design onto an opposite side of said fabric; and

c. calendaring said fabric without any intermediate treatment to said fabric.

23. A method of treating a textile fabric as defined in claim 22 wherein said fabric is dyed prior to coating said one side thereof.

24. A method of treating a textile fabric as defined in claim 23 wherein said fabric is dyed in line prior to said coating.

25. A method of treating a textile fabric as defined in claim 23 wherein the fabric is dyed on said opposite side only.

26. A method of treating an interstice containing textile substrate comprising the steps of:

a. feeding said substrate to a gravure type applicator unit, said applicator unit comprising an applicator roll and an impression roll, said substrate being fed thereto at a linear speed equivalent to the rotational speed of said applicator roll;

b. cleaning said a side of said substrate to be treated to remove loose, extraneous materials therefrom;

c. bringing said substrate into contact with an expander means and aligning substrate components, adjusting transverse tension thereof, and removing any wrinkles or creases therefrom;

d. controlling longitudinal tension on said substrate;

e. predetermining a durometer hardness for said impression roll and the position of said impression roll with respect to said applicator roll, said determinations being based on the particular substrate, composition, speed and tension being utilized; and

f. passing said substrate between said applicator. roll and said impression roll, said applicator roll being rotational to apply a controlled viscosity composition onto said side of said substrate, and the hardness and location of said impression roll limiting the degree of contact between said substrate and said applicator roll and thus preventing any of said composition from being forced through said substrate to an opposite side thereof.

27. A method of treating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 26 wherein the composition is water adjusted to a viscosity of approximately 1,000 centipoises, said water being applied to said substrate in amounts not greater than 50 per cent by weight of said substrate.

28. A method of treating an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 27 comprising further:

g. feeding the treated substrate to a roll type applicator;

h. contacting the treated substrate with a further expander means on said opposite side thereof;

i. engaging the treated substrate with a roll means, said roll means being preset to guide said substrate to said applicator roll from a predetermined angle and thereby limiting the degree of contact between said substrate and said applicator roll;

j. applying a metered amount of a second controlled viscosity composition onto said opposite side of said substrate without any of said composition being forced through said substrate to said one side thereof;

k. passingsaid substrate over an evening means and immediately thereafter under a further roll means, said evening means and said further roll means being preset and evening said second composition across said opposite side of said substrate without forcing any of said composition through said substrate to said one side thereof; and

l. drying said substrate, said opposite side of said substrate having been uncontacted between said evening step and said drying step.

29. A method of applying a composition onto an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 28 wherein said second composition comprise a self crosslinking acrylic polymer, an inorganic filler and a thickener.

30. A method of applying a composition onto an interstice containing textile substrate as defined in claim 29 wherein said substrate is subsequently printed on said one side of said substrate and calendared.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification427/173, 28/169, 427/358, 118/123, 118/118, 427/210, 427/365, 427/176, 427/211, 118/246, 427/324, 442/59
International ClassificationD06B1/14, D06B1/00
Cooperative ClassificationD06B1/143
European ClassificationD06B1/14D
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 2, 1981AS01Change of name
Owner name: M. LOWENSTEIN & SONS, INC.
Owner name: M. LOWENSTEIN CORPORATION
Effective date: 19790515
Jul 2, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: M. LOWENSTEIN CORPORATION
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:M. LOWENSTEIN & SONS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:003871/0750
Effective date: 19790515