|Publication number||US3844826 A|
|Publication date||Oct 29, 1974|
|Filing date||Dec 7, 1972|
|Priority date||Dec 16, 1971|
|Also published as||CA988262A, CA988262A1, DE2162417A1, DE2162417B2|
|Publication number||US 3844826 A, US 3844826A, US-A-3844826, US3844826 A, US3844826A|
|Inventors||W Buchner, W Kortmann, W Noll, J Pfeiffer, F Reich|
|Original Assignee||Bayer Ag|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (20), Classifications (29)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 Buchner et a1.
[ DRESSING SEWING THREAD TO REDUCED FRICTION  Inventors: Werner Buchner, Leichlingen;
Walter Noll, Opladen; Friedrich Reich, Leverkusen; Wiltried Kortmann, Hohenlimburg; Josef Pfeiffer, Opladen-Quettingen, all of Germany  Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft,
Leverkusen, Germany  Filed: Dec. 7, 1972  Appl. No.: 313,075
 Foreign Application Priority Data Dec. 16, 1971 Germany 2162417 [52 us. c1. 117/1388 F, 117/1383 N, 117/138.8 VA, 117/1395 A,
117/161 ZA  Int. Cl. D06m 15/66, ClOm 3/44 [58'] Fieldot Search. ..1 17/138.8 F, 1395 A, 139.5 c, 117/1395 0; 260/824 R, 46.5 R
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,597,614 5/1952 Brown et a1. 117/139.5 X 2,872,356 2/1959 Bull et al. 117/1395 3,189,662 6/1965 Vaughn 260/824 3,271,189 9/1966 Hofmann 117/138.8 3,423,235 1/1969 Campbell 117/1395 X Primary ExaminerHerbert B. Guynn Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Burgess, Dinklage & Sprung [5 7] ABSTRACT 5 Claims, No Drawings DRESSING SEWING THREAD TO REDUCED FRICTION This invention relates to a process for the dressing of sewing thread, in particular polyester thread, for the purpose of reducing its friction produced when sewing.
Dressing agents of this kind are already known and the substances used may be e.g., polydiorganosiloxane oils or a mixture of these oils and polyethylene waxes. Hydrocarbon-siloxane copolyners are also known to reduce friction.
in which n is an integer of about to 90 with an a,w-dihydroxypolycarbonate of the following formula,
which XP' bfitsihs a msaninsiasa lq s;
These finishes are preferably applied to the threads from aqueous emulsions or as a mixture of siloxane and waxes which are free from silicon.
Although a sewing thread treated with the known antifriction agents reduces the friction produced when sewing, compared to an untreated thread, the friction produced is still so high that if these threads are used in a sewing machine operating at a high speed they frequently break, causing considerable trouble in the sew-' ing process. This breaking of the thread is due to the inadequate lubricating effect of the usual lubricating dressing agents and to their uneven distribution over r s -1Q (RI/)n (HI/) (RI/)3 in which each R independently is a hydrogen atom or an optionally inertly substituted monovalent aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, araliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon radical having one to 12 carbon atoms,
eachR." independently is a halogen atom or an alkyl radical having one to four carbon atoms,
p is an integer of from 1 to 7, and
a is zero or an integer of from 1 to 4, and about 65 to 92 percent by weight of polydimethylsiloxane segments having an average chain length of about 15 to 90 dimethylsiloxane units, the individual segments being linked via aryl-O-Si bonds (Component B), which solution or emulsion may also contain polydiorganosiloxanes having a viscosity of about 500 to 20,000 cP, preferably about 1000 to 10,000 cPat 20C (Component A).
According to the proposal disclosed in the copending application Ser. No. 313,073, filed Dec. 7, 1972, entitled Polydiorganosiloxane-Polycarbonate Block Copolymers" and assigned to the same assignee, the polycarbonate-polydimethylsiloxane block copolymers may be prepared by reacting an a,w-dichloropolydimethylsiloxane of the formula R! R a O C Sl a an. I II J I C R in the presence of a tertiary amine. The process is carried out by reacting 1 mole of the a,w-dihydroxypolycarbonate dissolved in an inert organic solvent with about 0.5 to 5 moles of the a,w-dichloropolydimethylsiloxane in the presence of a quantity of tertiary amine which is stoichiometrically equivalent to the chlorine content of the a,w-dichloropolydimethylsiloxane and then heating the reaction mixture to a temperature of about 60C to 100C and isolating the reaction product by filtering off the amine salt and removing the solvent.
The polycarbonates with terminal hydroxyl groups to be used according to the invention preferably have a chain length of about 2 to 5 diphenylalkane units and may be derived from any bis-phenols. In the formulae shown above, R may represent e.g., a methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl or tertiary butyl radical or a chlorine, bromine or iodine atom; R, which may include inert substituents, is preferably a hydrocarbon radical such as an alkyl radical, e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl, an alkenyl radical, e.g., vinyl, a cycloalkyl or haloalkyl radical, e.g., chlorobutyl or cyclohexyLa substituted or unsubstituted aryl radical, e.g., phenyl, chlorophenyl, xylyl or tolyl, or an araliphatic radical such as phenylethyl or benzyl. It is preferred to use the polycarbonate derived from 2,2-bis(phydroxyphenyl)-propane (Bisphenol-A), i.e., the polycarbonate in which R CH a 0 and p 2 to 4.
Other bis-phenols suitable for the preparation of polycarbonates have been described e.g., in US. Pat. Nos. 3,028,365; 2,999,835; 3,148,172; 3,271,368; 2,970,137; 2,991,273; 3,271,367; 3,014,891 and 2,999,846.
Block copolymers obtained by the process according to US. Pat. No. 3,189,662, for example, are also suitable for the process according to the invention.
The polydiorganosiloxanes (Component A) which are optionally added to the solution or emulsion may be obtained by known methods. Suitable polydiorganosiloxanes are e.g., polydialkylsiloxanes or also polydiorganosiloxanes which contain dialkylsiloxy groups and diarylsiloxy groups statistically distributed. Polydimethylsiloxane is preferred.
The quantity of polydiorganosiloxanes added may vary within a wide range. Preferably, about parts by weight of A are added to 5 to 50 parts by weight of Component B.
According to the invention, the polycarbonatepolydimethylsiloxane block copolymers are applied to the thread from a solution or emulsion. If the block copolymer is to be applied from solution, a 3 to 40 percent by weight solution is prepared to which varying v quantities of Component A may be added.
According to a preferred embodiment of the process, about 150 to 180 g of A are used for every 26 to 32 g of B, together with the amount of solvent needed to produce a 16 to 20 percent solution. The solvent used, for example, may be trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methyl chloroform, chlorobenzene or a mixture thereof.
If the dressing agent is to be applied to the sewing thread from an emulsion, a solution of component B or of components A and B in a non-polar solvent such as toluene, xylene, petroleum hydrocarbons or mixtures of such solvents with trichloroethylene or perchloroethylene is first prepared. This solution is then emulsi fied in water in the usual manner with the addition of a conventional stabilizing agent, preferably a commercial partly hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate, hereinafter briefly referred to as polyvinyl alcohol, and optionally with the addition of an ethoxylated alcohol. The proportions of the different components are so chosen that the emulsion contains about 30 to 40 percent by weight of B or of A B. If a mixture of A B is used, it has been found preferable to use the components in proportions, by weight. of about 25 to 30 parts of A, about 7 to 11 parts of B, about 2 to 3 parts of polyvinyl alcohol, about 21 to 24 parts of solvent and about 35 to 40 parts of water.
The sewing threads are dressed by the process according to the invention e.g., by bringing them into contact with the emulsion or solution of component B or of a mixture of A B by a rewinding process using a drive roller and then drying them by heating to about 80 to 100C. Sewing threads which have been dressed by the process according to the invention, in particular polyester sewing threads, have the advantage over sewing threads dressed by known methods that they have lower coefficients of friction, which are a measure of the friction produced. In addition, the dressings are more evenly distributed over the surface of the thread, as determined by the range of scatter of the coefficient of friction. Sewing can therefore be carried at higher speeds with such threads. The essential properties which determine the sliding of a sewing thread, namely its coefficient of friction, and the scatter range of friction, are determined by means of a friction measuring device called F meter and made by Rothschild, Zurich, at 20C/65 percent relative humidity applying a preliminary tension of g (see e.g. Melliand Textilberichte 42 1961 374-3 79). The quantity of dressing applied is preferably from about 1 to 7 percent, especially about 3 to 5 percent by weight, based on the sewing thread although quantities above or below this range may be used.
The process according to the invention will now be explained more fully with reference to the following examples in which, in all cases, percentages refer to percentages by weight.
EXAMPLE 1 An emulsion is prepared by first mixing 68.4 g of a with this emulsion has a coefficient of friction of 1.0
and a range of scatter of friction of between 14 and 18 g; the yarn carried 4 percent of solids by weight.
If for the purpose of comparison with conventional emulsions the 24 g of polycarbonate-polysiloxane block copolymers used in the above example are replaced by the corresponding quantity of polydimethylsiloxane having a viscosity of 10,000 cP at 20C, i.e., if the process is carried out without the block copolymer B, the sewing threads obtained have a coefficient of friction of 3.0 and a range of scatter of between 40 and 75.
EXAMPLE 2 This example demonstrates the relationship between the sliding properties of sewing threads and the quantity of components B when the total quantity of (A B) in the emulsion is kept constant, the composition of the emulsion being otherwise the same as in Example 1. The results given in Example 1 have been repeated here for clarity.
No. Quantity Quantity Coefficient Range of of A of B of scatter g g friction g l 80 0 3.0 40-75 2 72 8 1.7 20-32 3 68 12 1.2 16.22 4 6O 2() 1.1 18-22 5 56 24 1.0 l4-l8 EXAMPLE 3 When a solution of 15 g of a polycarbonatepolysiloxane block copolymer consisting of 27.8 percent by weight of Bisphenol-A polycarbonate segments and 72.7 percent by weight of polydimethyl siloxane segments having an average chain length of 29 is emulsifted in 108 g of water as described in Example 1 together with 70 g of polydimethylsiloxane (10,000 cP/20C) in 35 g of toluene and 10 g of perchloroethylene with 6.5 g of polyvinyl alcohol and the resulting emulsion is used as a dressing agent forthe sewing thread of Example 1, the following values are obtained:
Coefficient of friction Range of scatter of friction EXAMPLE 4 If in emulsion No. 3 of Example 2 the polydimethylsiloxane which has a viscosity of 10,000 cP at 20C is replaced by one having a viscosity of 1000 cP at 20C and the sewing thread of Example 1 dressed with such an emulsion are compared with threads treated with an of a paraffin wax which has a melting point of 82C and emulsion which contains only the polydimethylsiloxane 20 parts by weight of a ol ydimethylsiloxane which has which has a viscosity of 1000 cP, the following results a isc ity of 1000 CP 20 thelhfeflds are fOund I are obtained: have a coefficient of friction of 2.5 and a range of scatter of 35 to 50 g.
The polyester fibers employed in the foregoing examfjg g ff g g f l gf f ples were polyethylene terephthalate but other polyesg g friction A g ters falling within the definition of that term as set forth in the Rules promulgated under the Textile Fibers iden- 33 if; tification Act can be similarly treated with similar effect. The yarns may be 100 percent polyester or blends thereof with other natural and/or man-made fibers, ei-
EXAMPLE 5 ther in staple or filament form. While polyesters are This Example was carried Out using n emulsion preferred, the invention is also applicable to polyesterwhich contained only a polycarbonate-polysiloxane l 5 free yams uch 35 nylon, acrylics, and the like,
block copolymer nd n i y y)- it will be appreciated that the instant specification polydimethylsiloxane. A solution of 39 g of the block d examples are t f th b w f ill tr ti d copolymer described in Example 1 in 25 g of toluene not limitation, and that various modifications and and 4.3 g of perchloroethylene was emulsified in 30.3 changes may be made without departing from the spirit g 0f water With the addition Of 2.7 g Of polyvinyl alcoand cope of the present invention,
hol and the emulsion was then diluted with 14 g of wawh t i l i d i ter. 1. A low-friction sewing thread dressed with a polyc- The Sewing thread of Example 1 dressed with this arbonate-polydimethylsiloxane block copolymer comemulsion was found to have a coefficient of friction of prising about 8 to 35 percent by weight of polycarbon- 0.09 with a range of scatter of friction of 12 to 14 g. t Segments f th f l EXAMPLE 6 in which The sewing thread of Example I treated with a solueach R independently is a hydrogen atom or a mondtion P trichloroethylene) of a block 00- valent aliphatic, cycloaliphatic. araliphatic or aromatic polymer of 13.8 percent of Bisphenol-A polycarbonate hydrocarbon radical with l to 12 carbon atoms, segments having an average chain length f 2.7 a d each R independently is a lower alkyl radical or a 86.2 percent of polydimethyl-siloxane segments having hal at an average chain length of 77 was found to have a coefficient of friction of 0.07 and a range of scatter of friction of between 12 and 14 g.
p is an integer from i to 7 and 40 a is an integer from 0 to 4,
and about 6 5 to 02 percent by weight ofpolydimethyl- EXAMPLE 7 siloxane segments having an average chain length of A polyester filament yarn dressed with a trichloroethabout to 90 dlmethylslloxane unitsylene solution which contained 165 g of a siloxane A (viscosity 20,000 cP/2 0C) in addition to 29 g of the 7% of solids by weight. block copolymefr mennoned m Example 5 and m much 3. The thread of claim 2, wherein the solids include zoncegtratlon i 9 g g g a polydiorganosiloxane having a viscosity of about 500 to f CO6 Clem O a to 20,000 cP at 20C, about5 to parts by weight of gg g ig gs igg gi x 9 and 23 50 said block copolymer being present per 100 parts of z l l l If, in Example 1, the block copolymer B is replaced gzgigtiz gi gifi wherein is methyl p is i r 1 1 1 9 1 by the corresponding quanitiy of a paraffin wax and the about 2 to 5, a is O, and the polydiorganosfloxane is same sewin threads are dressed with this emulsion, the threads are found to have a coefficient of friction of 2.8 polydimethylslloxane having a vlscoslty of about 1,000
to 10,000 cP at 20C.
and a range of scatter of 45 to g.
2. The sewing thread of claim 1, carrying about l to Comparison Experiment: 5. The thread of claim 4, wherein said sewing thread When the same sewing threads are not dressed with comprlses p y l V ,mo. o* m an emulsion but with a mixture of 80 parts by weight l k
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|U.S. Classification||428/391, 428/447, 428/412, 428/480, 428/395|
|International Classification||C08G64/18, D06M15/643, C08L69/00, C08G81/00, C08L83/10, C08L83/04, D06M15/513|
|Cooperative Classification||C08G77/24, C08G77/448, D06M15/513, C08L83/10, D02G3/46, C08L69/00, C08G77/70, C08L83/04, C08G64/186, D06M15/643|
|European Classification||D02G3/46, C08L83/04, C08L69/00, D06M15/513, C08L83/10, C08G64/18D, D06M15/643|