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Publication numberUS3846151 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 5, 1974
Filing dateSep 5, 1972
Priority dateSep 5, 1972
Also published asCA993496A, CA993496A1
Publication numberUS 3846151 A, US 3846151A, US-A-3846151, US3846151 A, US3846151A
InventorsJ Roteman, J Gogola
Original AssigneeAddressograph Multigraph
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fixing device
US 3846151 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

NOV. 5, 1974 J, RQTEMAN ETAL FIXING DEVICE Filed Sent. 5, 1972 United States Patent O 3,846,151 FIXING DEVICE Jerome Roteman and Joseph K. Gogola, Solon, Ohio,

assignors to Addressograph-Multigraph Corporation,

Cleveland, Ohio Filed Sept. 5, 1972, Ser. No. 285,981 Int. Cl. B44d l 094; G03g 13/20, 15/20 U.S. Cl. 117--21 8 Claims ABSTRACT F THE DISCLOSURE An improved fixing device for fixing images of an orig- -in-al document on sheets of copy material includes two rollers in pressure engagement. The improved fixing device, in one embodiment, includes an emulsion of a release agent and an anti-static agent applied to the surface of one of the two rollers in pressure engagement. In a second embodiment, the improved fixing device includes a release agent applied to the surface of one of `the two rollers and an anti-static agent applied to the surface of the other of the two rollers in pressure engagement.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (A) Field of the invention The present invention relates generally to copy making apparatus and, `more particularly, Ito devices in such apparatus for fixing images of originial documents on copy material.

(B) Description of the prior art Devices for fixing images of original documents on light-sensitive sheets of copy material are well known in the prior art. One such device is disclosed in the co-pending -application of Richard S. Brenneman et al. Ser. No. 51,089, filed June 30, 1970, and assigned to the same assignee -as `the present invention, and includes a pressure device for fixing images of original documents on copy sheets comprising two rollers in pressure engagement. A copy sheet having an image thereon formed by a resinous toner powder adhering to the electrostatically charged surface of the copy sheet is passed between the two rollers in pressure engagement. The powder image is thereby securely iixed 4in permanent form on the surface of the copy sheet by the application of pressure alone.

When a copy sheet is passed between the two rollers in pressure engagement, the toner powder adhering to the surface of the copy sheets has a tendency to release from the surface of the copy sheet and to adhere -to the surface of one of the -two rollers in pressure engagement. This occurrence is known as offset It is well known in the prior art to apply a release agent, :such as a silicone oil, to the surface of a roller in contact with copy sheets to prevent 'the offset of toner powder. The use of lthe silicone oil release agent has eliminated many of the problems associated with the use of a fixing device such 'as that disclosed in the labove-identified co-pending application.

However, the use of a release agen-t has not eliminated all of the objections to the use of such a fixing device. The most serious objection is the ocurrence of jams in the fixing device caused by the tendency of copy sheets to wrap around the surface of one of the two rollers in pressure engagement.

The present invention addresses itself to this problem and has isolated the cause of the problem as being a build-up of static electricity across the two rollers in pressure engagement in the fixing device. The build-up of static electricity is thought to be caused by the passage of many sheets of dielectric copy material between the two 3,846,151 Patented Nov. 5, 1974 rollers and by the `transfer of the residual high voltage charge on the surf-aces of the copy sheets to the surfaces of the rollers. The build-up of static electricity continues until it is sufficient to cause a copy sheet to adhere to the surface of one of the two rollers and to thus wrap itself Iabout the surface of that roller, thereby causing a jam in the copy making apparatus.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved device for fixing images of original documents on copy material.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved device for `fixing images of original documents `on copy material of the type that includes two rollers in pressure engagement.

Another object of the present invention is to provide -a new and improved device for fixing images of original documents on copy material `of the type having two rollers in pressure engagement and a release agent applied 'to the surface of one ofthe two rollers.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved device for fixing images of original documents on copy material having two rollers in pressure engagement and an emulsion of a release agent and of an anti-static agent applied to the surface of one of the two rollers.

Another object of the present invention is to provid-e a new and improved device for fixing images of original documents on copy material having two rollers in pressure engagement and having a release agent applied to the surface of one of the two rollers and an anti-static agen-t applied to the surf-ace of the other two rollers.

Briefly, the above and other objects of the present invention are achieved by a device for fixing images of original documents on copy material having two rollers in pressure engagement and a rele-ase agent and an anti-static agent applied either in an emulsion form to the surface of one of the two rollers or applied separately to the surface of one of the two rollers or to the surfaces of both of the two rollers to thereby eliminate both the offset of toner powder and the build-up of static electricity. In one embodiment, an emulsion of a release agent and an anti-static agent is applied to the surface of one of the two rollers in pressure engagement. In a second embodiment, a release agent is applied to the surface of one of the two rollers and an antistatic agent is applied t-o the surface of the other of the two rollers.

Brief Description of the Drawings The above and other objects and advantages and novel features of the present invention are apparent from the following detailed descriptions of the preferred embodiments of the invention illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. l is a sectional view of a preferred embodiment of a fixing device embodying features of the present invention; and

lFIG. 2 is a sectional view of a second preferred embodiment of a fixing device embodying features of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFJ-ERIRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings and initially to FIG. 1, there is disclosed a new and improved fixing device generally designated as 10 constructed lin accordance with the principles of the present invention. The fixing device 10 serves to fix an image of an original document on a paper copy sheet, to eliminate the offset of toner powder, and to reduce the tendency of the copy sheet -to become entangled in the fixing device and thereby cause a jam condition in the copy making apparatus.

The fixing device 10 is an improvement of the device disclosed in the above-identified co-pending application and includes two rollers 12 and 14 in pressure engagement to thereby tfix a powder image of an original document on a light-sensitive `sheet of copy material 16 by the application of pressure alone. The rollers `12 and 14 revolve in `the direction of the arrow A to pass the copy sheeet 16 through the device 10 in the direction of `the arrow B. T-he roller 12 preferably is formed of steel `and the roller 14 preferably comprises a steel core 18 and an outer nylon housing 20. The xing device 10 further includes an assembly 22 for increasing or decreasing the pressure contact of the rollers 12 and 14.

In accordance with an important advantage of the present invention, the fixing device 19 includes an applicator 24 for applying certain solutions to the surface of the steel roller 12. The applicator 24 applies a thin layer of liquid to the surface of the steel roller which performs a two-fold function. The solution contains a releasing agent and an anti-static agent, the former serving to prevent the adherence of the toner powder to its surface, and the latter acting to prevent the development of static charges on the surface of the paper which would inhibit the freedom of movement of the sheet as it makes its exit from between the rollers. It will be appreciated that in the construction shown in FIG. 1 there is only one applicator 24 which applies both treating agents to the roll through the medium of a single liquid formulation.

The treating liquid is comprised of an emulsion formed of the release agent and the anti-static agent. The emulsion is contained in a saturated felt wick 24 and is drawn by capillary action through the wick 26 to the applicator 24 for application to the surface of the roller 12. One suitable material for the applicator 24 is porous nylon. The wick must be replaced after a predetermined operating of the device 10 with a new saturated wick 26.

The fixing device 10 further includes guide member 28 for guiding a copy sheet 16 into the nip between the rollers 12 and 14, and two wiping members 30 which are employed for the purpose of cleansing the surfaces of the rollers 12 and 14.

In accordance with a further important advantage of the present invention, the release agent and the anti-static agent are applied to the surface of the roller 12 in an emulsion 4, so as to make available both the release properties of the releasing agent and the anti-static properties of the anti-static agent in a single liquid application.

IOne class of anti-static agents that have been successfully used in the instant invention are those which can be emulsified in the environment in which there are used, Compounds having the following general formula:

N-CHz Il.

are particularly useful.

These materials are fatty imidazolines and their salts. A compound, sold under the trade name C-100-L, which comes within the general formula, is sold by the Hodag kChemical Corporation, has produced excellent results.

The release agent portion of the emulsified applicator liquid which is used in the improved pressure device of this invention, may be any one of the commercially available, well-known, silicone oils, such as dialkyl polysiloxane.

The construction of the copy material 16 is such that it is formed by dispersing Zinc oxide pigments in a resin binder system in order to impart the light sensitive characteristics to the copy sheet 16, The release agent and 4 the anti-static agent which is applied to the surfaces of the rollers 12 and 14, must therefore avoid having any solvency action on the zinc oxide coating. The silicone oil release agents which have been described hereinabove, conform to this requirement.

The use of the release agent with certain anti-static agents in an emulsion form, has been found to be less than totally effective in eliminating the build-up of static electricity in pressure fixing devices of the instant invention. This is thought to be due to the tendency of these anti-static agents to separate from the emulsion so that the anti-static agent is not uniformly dispersed throughout. Further, some of the anti-static agents are known to evaporate at a different rate than the release agents, so that ulimately the emulsion reaches an imbalance or otherwise complete depletion of the anti-static agent from the system so that its remedial effect is no longer present. Under such unstable conditions, after the processing of many sheets of copy material, it has been found that the applicator 24 is applying only the release agent to the exclusion of the other agent to the surface of the roller 12.

If, as is usually the case, the anti-static agent is the excluded agent, a common, undesirable build-up of static electricity occurs across the surfaces of the rollers 12 and 14. Hence, the copy sheet 16 is attracted to the surfaces of the rollers 12 and 14, resulting in paper jams. To eliminate this problem, a second embodiment of the present invention, such as illustrated in FIG. 2, comprises a Ilixing device 50 having two similar applicators, 24 and 52, one for applying the release agent to the surface of one of the rollers 12 or 14, and the other for applying the anti-static agent to the surface of the other roller. For example, the applicator 24 may be used to apply the release agent to the surface of the roller 12; and the applicator 52 may be used to apply the anti-static agent to the surface of the roller 14. The applicator 24 draws the release agent by capillary action through the felt wick 26 for application to the surface of the roller 12; and the applicator 52 draws the anti-static agent through a felt wick 54 for application to the surface of the roller 14. The wicks 26 and 54 advantageously have compensating storage capacities so consistent with their rate of usage so that the agents are depleted at approximately the same time, thereby minimizing the servicing requirements of the copy machine.

It will be appreciated that many elements of the fixing device 50 are the same as those of the fixing device 10 in FIG. 1, and are thus designated by the same reference numerals. The device 50 (FIG. 2) includes an additional paper guide 56 for guiding the copy sheet 16 into the nip between the rollers 12 and 14.

The release agent to be applied to the surface of the roller 12 by the applicator 24 may be the same as the release agent discussed previously with reference to the device of FIG. 1. However, it will be understood that no other ingredient need be included in the formulation since it is only functioning as a release agent.

Similarly, the anti-static agent to be applied to the surface of the roller 14 by the applicator S2, may be the same as the anti-static agent discussed previously with reference to the embodiment of FIG. 1. In View of the fact that the anti-static agent is not being combined with the release agent, there is a great deal more latitude in the formulation since it is no longer necessary for the anti-static agent to be uniformly contained in the solution through emulsitication with the silicone release agent.

In the formulation of the treating liquid to be used with the apparatus of FIG 2, the anti-static agent is usually combined with a carrier uid such as polyethylene glycol in order to form a liquid-liquid solution in which may be carried the very small amounts of the anti-static agents. The polyethylene glycol is a desirable carrier because of its low volatility, inert effect on the zinc oxide resin binder system, and because it is, Somewhat hygroscopc, which has Ibeen found to be helpful in the instant application.

An anti-static agent that has been susscessfully used in the second embodiment is a lauryl quaternary ammonium salt sold by the Hodag Chemical Corporation under the designation CQ-14. The molecular structure of this quaternary ammonium salt is as follows:

wherein R is lauryl; R', R" and R" are lower alkyl radicals; and X is an anion. This anti-static agent is usually dissolved in alcohol and when added to a carrier fluid such as polyethylene glycol in the proportion of parts of anti-static agent and 90 parts of the carrier fiuid, forms a homogeneous treating solution which may be uniformly applied in a thin film to the roller 14. This solution enables the properties of the anti-static agent to have its effect on the fixing device 10, while the release agent is being applied to the roller 12 through its applicator 24, thereby giving the same effect as when using the emulsion with the fixing device of FIG l.

Many other anti-static quaternary ammonium agents may be used in accordance with the principles of the present invention as described in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2. The American Cyanamid Company manufactures and sells two anti-static agents that could be used with the device of the present invention. One of these two anti-static agents is known as a Catanac SN Anti-static Agent (stearamidopropyldimethyl B-hydroxyethylammonium nitrate) and has a molecular formula as follows:

(13H3 i' CnHasCONHCHQCHzCHzlTCHzCHzOH N03 Another suitable anti-static agent manufactured and sold by the American Cyanamid Company is known as a Catanac SP Anti-static Agent (stearamidopropyldimethyl- B-hydroxyethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate) and has a molecular formula as follows:

(|3113 CuHsaCONHCHzCHQCHzlICI-IZCHZOH H2PO4 In addition to the anti-static agent available from the Hodag Chemical Corporation discussed above, these two anti-static agents manufactured and sold by American Cyanamid Company, can be used together with a suitable carrier liquid for the separate application to the lfixing device 10. Agents suitable for use in the device of the present invention are listed in the book entitled Detergents and Emulsifiers by McCutcheon (1970 Ed.), on pages 39 through 256. Thus, many emulsions may be prepared for use with the anti-static agents of the instant invention as well as the use of these anti-static agents in a solvent.

Many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. For example, with reference to the embodiment of FIG. 2, the two applicators 24 and 52 may be positioned in contact with the surface of a single roller, 12 or 14, to thereby apply the release agent and the anti-static agent 6 at separate locations to the same roller. Furthermore, it is apparent that beneficial results would evolve from the application of a release agent and an anti-static agent to the surfaces of any two rollers in engagement in a copy making apparatus in accordance with the principles of the present invention. Thus, it is to be understood that, within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

What is claimed and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A method for reducing the tendency of a single sheet of a predetermined length of copy material having at least a residual high voltage charge thereon and of toner powder on said sheet of copy material to adhere to the surface of one of two rollers in pressure engagement at ambient temperature in a fixing device in a copy making apparatus for pressure fixing an image of an original formed of said toner powder comprising the steps of passing said sheet of copy material into the nip of said two rollers to pressure fix said toner powder, applying a release agent to the surface of a first one of said two rollers, and

applying an anti-static agent to the surface of a second one of said two rollers.

2. A device in a copy making apparatus for fixing an image of an original formed of toner powder on a single sheet of a predetermined length of copy material having at least a residual high voltage charge thereon comprising means for applying pressure to the surface of said sheet of copy material, said pressure applying means comprising two rollers in pressure engagement,

an emulsion, said emulsion comprising means for inhibiting the tendency of said toner powder to become attached to the surface of one of said two rollers and means for preventing the buildup of a static electric charge in said fixing device, said inhibiting means comprising a release agent and said preventing means comprising an anti-static agent, and

means for applying said emulsion to the surface of one of said two rollers.

3. A device as defined in claim 2 wherein said release agent comprises a silicone oil.

4. A device as defined in claim 3 wherein said silicone oil comprises a dialkyl polysiloxane.

5. A device for forming an image of an original formed of toner powder on a single sheet of a predetermined length of copy material having at least a residual high voltage charge thereon comprising a pair of rollers in engagement,

means for passing said sheet of copy material between said pair of rollers,

an emulsion, said emulsion comprising means for inhibiting the tendency of said toner powder to become attached to the surface of one of said pair of rollers and means for preventing the buildup of a static charge between said pair of rollers, said inhibiting means comprising a release agent and said preventing means comprising an anti-static agent, and

means for applying said emulsion to the surface of one of said two rollers.

6. A device as defined in claim 5 wherein said release agent comprises a silicone oil.

7. A device as defined in claim 6 wherein said silicone oil comprises a dialkyl polysiloxane.

8. A method for reducing the tendency of a single sheet of a predetermined length of copy material having at least a residual high voltage charge thereon and of toner powder on said sheet of copy material to adhere to the surface of one of two rollers in pressure engagement in a fixing device in a copy making apparatus comprising the steps of passing said sheet of copy material into the nip of said two rollers and applying an emulsion of a release agent and of an antistatic agent to the surface of one of said two rollers.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 5 Wolfe et al 117-111 R Howell 117-17.5

Albrecht 226-177 Albi-6611161411 118-637 10 Stryjewski 219-216 8 3,498,596 A3/1970 Moser 219-388 3,684,561 8/1972 Labombarde 117-111 R OTHER REFERENCES I.B.M. Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 13, No. 12, p. 3676, May 1971.

MICHAEL SOFOCLEOUS, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.

ll7-l7.5, 111 R; 118-114, 116, 637, Dig. l; 226-193; 317-2 H

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3918397 *Jul 22, 1974Nov 11, 1975Xerox CorpContact fusing apparatus for fixing toner images to a support member
US3918804 *Jun 24, 1974Nov 11, 1975Xerox CorpApparatus for applying release material to a contact fuser roll member utilized in fixing toner images to support sheets
US3934547 *Jul 12, 1974Jan 27, 1976Xerox CorporationRenewable chow fuser coating
US3965853 *Jul 22, 1974Jun 29, 1976Xerox CorporationContact fuser assembly
US3988061 *Aug 1, 1974Oct 26, 1976Addressograph Multigraph CorporationPressure fixing of toners
US3990391 *Mar 19, 1975Nov 9, 1976Addressograph Multigraph CorporationMounting for pressure fixing rollers
US4000957 *Sep 24, 1975Jan 4, 1977Xerox CorporationContact fuser and release agent applicator therefor
US4002145 *Aug 16, 1974Jan 11, 1977Develop Kg/Dr. Eisbein And Co.Apparatus for applying and fixing a magnetizable powder on a charged sheet
US4008955 *May 12, 1975Feb 22, 1977Xerox CorporationFuser assembly for an electrophotograhic copying machine
US4022122 *Aug 16, 1974May 10, 1977Develop Kg/Dr. Eisbein And Co.Pressing installation for a copying arrangement
US4034706 *Jul 22, 1974Jul 12, 1977Xerox CorporationDual release agent cu-viton fuser
US4045164 *Jul 22, 1974Aug 30, 1977Xerox CorporationUse of silicone oil as a polyethylene oxidation retardant in a toner image fusing apparatus
US4065585 *Jul 30, 1975Dec 27, 1977Xerox CorporationRenewable chow fuser coating
US4281623 *Mar 30, 1978Aug 4, 1981Sharp Kabushiki KaishaSheet stripping members for fixing device for fixing images of an original document on sheets of copy materials
US4287280 *Jun 27, 1979Sep 1, 1981Xerox CorporationRelease agent applicators and method of applying release agent emulsions upon fusers in electrostatic copiers
US4332457 *Jul 2, 1980Jun 1, 1982Sharp Kabushiki KaishaFixing device for fixing images of an original document on plain paper copy sheets
US4355881 *Jun 23, 1980Oct 26, 1982Konishiroku Photo Industry Co., Ltd.Recording apparatus having roller type fixing device
US4378152 *Jan 31, 1977Mar 29, 1983International Business Machines CorporationHot roll fusing nip and means to control orientation of a sheet's leading edge thereto
US4751548 *May 12, 1987Jun 14, 1988Lawson David JApparatus including a conductive wick for applying liquid release agent material to a heated fuser roll
US5532810 *Nov 8, 1994Jul 2, 1996Eastman Kodak CompanyFuser roller skive mechanism having anti-gouging skive fingers
US5589925 *Nov 8, 1994Dec 31, 1996Eastman Kodak CompanyAnti-gouging skive mechanism with replaceable fingers
US5659869 *Apr 28, 1994Aug 19, 1997Canon Kabushiki KaishaImage fixing apparatus having pressure roller with fluorine surface active agent
US6126280 *Jul 23, 1993Oct 3, 2000Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Ink recording method
US7113735 *Oct 27, 2004Sep 26, 2006Eastman Kodak CompanyPrecision release agent management system
US20060088347 *Oct 27, 2004Apr 27, 2006Ruediger SchlienPrecision release agent management system
USB493501 *Aug 1, 1974Feb 3, 1976 Title not available
Classifications
U.S. Classification427/194, 361/221, 399/339, 118/114, 226/193, 118/116, 427/361, 427/366, 219/216, 118/DIG.100
International ClassificationG03G15/20, G03G13/20
Cooperative ClassificationG03G13/20, G03G15/2092, Y10S118/01
European ClassificationG03G13/20, G03G15/20P