|Publication number||US3848384 A|
|Publication date||Nov 19, 1974|
|Filing date||Jul 2, 1973|
|Priority date||Feb 25, 1972|
|Publication number||US 3848384 A, US 3848384A, US-A-3848384, US3848384 A, US3848384A|
|Inventors||J Eaton, A Luck|
|Original Assignee||Masonite Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (26), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Eaton et al.
[ COMPOSITION SHINGLE  Inventors: James W. Eaton, Elgin; Allan J.
Luck, Marengo, both of I11.
 Assignee: Masonite Corporation, Chicago, Ill.  Filed: July 2, 1973  Appl. No.: 375,626
Related US. Application Data  Continuation-impart of Ser. No. 229,420, Feb. 25,
 References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 1,596,272 8/1926 Jordan 52/554 1,756,989 5/1930 Overbury 52/559 1,994,643 3/1935 Hashberger 52/528 2,062,149 11/1936 Stark et a1. 52/551 2,081,191 5/1937 Wright 52/528 2,376,024 5/1945 Barrett 52/528 2,568,469 9/1951 Sunderhauf... 52/528 3,080,683 3/1963 Sallie 52/420 3,624,975 12/1971 Morgan et al. 1 52/555 3,626,651 12/1971 Koughml 52/540 3,771,271 11/1973 Keel 52/540 1451 Nov. 19, 1974 Primary Examine'rl-lenry C. Sutherland Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Mason, Kolehmainen, Rathburn & Wyss 57 ABSTRACT A thick butt composition shingle system, each shingle comprising a body having parallel upper and lower longitudinal edges and an outer weather face, first narrow strip means along the lower edge and disposed be neath the body of each shingle for securing the lower edge of the shingle to a supporting roof or wall structure .and second narrow strip means along the upper edge of the body of each shingle for abutting engagement with the first strip means on the shingles in a next higher row, a tab member for each shingle comprising a plurality of longitudinally spaced apart shingle tabs integrally joined with an upper elongated strip portion and defining open spaces between said tabs exposing portion of a shingle base thereunder, said open spaces being defined by lower edge segments of said elongated strip and opposite side edges of adjacent tabs, each tab having a lower edge spaced from said edge segment whereby said tab lower edges are aligned with said lower edges of an underlying shingle base and said edge segments are aligned with a lower edge of a shingle base in the next upper row thus providing a double edge thick butt appearance for said shingles laid in place. I
'7 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures PATENIE rm 1 9 I974 SHEET 2 OF 4 FIG 5 vvvwwwwww COMPOSITION SHINGLE This application is a continuation-in-part of copending US. patent application Ser. No. 229,420, filed Feb. 25, 1972, and now abandoned.
The present invention relates to a new and improved thick butt composition shingle system used for weather proof covering used on building roofs, wall surfaces and the like. In accordance with the shingle system of the present invention the shingles are adapted to be secured to a roof or wall structure along their upper and lower edges and are highly resistant to wind forces which often tend to lift and peel back shingles and tabs thereof causing breakage and subsequent water leakage.
The popularity of thick butt natural cedar shakes and wood shingles has resulted in several composition shingle manufacturers attempting to provide asphalt or asbestos shingles which duplicate the natural appearance of the thick butt, cedar shakes. In general these attempts have utilized shingles formed with several laminated layers, wherein the top or upper layers are cut out to provide alternate random width shingle tabs and open spaces and multi-level exposed layers with edges of relatively great thickness. These shingles are considerably heavier and more expensive than conventional, three-tab, single layer shingles and because of weight and other factors require higher labor and installation costs, in addition to the higher cost of the shingles themselves.
Accordingly it is an object of the present invention to provide a new and improved shingle system of the character described using thick butt composition shingles.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved thick butt composition shingle which is similar in appearance to random width, hand split cedar shakes or thick butt wood shingles but much lower in cost.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved shingle of the character described which requires considerably less material per unit area of surface covered than prior art shingles.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved shingle of the character described which is considerably lighter in weight per unit surface area covered than prior art shingles of similar appearance.
An important object of the invention is to provide a new and improved composition shingle of the character described wherein the shingle is especially adapted to be positively fastened to a roof or wall along both the upper and lower edges.
' Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved shingle of the character described which has a considerably greater butt end thickness than prior art shingles and thus prevents a deep or bolder shadow line appearance greatly resembling actual wood shakes of relatively large butt thickness.
Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved thick butt composition shingle of the character described wherein the fasteners used for securing the shingle in place on a roof or the like are completely covered by a body of the shingles and are hidden from view.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved shingle which may be easily and rapidly installed by an unskilled roofer and which provides automatic horizontal alignment of each row of shingles during application with measuring, chalk lines or other guides.
The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the present invention are accomplished by a new and improved shingle system including atleast one pair of shingles having a solid rectangular base of composition sheet material with upper and lower edges and an outer weather face. Each shingle includes first strip means along the lower edge on the underside of the base adapted for use in securing the lower edge of the shingle to a supporting structure such as a roof 'or a wall. Second strip means is provided along the upper edge of each shingle base for abutting engagement with the lower strip of a shingle in a next adjacent row. Each shingle includes a tab member comprising a plurality of longitudinally spaced apart shingle tabs integrally joined to an upper elongated strip' and defining alternateopen spaces between said tabs. Each open space is defined a lower edge segment of said elongated strip and a pair of opposite side walls of adjacent tabs. Each shingle tab includes a lower edge spaced from the lower edge segments of said tab member by a distance whereby the lower edges of said tabs are aligned with the lower edge of an underlying shingle base to give'a thick butt appearance.
For a better understanding of the present invention reference should be had to the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view illustrating new and improved shingle system e mploying composition shingles constructed in accordance with the features of the present invention and showing the shingles as they are installed in place on a roof structure;
FIG. 2 is a top perspective plan view illustrating the shingle of FIG. 1 before installation on a supporting structure;
FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the shingles of FIG. I indicating in animated fashion a method of installing the shingles in a first row along the cave or lower edge of a roof structure;
FIG. 4 is a perspective view similar to FIG. 3 illustrating the shingle thereof after placement is completed;
FIG. 5 is an exploded plan view illustrating how the component parts of a pair of shingles are cut from a rectangular piece of sheet material in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a bundle of shingles of FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is a verticalsectional view through the fall line of a roof structure showing another embodiment of new and improved shingle system in accordance with the features of the present invention installed on the roof;
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of yet another embodiment of shingle system in accordance with the present invention and illustrating the shingles thereof as laid in.
place on a supporting roof structure;
FIG. 9 is a top perspective view of an individual shin gle of the system of FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a perspective view of the undersurface of the shingle of FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is an end elevational view of a bundle of shingles of FIG. 9;
FIG. 12 is a perspective view of still another embodiment of shingle system constructed in accordance with the features of the present invention and illustrating the shingles thereof as laid in place on a supporting roof structure;
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of the underside of a shingle of the system of FIG. 12 illustrating an individual shingle from the underside of the tab member with the base in a folded position over the tab member prior to installation;
FIG. 14 is a perspective view of the underside of the base of the shingle of FIG. 13, and
FIG. 15 is an end elevational view ofa bundle of shingles of FIG. 13.
Referring now to the drawings and particularly FIGS.
l-6, therein is illustrated a new and improved shingle system comprising a plurality of composition shingles for covering roof surfaces, side walls and the like and constructed in accordance with the features of the present invention. As best illustrated in FIG. 1, the system includes a plurality of shingles 10 which are designed to closely resemble in appearance, thick butt random width, wood shingles or cedar shakes. The shingles 10 are preferably formed of thin composition sheet material such as asphalt saturated felt covered with granules on the outer weather face, or the shingles may be formed of asbestos sheet material. Other composition, weather resistant sheet materials of a synthetic nature may also be used for the shingles 10 of the present invention.
Each shingle includes a rectangular base 12 having an outer weather face with or without granules embedded thereon when asphaltic felt material is used) and a longitudinal, lower butt edge 14, a parallel longitudinal upper edge 16, and a pair of opposite (left and right hand) ends 18 and 20 perpendicular to the longitudinal edges. The shingles are laid in vertically spaced rows in end to end relation with the opposite end sur faces 18 and 20 of adjacent shingles in close abutting contact against one another as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 3.
Along the lower longitudinal but edges 14 each shingle is provided with a lower nailing strip 22 which is hingedly attached to the rectangular base 12 on the back or underside thereof opposite the outer weather face 14 as best shown in FIGS. 3 and 6. Preferably the narrow strip 22 is attached to the body by means of an elongated, longitudinally extending strip of thin, flexible tape 24 of material such as polyvinyl chloride film, asphalt impregnated woven fabrics etc., which are strong, flexible and weather resistant. Various materials for the hinge strip may be used, and an asphalt impregnated cloth tape approximately 10 mils in thickness and approximately 2 inches in width has proved highly suitable. Preferably the hinge strip is adhesivcly attached over its entire surface to the back or undersurface of the shingle base 12 and the nailing strip 22 with a suitable adhesive of weather proof nature such as an asphaltic composition material used for saturating the felt material forming the base of the shingle and the narrow nailing strip.
In accordance with the present invention, the shingle 10 is similar in appearance to random width, hand split cedar shakes or thick butt wood shingles. The shingle is provided with a tab member 26 having a plurality of depending shingle tabs 28 spaced apart longitudinally along the shingle base 12. The shingle tabs are of random width and are separated by open spaces or slotted areas 30. As illustrated in FIG. 5, each tab member 26 has an equal number of tabs 28 and slots 30 so that a pair of tab members can be made from a single strip of material having a width substantially less than double that of each tab member. The tabs 28 on one tab member 26 are dimensioned to match the slots 30 in the adjacenttab member as shown in FIG. 5 thus providing a substantial saving in material and very little wastage. Each of the tabs 28 includes a lower butt edge 28a, aligned on a common butt edge plane of the shingles formed by the lower butt edge 14 of an underlying shingle base 12. This arrangement results in the shingles l0 having an extremely thick butt edge appearance which closely resembles that of cedar shakes or thick butt wood shingles. The upper edge portion of the tab members 26 comprises a narrow, continuous, elongated strip integral with the tabs 28 and the tab at one end (left hand end) of the shingle is offset to overlap the corresponding edge 18 of the shingle base. 12 so that when the shingles are laid end to end in a row, thejoints between the edges 18 and 20 of adjacent shingle bases 12 are covered by the tabs. This arrangement eliminates the need for a double layer of shingles on the lower or eave row of shingles because all of the edge joints are covered by tabs and this of course results in a considerable saving in cost of material and labor. Oftentimes with prior art shingles an additional or double layer of shingles is required on the first row to insure a water tight construction.
Along the upper edge portion of the tab member 26 there is provided an upper, interlocking narrow alignment strip 32 which strip is preferably adhesivcly secured along the longitudinal upper edge portion of the tab member and shingle base 12. The upper strip 32 includes a lower edge face 32a which is adapted to abut against and align an edge face 220 of the lower nailing strip 22 of the shingle in the next adjacent upper row after the lower nailing strip is hingedly folded under the shingle body so that the edge face 220 is facing upwardly as shown in FIG. 3. When the hinge strip 22 is flat and extends downwardly from the lower edge 14 of the shingle base 12 as illustrated in FIG. 2, the edge 220 faces outwardly. However, when the shingle is to be installed as shown in FIG. 3 the face 220 of the lower nailing strip 22 is facing upwardly and the shingle base is pivoted as indicated by the arrow B as shingles are laid up in place. After each shingle is laid in place, the opposite edge 22b of the lower nailing strip thereof is aligned flush with the exposed lower butt edge 14 of the shingle base 12 providing a double layer thickness of material and presenting a thick butt edge as shown. The
lower nailing strip 22 is of a width dimensioned so that as each successive row of shingles is laid up in place as described and shown in FIG. 3, the edge 22b of the strip is in flush alignment with the upper edge segments 30a of the open spaces or slots 30 between the shingle tabs 28 of the tab members 26 on the shingles in the preceding lower row.
When the hinge lower nailing strip 22 of each new shingle 10 is positioned with its edge 22a abutting against the edge 320 on the upper strip 32 of a shingle in the preceding row, the edges 14 and 22b of the new shingle are automatically aligned with the upper edge segments 30a of the slots 30 in the tabmember 26 of the shingle in the preceding row. As best shown in FIG. 1 the lower butt edge segments 30a of the slots 30 in the tab member 26 are aligned on a common plane with the faces 22b of lower nailing strips 22 on the next adjacent higher row of shingles l0 and with the lower butt edges 14 thereof and this provides a triple layer thickness which enhances the thick butt appearance of the shingles. In some regions a fourth layer of material is provided by the lower edges 28a of the shingle tabs 28 and this further enhances the thick butt appearance of the shingles when they are laid up in position on a roof structure as shown in FIG. 1.
The shingles 10 are easily and rapidly installed on a roof or wall structure starting in a row along the lower edge of the structure. The lower nailing strips 22 of the shingles 10 in a first row are laid end to end and are nailed, tacked, stapled or otherwise attached to the roof structure, for example with fasteners 34 as shown in FIG. 3. After the fasteners in a nailing strip are driven, each shingle is pivoted upwardly into place as shown by the arrow B. The left hand tab 28 of each shingle overlies the joint (line C) between the adjacent shingle bases in the row laid end to end and because of this there is no need for an under layer of starter shingles along the lower or starting edge of the roof or wall structure. After the first row of shingles is in place, the next row is laid up in a similar manner and the nailing strips 22 are urged upwardly into contact against the downwardly facing edges 32a of the upper strips 32 on the row of shingles already in place. Contact between the edges 22a and 32a provides for parallel self-aligned spacing of each row of new shingles with respect to the shingles already in place. The amount of weather exposure of each row of shingles is automatically established as the shingles are laid up and measurements, guides or other means are not required for insuring that the shingles are properly aligned and parallel. The lower nailing strips 22 of each succeeding row of shingles are nailed or attached with suitable fasteners 34 and each new row of fasteners extends through the tab element 26, and the shingle base 12 of the shingles of the preceding lower row of shingles. Each shingle 10 is thus positively secured to the roof or wall structure along both its upper and lower edges. This double row of fastening for each shingle 10 reduces problems of wind lift, shingle breakage and the resultant water leakage. The need for a double layer of shingles on the first or eave row is eliminated and because of the unique construction of the shingles the weight of shingles per unit area of roofing covered is greatly reduced over that of prior art, double layer thick butt shingles of similar appearance.
Referring to FIG. 5, it will be seen that by dimensional matching of the shingle tabs 28 of one tab member 26 with the open spaces or slots of another tab member, an economy of material is achieved and as much as 37 percent less material is used than with many prior art thick butt type composition shingles. This savings in material results in a reduction in weight for a roof using the new and improved shingles 10. FIG. 6 illustrates a bundle of the shingles 10 as they are shipped and prior to installation in accordance with the foregoing procedure.
Referring now to FIG. 7, therein is illustrated another embodiment of a shingle system constructed in accordance with the features of the present invention and referred to generally by the reference numeral 110. As in the prior embodiment, the shingles comprise a rectangular base 112 having a lower butt edge 114 and a parallel, longitudinal upper edge 116. The components or elements of the shingles 110 which are similar or identical in function or structure to those in prior embodiment will be given similar reference numerals with the prefix 1 added and only the differences in the embodiments will be described herein in detail.
The shingles 110 include lower strips 122 which, in contrast to the prior embodiment, are not hingedly attached to the lower material edge of the rectangular shingle base 112 but instead are fixedly secured to the underside-of the body along the lower butt edge. The
strips 122 have a lower butt edge 122b aligned with the I butt edge 114 of the base and an upper, interlocking edge 122a which slopes in a direction toward the edge 1 16 of the shingle base and downwardly away from the underside thereof at an acute angle. The shingle 110 also includes an upper nailing strip 132 secured along the upper edge of the shingle body on the outer face and having an interlocking face 132a adapted to engage and interlock against the edge face 1220 on the shingles in the next higher row.
As indicated in FIG. 7 the starter or first row of shingles 110 on the roof structure is secured to the roof structure by means of a separate nailing strip 132 and the shingles have their lower edge strips 122 interlocked therewith and engaging the downwardly facing edge 132a of the separate, starter nailing strip. After each shingle in the first row is interlocked with the starter nailing strip 132, the upper edges of the shingles are nailed in place with the nails 134 extended through the upper strips 132 on the shingle bodies. The second and successive rows of shingles 110 are then interlocked in place and nailed up in a similar manner row by row. The shingles 110 are almost identical in appearance to the shingles 10 previously described and similarly are secured to the roof or wall structure along both their upper and their lower edges. The interlocking action between the faces 132a and 122a of the strips on the shingles in adjacent rows provides for automatic parallel alignment of succeeding rows as they are installed and, as in the prior embodiment, only one row of nails is needed for securing both the lower edge of one row of shingles and the upper edge of the lower row of shingles to the supporting roof or wall structure.
Referring now to FIGS. 8-11, therein is illustrated another embodiment of a shingle system in accordance with the present invention comprising a plurality of shingles 210. Components of the shingles 210 having 7 similar or identical counterparts in the previous embodiments of shingles 10 and 110 will be given the same reference numbers with the added prefix 2 and only the differences will be described herein in detail.
Each shingle 210 includes a rectangular base 212 having a lower butt edge 214, and upper longitudinal I tabs 228 which have lower butt edges 228a. The edges edge segments 230a and lower butt edge 214 of each shingle is aligned with the tab butt edges 228a of the shingles in the next higher row. The upper strip portion 229 of each tab member 226 includes an upper edge 229a (FIG. '10) which is adapted to abut against the lower edges 232a of the upper strips 232 on the shingles to insure the proper amount of shingle exposure to weather and to facilitate installation of the rows of shingles by an unskilled craftsman. As shown in FIG. 10 the back surface of the tabs 228 are provided with patches of adhesive material 231 to seal the tabs against the outer face of the bases 212 of the shingles of the next lower row when laid in place. This tab sealing arrangement prevents wind or other forces from readily peeling back the tabs.
The lower or first row of shingles 210 is installed on a roof structure with the tab members 226 removed therefrom and the lower butt edge 214 of the shingles aligned along the eave trough. Succeeding rows are then installed as described and the tabs 228 are spaced to cover the joints between adjacent shingle bases 212 in the preceding row so that a double layer of shingles on the initial row is not required.
Nailing position marks 235 are provided along the lower edge portion of the shingle bases 212 so that roofing nails 234 or other fasteners can be used to secure the shingles in place on a roof structure. The marks arespaced so that the nails will pass through the upper strip portions 229 of the shingle tab member 228 and through the base 212 of the shingles in the preceding row at a point below the upper strip 232 thereof. Thus the shingle bases are secured along both upper and lower edge portions and the nail marks 235 are positioned so that the tabs 228 on the shingles in the next succeeding row will cover the nail heads. FIG. 11 illustrates a bundle of the shingles 210 arranged in nested form for compact size and ready for installation after removal of the outer covering of the package for the bundle.
Referring now to FIGS. 12-15, therein is illustrated another embodiment of a shingle system in accordance with the features of the present invention and comprising a plurality of shingles 310. Components of the shingles 310 having counterparts similar or identical to those of prior described embodiments will be given similar reference numbers with the added prefix 3 and only the differences between the embodiments will be discussed in detail herein.
The shingles 310 include a rectangular base 312 having a lower butt edge 314, an upper longitudinal edge 316 and opposite transverse side edges 318 and 320. Along an upper edge portion of the base there is provided an upper longitudinal strip 332 having a lower edge 332a and secured to the outer surface of the base. Along the lower butt edge 314 there is provided a lower narrow strip member 322 having an edge face 322a and hingedly attached to the base 12 by means of a hinge member such as a tape or adhesive webbing 324. When the shingle is in folded position as shown in FIGS. 13, 14 and 15 the edges 314 and 322a abut one another and upon installation on a roof structure these faces are aligned on a common plane (as best shown in FIG. 12) wherein a double thickness layer provides a thick butt appearance as the base 312 is folded upwardly during installation. In addition to the adhesive patches 33] provided on the back side of the tabs 328, the shingle 310 is provided with a pair of parallel sealing strips 333 on the underside of the base 312. The shingles 310 are laid in place row by row with the edges 332a and upper edges 329a of the tab member strip sections 329 in abutment to provide parallel alignment. The base 312 is folded upwardly after nailing of the strip 322 with nails (not shown) which are hidden by the base in folded position. The shingle 310 provides a maximum of four layers of thickness in some areas and provides a thick butt appearance somewhat bolder than the prior embodiment.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the new and improved shingles of the present invention have an appearance similar to typical thick butt, cedar shakes. In addition, the shingles of the invention are lower in weight per foot of surface coverage than comparatively appearing shingles. The shingles are adapted to be positively secured to the support structure along both their upper and their lower edges thus preventing wind lift and other problems of prior art tab shingles. In addition the shingles 10 and are self-aligning and do not require measuring or other guides for use of the roofer when installing them. The shingles are relatively light in weight when compared to similar appearing shingles and require considerably less material. Another important advantage is that the shingles of the present invention do not require a double layer of shingles along the starting or lower edge row.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to several embodiments thereof, it should be understood that numerous other modifications and embodiments can be devised by those skilled in the art that will fall within the spirit and scope of the principles of this invention.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A shingle system comprising at least one pair of shingles, each shingle having a solid rectangular base of thin composition sheet material with an undersurface and an opposite outer surface having at least a portion thereof adapted for exposure to the weather. said bases having parallel elongated upper and lower edges and a first narrow strip along said lower edges secured beneath said undersurface for use in securing the lower edges of said shingle bases to the surface of a supporting roof or wall structure; said shingles including a second narrow strip along said upper edge secured above said outer surface of said base for abutting engagement with a first strip of a shingle laid in an adjacent row; each of said shingles including a tab member of thin composition sheet material having an underside adapted to overlay the outer surface of a shingle base and an opposite outer surface having at least a portion adapted for exposure to the weather, each of said tab members including an elongated strip comprising an upper edge portion thereof and a plurality of longitudinally spaced apart shingle tabs integral therewith extending downwardly from said elongated strip defining alternate open spaces between said tabs exposing the outer surface of an underlying base, said open spaces of one tab member dimensioned to match the tabs of the other tab member of said pair of shingles, each of said open spaces defined by a lower edge segment of said elongated strip and a pair of opposite side edges of adjacent tabs, each tab including a lower edge spaced downwardly from said lower edge segments by a dimension whereby said tab lower edges are aligned with said lower edge of an underlying shingle base and the lower edge segments adjacent thereto are aligned with the tab lower edges and the lower edge of an underlying base in a next adjacent upper row of shingles, and means for securing said elongated strips of said tab members adjacent one of said first and second strips.
2. The single system of claim 1 wherein said tab members of each shingle are secured to and overlie said base thereof and include a tab adjacent one end extending outwardly beyond one end of said base.
3. The shingle system of claim 1 wherein said first strip of each shingle is hingedly secured to said base abutting engagement with the edge surfaces of said first and second strips of other shingles laid in place in an adjacent row.
5. The shingle system of claim 3 wherein said tab member of each shingle is pivotally interconnected with the base thereof and is adapted to depend downwardly of the lower edge of the shingle base to overlie the base of shingles in a next lower row.
6. The shingle system of claim 5 wherein said shingles include adhesive patches on the underside of said tabs for sealing against the outer surface of an underlying shingle base in a next lower row.
7. The shingle system of claim 5 wherein said first strip and said elongated strip of the tab member of each shingle are fixedly secured together and said base thereof is hingedly attached to said first strip for upward pivotal movement after said strips are secured to a roof structure or the like.
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|U.S. Classification||52/420, 52/545, 52/559, 52/528, 52/540|
|International Classification||E04D1/26, E04D1/00|
|Cooperative Classification||E04D2001/005, E04D1/26|