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Publication numberUS3849145 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 19, 1974
Filing dateOct 19, 1970
Priority dateDec 5, 1968
Publication numberUS 3849145 A, US 3849145A, US-A-3849145, US3849145 A, US3849145A
InventorsPitha J
Original AssigneeGen Electric
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cordierite binder composition
US 3849145 A
Abstract
Lightning arrester resistance material is composed of silicon carbide particles and a binder therefor composed of cordierite formed of a fired mixture of cordierite-forming glass material and cordierite-forming crystalline material.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Pitha 1 Nov. 19, 1974 1 CORDIERITE BINDER COMPOSITION 2,887,394 5/1959 13161116111 ..106/46 3,246,972 4/1966 Smith .1 106/39 DV [75] Inventor- John Leno", Mass- 3,275,493 9/1966 MacDowellm, 106/39 UV 731 Assigneez General Electric Company 3,291,759 12/1966 Pitha 252/516 3,380,838 4/1968 Sack 106/39 DV [22] Filed: 061. 19, 1970 3,480,452 11/1969 Fleischner et al.. 106/39 R 3,499,787 3/1970 lnoue 106/39 DV [21] AFN-919321140 3,573,231 3 1971 Subramanya e161. 252/516 Related U S Application Data 3,607,790 12/1968 Pitha 252/516 [62] Division of Ser. No. 781,473, Dec. 5, 1968, Pat. No. OTHER PUBLICATIONS 316071790 Ceramic Industry, 1967 Handbook of Materials for C i P 85,146,149. 52 US. Cl 106/39.6, 106/44, 106/46, eramc rocessmg pages 106/52, 106/71, lO6/73.4, 106/73.5, 252/516 Primm ExamineHHelen M McCarthy E 2 6 3?? Attorney, Agent, or FirmSidney Greenberg 0 s a s I 4 106/39 6, 6 5 71 734 5251224673212) {57] ABSTRACT Lightning arrester resistance material is composed of [56] References Cited silicon carbide particles and a binder therefor com- UNITED STATES PATENTS posed of cordierite formed of a fired mixture of cordi- 2106598 H193 F 1 w erite-forming glass material and cordierite-forming ess er 2,529,144 11 1950 Evans et al. 106/44 X crystanme mammal 2,864,919 12/1958 Stringfellow 106/46 X 3 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure PATEMQKQ'HQIQM mow AMPERES 1 CORDIERITE BINDER COMPOSITION This application is a division of application Ser. No. 781,473, filed Dec. 5, 1968, which issued as U.S. Pat. No. 3,607,790 on Sept. 21, 1971, and which is assigned to the same assignee as the present invention.

The present invention relates to resistance material, and more particularly to resistance material for use with electric discharge devices, such as lightning arrest ers, and the method of making the resistance material. Such material, also known as non-linear resistance or valve element material, is of the type having variable resistance characteristics, so that when placed in electrical circuit with a source of electrical potential applied thereto, its resistance decreases with an increase in the electrical potential. In known types of overvoltage protective devices such as lightning arresters, a gap structure is usually arranged in series with the resistance material, and when the device is subjected to overvoltage, such as caused by lightning or a switching surge, the gap arcs over and with the non-linear resistance material forms a low resistance path to ground. The resistance material provides a low resistance path to high voltages and a high resistance path to low voltages. When the overvoltage surge has been discharged, the resistance material provides a high resistance path to the power follow current, limiting such current to enable the gap structure to interrupt the current and return the arrester to its open circuit condition.

Resistance material of the above-described type comprising a mixture of silicon carbide particles and a binder material therefor comprising cordierite is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,291,759 Pitha, granted Dec. 13, I966. The present invention is an improvement on the material and method of the latter patent.

It is an object of the invention to provide improved non-linear resistance material of the above-described type and a method of making the same.

Another object of the invention is to provide nonlinear resistance material of the above type having improved resistivity characteristics for passing current during over-voltage conditions while providing reduced power follow currents.

A particular object of the invention is the provision of an improved non-linear resistance material comprising silicon carbide particles and a cordierite binder therefor.

Still another object of the invention is to provide an improved composition andmethod for forming cordieritc, and for making non-linear resistance material incorporating such cordierite-forming composition.

Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following description and the appended claims.

With the above objects in view, the present invention in one ofits aspects relates to a method ofmaking non linear resistance material comprising the steps of mixing silicon carbide particles with a cordierite-forming glass material and cordierite-forming crystalline material, compacting the mixture, and firing the thus treated mixture at elevated temperature for reacting the crystalline material and for forming a cordierite binder for the silicon carbide particles from the mixture of glass material and crystalline material.

The invention will be better understood from the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:

The single FIGURE is a graph showing a comparison of the volt-ampere characteristics of the resistance material of the present invention and those of prior art resistance material.

In the aforementioned Pitha patent, there is disclosed a non-linear resistance material formed of a mixture of silicon carbide particles and a cordierite binder therefor, wherein the binder material is obtained by firing a mixture of appropriate proportions of talc and a porcelain mixture including flint, clay and soda or potash spar.

In accordance with the present invention an improved resistance material is made by including in the initial binder mixture a suitable proportion of cordierite-forming glass. By cordierite-forming glass as used herein is meant a non-crystalline solid material having the composition ZMgO. 2Al O 5Si0 and whichwhen heated to elevated temperature below the melting point of the glass and gradually cooled will form a ceramic composed of cordierite. The cordierite-forming glass used in the present invention (also referred to herein simply as cordierite glass) is thus distinguished from the aforementioned mixture of crystalline compounds used in the prior process to form the cordierite binder in the fired product. As indicated, however, both types of cordierite-forming materials are used in the present invention to obtain non-linear resistance material of optimum properties.

By virtue of the addition of cordierite glass to the binder forming material in accordance with the invention, the resultant resistance material retains all the advantages of the prior material made with only crystalline cordierite-forming compounds, such as low resistivity to overvoltages and high capacity to withstand repeated surges of current, and in addition it is characterized by a substantially higher resistance in the low voltage range than the prior resistance material. As a re sult, the improved material when used, for example, in lightning arresters, more effectively cuts out power follow currents and thus enables more rapid extinguishing of the are formed by overvoltages in the arrester, so that the electrical apparatus protected by the arrester resumes normal operation in a shorter time. An additional advantage obtained by such properties of the non-linear resistance material is that the life of the lightning arrester is thereby substantially prolonged.

The FIGURE graphically illustrates the comparative volt-ampere characteristics of the prior and present non-linear resistance materials. In the graph, in whieh the volts and amperes are plotted in logarithmic scale, Curve B represents the prior material as made by the process described in the aforementioned Pitha patent, while Curve A represents resistance material of the present invention. As is evident, at the lower voltage levels, e.g., below 1,000 volts, the material represented by Curve A exhibits substantially higher resistivity than the Curve B material, while at voltages from 2,000 volts and higher, the resistivities of the respective materials are equivalent, and thus they provide equivalent pro tection under high overvoltage conditions. The increased resistivity of the improved. resistance material at the lower voltage levels as shown is as much as 58 percent in terms of voltage required for passage of l ampere of current.

In a typical process of making the improved resistance material the following preferred composition in percent by weight has been found to produce satisfactory results for use in DC lightning arresters:

Silicon carbide 7571 Cordicrite glass Talc 6 Porcelain mixture 9 As well understood by those versed in the art, the porcelain mixture may comprise flint, clay and soda or potash spar, but any particular type or composition of porcelain mixture may be utilized in practicing the present invention.

The cordierite glass used in the above mixture is made by mixing the following ingredients in the typical composition shown in percent by weight:

This mixture is heated to fusion in an electric arc furnace at a temperature no lower than about 1,800C, causing the reaction of the ingredients and forming a molten glass material which is then quenched to prevent devitrification, as a result of which the material so lidifies as a glass. The solid glass is thereafter ground into finely divided form for use in the binder mixture described above. When such glass is fired at elevated temperature below the melting point of the glass and thereafter cooled, it devitrifies (crystallizes) into a hard, dense ceramic material consisting of cordierite, which has the formula ZMgO 2Al O SSiO- The remaining binder ingredients, viz., talc and porcelain mixture, are also capable of forming cordierite when heated to elevated temperature, but in contrast to the pre-reacted cordierite-forming glass component, are crystalline in nature and are employed in this form in the prefired mixture.

After all of the described components in finely divided form are mixed together and a suitable temporary binder such as water is added, the mixture is pressed into discs or otherwise formed into desired shapes. and in such form the material is fired at a temperature of from about 1,200C to about 1,300C in a hydrogen atmosphere, removed from the furnace and cooled. As a result of such firing and cooling, both the pre-reacted glass material and the crystalline binder ingredients form a ceramic binder composed of cordierite in crystalline form, with the silicon carbide particles held therein. As will be understood, the cooling of the fired material is relatively gradual, in distinction to the quenching step herein above referred to in connection with making the cordierite glass.

While the above specific composition is a typically preferred mixture, the resistance material of the invention may be formed from a composition within the following ranges, in percent by weight:

Silicon carbide 55.0 to 80,071 Cordicrite glass 6.0 to 22,5 Talc 4.0 to 27.0 Porcelain mixture 4.0 to I90 An example of a suitable porcelain mixture which may be employed in the foregoing compositions is as follows, in percent by weight:

Flint 14.3'71 Clay 47.6 Soda 0r potash spar 38.l

Preferably, the tale and porcelain mixture compo nents of the crystalline binder material vary in the range of 40 to percent by weight of talc and 60 to 40 percent of porcelain mixture.

The porcelain mixture may be replaced by a china clay such as Florida kaolin, and in the binder mixture equal parts by weight of such kaolin and talc may typically be used as the cordierite-forming crystalline ingredients.

While the present invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments thereof, it will be understood that numerous modifications may be made by those skilled in the art without actually departing from the scope of the invention. Therefore. the appended claims are intended to cover all such equivalent variations as come within the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

l. A composition of matter, suitable for use as a binder, consisting essentially ofa mixture of about 6 to 22.5 parts by weight of cordierite-forming glass material and about 8 to 46 parts by weight of cordieriteforming crystalline material, in which the glass material is a fired and vitrified mixture of SiO A1 0 and MgO, the crystalline material being talc plus a member of the group consisting of a porcelain mixture and kaolin.

2. A composition as defined in claim 1, said crystalline material comprising, in percent by weight, about 40 to about 60 percent talc and about 60 to about 40 percent porcelain mixture.

3. A composition as defined in claim 1, said crystalline material comprising talc and kaolin in about equal parts by weight.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2106598 *Jun 6, 1934Jan 25, 1938Gen Motors CorpCeramic compositions and methods of making the same
US2529144 *Mar 29, 1945Nov 7, 1950Gen ElectricResistance material
US2864919 *May 11, 1955Dec 16, 1958Ite Circuit Breaker LtdCeramic arcing plate material
US2887394 *Apr 4, 1956May 19, 1959Corning Glass WorksMethod of making a nonporous, semicrystalline ceramic body
US3246972 *Aug 18, 1961Apr 19, 1966Corning Glass WorksMethod of making ceramic article
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US3291759 *Dec 13, 1963Dec 13, 1966Gen ElectricNon-linear resistance material
US3380838 *Jul 30, 1964Apr 30, 1968Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & GenSubstances for producing crystalline heat-resistant coatings and fused layers
US3480452 *Aug 26, 1966Nov 25, 1969Us NavyCordierite ceramic process and product
US3499787 *Oct 20, 1965Mar 10, 1970Nippon Toki KkMethod of manufacturing low thermal-expansion porcelain
US3573231 *Nov 13, 1967Mar 30, 1971Gen Motors CorpSpark gap semiconductor
US3607790 *Dec 5, 1968Sep 21, 1971Gen ElectricResistance material and method of making
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *Ceramic Industry, 1967 Handbook of Materials for Ceramic Processing, pages 85, 146, 149.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4033779 *Mar 23, 1976Jul 5, 1977Corning Glass WorksNon-equilibrium cordierite-alumina
US4507224 *Nov 30, 1983Mar 26, 1985Agency Of Industrial Science & TechnologyCeramics containing fibers of silicon carbide
US4737476 *May 23, 1986Apr 12, 1988General Electric CompanyComposite by infiltration
US4850995 *Aug 19, 1987Jul 25, 1989Cobe Laboratories, Inc.Centrifugal separation of blood
US4855259 *Sep 13, 1985Aug 8, 1989Firma Schott GlaswerkeProcess of making ceramic moldings containing cordierite
US5270270 *Mar 24, 1993Dec 14, 1993Schott GlaswerkeProcess for producing dense-sintered cordierite bodies
US9346714 *Sep 4, 2014May 24, 2016Ngk Insulators, Ltd.Porous material and honeycomb structure
US20140370233 *Sep 4, 2014Dec 18, 2014Ngk Insulators, Ltd.Porous material and honeycomb structure
Classifications
U.S. Classification501/9, 501/69, 252/516, 501/88
International ClassificationC04B35/565, C03C10/00, H01B1/14, H01B1/18
Cooperative ClassificationC03C10/0045, C04B35/565, H01B1/18
European ClassificationC03C10/00E2, C04B35/565, H01B1/18