US 3849228 A
A method and apparatus for the production of prefabricated block wall panels wherein a row of blocks is placed on a conveyor system with the intended vertical joints of the blocks facing upwardly in a horizontal plane. A first mortar applying device applies mortar to these intended vertical joints whereupon the blocks are rotated 90 DEG onto another conveyor system where the now actually vertical joints of the blocks are compressed against each preceding block. The mortar for the upper horizontal joint is then applied by a second mortar applying device and the thus assembled row of mortared blocks are then stacked onto a descending wall panel comprising a plurality of such rows.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 Ling] [4 1 Nov. 19, 1974 METHOD AND APPARATUS TO CONSTRUCT WALL PANELS Inventor: Hans Lingl, Neu-Ulm, Germany Assignee: Lingl Corporation, Paris, Tenn.
Filed: On. 23, 1973 Appl. No.: 409,005
Foreign Application Priority Data Nov. 3, 1972 Germany 2253816 US. Cl 156/297, 52/747, 52/749,
Int. Cl B32b 31/00, E04d 15/00 Field of Search 156/297, 559, 563, 578; 52/747, 749
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Holmes 52/749 Larger 52/749 3,789,101 1/1974 Wright et al 52/749 Primary Examiner-Douglas J. Drummond Attorney, Agent, or Firr nCushman, Darby & Cushman  ABSTRACT A method and apparatus-for the production of prefabricated block wall panels wherein a row of blocks is placed on a conveyor system with the intended vertical joints of the blocks facing upwardly in a horizontal plane. A first mortar applying device applies mortar to these intended vertical joints whereupon the blocks are rotated 90 onto another conveyor system where the now actually vertical joints of the blocks are compressed against each preceding block. The mortar for the upper horizontal joint is then applied by a second mortar applying device and the thus assembled row of mortared blocks are then stacked onto a descending wall panel comprising a plurality of such rows.
16 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures 'PATENILUZLVISIHM 384322U SHEET 20F 2 METHOD AND APPARATUS TO CONSTRUCT WALL PANELS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates to a method and an apparatus for manufacture of prefabricated wall panels by vertical stacking of block or brick rows which are grouped on a conveyor system from individual blocks. Mortar is then applied by two separate devices to both vertical and horizontal mortar joints and the block row is.
placed by means of a gripper onto a descending support.
2. Description of the Prior Art The making of wall panels by stacking block'rows having a horizontal joint of mortar is known. It is also known to fill the vertical joints after block rows have been stacked. Further, it is known to build wall panels mechanically by individually placing the blocks and filling the vertical joints. The filling-of the vertical joints after the blocks or block rows have been placed in a panel has several disadvantages with regard to the production capacity for the manufacturing of such panels, and also with regard to the strength and dimensional precision of same.
To fill several vertical joints, mortar has to be applied by several supply lines periodically interrupted. Be-
cause of the partial setting of the mortar during these pauses, uneven supply and filling of the vertical joints results in lower wall strength. Another attendant disadvantage is that when the individual blocks are grouped in walls and transferred to the panel, they are not connected by a vertical mortar joint and thus the alignment to the panel face can change in the process. Furthermore, filling of the vertical joints of the blocks slows down the production process.
A further disadvantage of the process is that the blocks require a special shape for the vertical joints and, therefore, more expensive block material may be required.
Previous methods of prefabricating block. wall construction are known. A method is known to apply the mortar on the blocks to form only a horizontal joint as disclosed in the Austrian Pat. No. 252,089 of Feichtinger, in which blocks are moved through a mortar applicating device, are then tilted 90 after the mortar is applied, and are then closed up in groups where the mortared faces are in a common vertical plane and moved to a horizontal form to be grouped into horizontal panels. However, this method does not provide for a vertical mortarjoint in the finished vertical panel and has a futher disadvantage in that the mortar may run off during assembly leading to an unevenly filled horizontal joint and resulting in mortar build-up on the conveyor system.
Another method is disclosed in a pending application of applicant, Ser. No. 186,628, filed Oct. 5, 1971, now US. Pat. No. 3,790,428 in which a device and method are disclosed for manufacturing prefabricated wall panel blocks in which rows of blocks are placed upon a conveyor belt so as to leave gaps between the rows. A feeding device then supplies special blocks to at least partially fill these gaps. In the next'step mortar is applied to the upper faces of the rows of the blocks, whereupon the rows are then transferred from the conveyor to a descending support device in which panels are created by stacking the rows.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention contemplates a method and apparatus in which blocks initially are fed onto a sysapplied to this intended vertical joint, the blocks are individually tilted so that'the intended vertical joint mortar band faces are indeed vertical and facing the vertical joint of the preceding block. The blocks are then pushed together by transfer onto a slower moving belt of the transport system so that the vertical joint mortar bands are compressed against the vertical joint faces of the preceding blocks to a required joint thickness, which will determine the length of the row and the width of the panel. Mortar is then applied to the horizontal joints bymeans of a second mortar applying device, whereupon the now completed row of mortared blocks is transferred to a further belt of the transport 1 system andmoved forwardly against a stop, whereupon the entire assembled and mortared block row is picked up by means of .a grabbing crane or similar device which places the row of blocks onto a descending support to form a wall panel. The process is repeated until the desired length'and height of a wall panel is manufactured.
Advantages achieved by the present invention are that the vertical joint is formed by a simple method in the production system, such that the vertical joints can be made to have different profiles with a wall having higher strength when compared to other known methods. Also of advantage is the possiblity of applying the vertical joint with different bands or layers of mortar. Forexample, several separated bands or layers could be applied to increase the insulation of the wall in the vertical joint area. Applying the verticaljoint mortar on a row of blocks at a fixed distance from the conveying support also provides for dimensional precision in the mortar band thickness. After the tilting of the blocks, the horizontal joint is formed with a layer of mortar predetermined by the second mortar applying device such that two dimensional precision (i.e., the thickness of both vertical and horizontal mortar joints) for the manufacturing of the wall panel is assured.
A further advantage is the exact dimensional precision of and uniformity of the vertical as well as the horizontal joints from insideto the outside faces of the block rows, so that a face block panel with a required aesthetic joint appearance can be made.
The above enumerated advantages of the instant invention are not apparent in any of the other known methods. Thepresent invention is an improvement of the automatic manufacturing of prefabricated block wall panels and resultsin high quality as well as high production capacity.
provide individual blocks with both a vertical and hori zontal mortar joint before they are grouped into wall panels, so that the vertical as well as the horizontal joints may be formed precisely and in accordance with the demands of a required wall panel specification.
It is another object of the present invention to make the joint thickness and shape in conformance to a particular construction, for example, with two parallel mortar bands or layers on the vertical joint before the block row is compressed and fed into the wall panel, so that the vertical joint is filled reliably and in even distribution.
It is a further object of the present invention to increase block wall panel stability and strength while providing increased dimensional precision.
Another object of the present invention is to form block layers in the length ofa wall panel automatically, and in which mortar is applied to the vertical and horizontal joints which allow the blocks to be stacked'to form wall panels in a succeeding step to achieve a required prefabricated wall structure.
Additional objects of'the present invention reside in the specific construction of the exemplary apparatus hereinafter particularly described in the specification and shown in the several drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 illustrates a longitudinal side view of the apparatus;
FIG. 2 illustrates a top view of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 diagrammatically illustrates the section shown taken along lines 3-3 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 shows an example of the vertical joint in which serrated edges are employed on the blocks;
tem 9. Conveyor system 9 transports a predetermined number of blocks up against a stop 10 whereupon a gripping means such as a gripping crane 11, picks up the predetermined row of blocks in a known way and places them onto the descending support 12. The descending support 12 as can be readily seen from viewing FIG. 2, is the preceding row of blocks having mortar applied to the horizontal faces.
By viewing FIG. 5, it can be seen that the tilting deyice 13 is utilized for vertical joint formation of rectangular'block types. To apply mortar to shapes with rectangular form, a tilting device is used which grips the blocks on their side faces with rotating gripping brackets orjaws 14, and transfers the blocks onto an elevated conveyor system 6a while rotating the blocks 90. Such a method has a relatively high speed production capacity to provide for a continuous stream of blocks.
FIG. 5 illustrates the tilting device used for rotation of rectangular shaped bricks; and
FIG. 6 shows a section taken along lines 66 of FIG. 1.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The exemplary embodiment of the present invention 4 The process contemplates placing the blocks on conveyor system 1 so that the intended vertical faces of the blocks point vertically upwards initially. In this position, the blocks are closed up into rows by an automatic control. Such an automatic control may be by any conventional well known method. Over conveyor system 2, a mortar applying device 3 is positioned to feed mortar onto the intended vertical face of each block. Following this step, each block with a mortar layer on its vertical face is tilted by means of a tilting device 4 by 90 and is then closed up with the preceding block. The blocks are aligned by means of ledges 5.
The blocks-are then transferred to conveyor system 6 which is driven at a slower speed than conveyor system 2 so that the blocks are closed up to a desired vertical joint thickness by compressing the vertical joint mortar. To effectuate this compression and to keep the blocks from slipping on conveying systems 2 and 6, the blocks are pressed down from the top by means of conveyor systems 7 and 70.
Following this step, the horizontal face is applied with mortar by means of a second applying device 8 and each block is then transferred onto conveyor sys- In FIG. 4, the vertical face of the blocks is shown with a serrated shaped face. Such a serrated shaped face would increase strength of the vertical joints by increasing the frictional resistance between the vertical joints.
The above-described device could, of course, be constructed using different numbers of conveying systems, etc. It must be remembered that the foregoing specific embodiment has been described for the purpose of illustrating the principles of the present invention and the same is subject to modification as will be apparent. Therefore, the invention includes all modifications within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A process for the production ofwall panels by perpendicular superposition of rows of blocks, each block having a predetermined intended vertical and horizontal face wherein said process comprises the steps of:
a. placing said blocks onto a conveying means with the intended vertical faces of said blocks oriented horizontally and the intended horizontal faces of said blocks oriented vertically;
b. aligning said blocks into a continuous row with said intended horizontal faces of said blocks abutting one another;
c. applying mortar to the surfaces of said horizontally oriented intended vertical faces of said blocks;
d. turning each of saidblocks by to place the intended vertical face of each of said turned blocks adjacent to the intended vertical face of the preceding block, so that each of said blocks now has its intended horizontal face oriented horizontally;
e. bringing the intended vertical faces of said blocks together to form a predetermined vertical joint thickness;
f. applying mortar to said intended horizontal faces of said blocks;
g. lifting a predetermined number of said blocks and placing them onto a horizontal support thereby forming a row in a wall panel of such blocks having both vertical and horizontal mortared joints.
2. The process as described in claim 1 wherein said bringing step further comprises pressing down on said intended horizontal faces with a conveying means to prevent said blocks from slipping.
3. The process as described in claim 1 wherein said turning step comprises: seizing each of said blocks on both sides by means of clamping brackets, turning said blocks by 90, and lifting said blocks onto a separate conveying means which is at elevated height, whereby the process utilizing rectangular blocks is facilitated.
4. The process as described in claim 1 wherein said placing step further comprises placing said blocks on a first conveying means and wherein said aligning step comprises sligning said blocks on a second aligning means.
5. The process as described in claim 4 wherein said bringing step further comprises bringing said intended vertical faces of said blocks together onto a third conveying means wherein said third conveying means transports said blocks slower than said second conveying means.
6. The process as described in claim 5 wherein said second mentioned applying step further comprises transferring a predetermined number of blocks onto a fourth conveying means and bringing said blocks to a stop.
7. The process as described in claim 6 wherein said lifting step further comprises lifting a predetermined number of said blocks from said fourth conveying means.
8. The process as described in claim 7 wherein said bringing step further comprises pressing down on said intended horizontal faces with a conveying means to prevent said blocks from slipping on said second and third conveying means.
9. The process as described in claim 8 wherein said turning step comprises: seizing each of said blocks on both sides by means of clamping brackets, turning said blocks by 90, and lifting said blocks onto a third conveying means which is at an elevated height from said second conveying means whereby the process utilizing rectangular blocks is facilitated.
10. An apparatus for the production of wall panels by superpositon of rows of blocks wherein said blocks have mortar disposed between both their horizontal and vertical faces in which said apparatus comprises:
a. a conveying means adapted to support and transintended horizontal faces are oriented horizontally;
e. means for bringing the intended vertical faces together to form vertical joints;
f. second applying means for applying mortar of a predetermined thickness onto said intended horizontal faces of saidturned blocks; and
g. means for transporting a predetermined number of said blocks onto a horizontal support so that a row of wall panel of such blocks is formed.
11. The apparatus as described in claim 10 wherein said conveying means comprises at least a first conveying means and a second conveying means whereby said second conveying means is adapted to initially receive said blocks from said first conveying means.
12. The apparatus as described in claim 11 wherein said aligning means, said first applying means, and said turning means are disposed adjacent to said second conveying means so that aligning of said blocks, applying mortar to said intended vertical faces, and turning said blocks by occur while said blocks are transported on said second conveying means.
13. The apparatus as described in claim 12 wherein said conveying means further comprises a third conveying means adapted to receive said blocks from said second conveying means wherein said second applying means is adapted to apply mortar onto said intended horizontal faces while said blocks are transported on said third conveying means.
14. The apparatus as described in claim 13 wherein said conveying means further comprises a fourth con veying means adapted to receive said blocks from said third conveying means wherein a stop is also provided so that a predetermined number of said blocks may be grabbed and lifted onto said horizontal support.
15. The apparatus of claim 14 wherein said convey ing mearis further comprises a means adapted to press down on said intended horizontal faces to prevent said blocks from slipping after said blocks have been turned by 90.
16. The apparatus of claim 15 wherein said turning means comprises a clamping bracket adapted to turn said blocks by 90 by seizing said blocks on both sides and lifting said blocks onto a third conveying means, wherein said third conveying means is disposed at an elevated height from said second conveying means.