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Publication numberUS3849323 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 19, 1974
Filing dateApr 24, 1972
Priority dateApr 24, 1972
Also published asDE2320426A1
Publication numberUS 3849323 A, US 3849323A, US-A-3849323, US3849323 A, US3849323A
InventorsC Hollinshead
Original AssigneeWeiner G, Weiner T
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Friction-reducing petroleum mixtures and method of making same
US 3849323 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [1 1 Hollinshead Nov. 19, 1974 [54] FRICTION-REDUCING PETROLEUM 346,803 8/1886 Burk et al. 252/56 R MIXTURES AND METHOD OF MAKING 1,559,592 11/1925 Webster 252/56 R SAME 1,580,233 4/1926 Copthorne l. 252/56 R 1,732,780 10/1929 Stryker 252/56 R [75] Inventgr; Clive flollinshead, Santa Fe Springs, 1,780,157 3/1927 Higgins 252/56 R C lif 3,732,084 5/1973 Nixon et al. 44/51 [73] Assignees: Ted Weiner; Gwendolyn Patricia Primary Examiner Daniel Wyman both of Lake Tahoe Assistant Examiner-Mrs. Y. H. Smith part Interest to each Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Strauch, Nolan, Neale, Nies [22] Filed: Apr. 24, 1972 & Kurz [21] Appl. No.: 246,888

[57] ABSTRACT 52 11.5. CI 252/56 R 44/58 44/66 P' P lubricants fuels are 44/76 mixed wlth two or more naturally derived waxes and [51] Int CL. C10 m 1/26 Cmm 3/20 C1 0m 5/12 0115 or their synthetic equivalents to form a blended ClOm petroleum product of high homogeneity and substan- [58] Field of Search 252/56 44/66 70 58 tially reduced friction drag. Sesame seed oil and carnauba wax are representative of the oils and waxes, [56] References Cited relspectively. Thedg rocesslingolves hegtlilng pgtroleuml or s or greases, a mg me te wax an eate natura UNITED STATES PATENTS oil, and in some cases of high additive concentration, 40,924 12/1863 Gilman 44/66 addifig an emulsifier and mixing 61,662 1/1867 Holden 44/66 280,879 7/1883 Strother et a1. 252/56 R 9 Claims, N0 Drawings FRICTION-REDUCING PETROLEUM MIXTURES AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to blended lubricating and fuel products like that disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,595,967 issued July 27, 1971 to Riedel and Schieman, and more particularly to the mixture of petroleum products such as fuels, greases, motor oils and transmission fluids with natural anti-friction materials like animal and vegetable waxes and oils which are not mineral in source but derived from plants, animals and insects. Unlike the above patent, which uses a dewaxed base, applicant adds wax. The inventive process for compounding the mixtures is simple and unique.

Lubrication of automobiles and other machines and the performance demands for combustion fuels has led to highly sophisticated petroleum refinery and chemical industry developments. Fuels are catalytically separated and cracked" for specialized petroleum fractions. Additive chemicals have been developed to enhance even these complex refinery products. Even with all of the technical advances, the fuels and lubricants fail to satisfy performance standards desired by the consuming public and the increasing strictness of ecological legislation. I have invented blended fuel and lubricant products and additives, and the process for making such fuels, additives and lubricants, that are compatible with conventional petroleum products, which lower friction loads substantially, enhance combustion engine performance and consist of ingredients obtainable in quantity at low cost.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention contemplates blended petroleum products consisting essentially of a petroleum product (which may be conventional), a natural wax and a natural oil, mixed in approximate proportions of several parts petroleum product to one part of natural oil and wax combined. In an alternate petroleum mixture wherein the proportion of natural oil and wax approaches I to l, a conventional emulsifier is one ingredient of the mixture.

The additive mixture of the invention contemplates a conventional petroleum product mixed with a lesser amount of a natural wax and a lesser amount of a natu ral oil. In an alternate additive mixture the ingredients may comprise a greater amount of natural oil and a lesser amount of natural wax.

In many instances in the disclosure herein, synthesized equivalents of natural products may be substituted for the named natural oils and waxes referred to, and this application is to be understood not to exclude such substitution.

A preferred mixture of the invention for use as a motor oil comprises 3 quarts of conventional motor oil, 2 ounces of carnauba wax and l quart of sesame seed oil, combined in a homogenous liquid.

In accordance with the process of the invention, the preferred blended petroleum product is achieved by the steps of adding the carnauba wax to the sesame seed oil, heating the oil and wax, mixing the oil and wax to dissolve the wax, heating the conventional motor oil, and mixing the combined sesame seed oil and wax into the heated motor oil.

Similar process is used to compound transmission oil fluid additive, motor oil additive, fuel additive and lubricating greases. In some instances where high viscosity results from addition of proportionately large quantities of natural wax or oil ingredients, the added step of mixing a conventional emulsifier is included in the method, and also when the wax or oil is of high viscosity.

The process and the resultant petroleum mixtures benefit engine and other moving part assemblies by reduced friction, lessened piston blow-by, extremely long crankcase life and almost total absence, even after prolonged usage, of varnish, acid and sludge. These and other advantages are apparent from the following detailed description and test data.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS MOTOR OIL A crankcase motor oil consisting essentially of S A E 20 motor oil, carnauba wax and sesame seed oil in the proportions of 1 pint motor oil, 1 ounce carnauba wax and 1 pint sesame seed oil was placed in the crankcase of a 1971 Ford Transport Wagon. The vehicle was driven from Los Angeles to Caracas, Venezuela, and back. The crankcase was flushed in Mexico City with a conventional motor oil, which was drained after 100 miles and replaced with the petroleum product of the invention. The wagon crankcase was not replenished nor was the oil changed for the rest of the round trip, nor for a distance thereafter until an aggregate of 29,000 miles had been traversed. Added petroleum product of the invention was added as necessitated by oil loss from periodic oil filter changes, in no case exceeding one pint per filter change.

The crankcase pan was removed and the crankcase inspected. No evidence of sludge, acid or varnish was detected. No motor wear was evident. During the test trip the engine ran at reduced temperature, gave fuel mileage averaging 10 to 15 percent better than previous performance and top speeds 5 to 15 miles per hour in excess of previous performance.

Similar local city driving tests with a I969 Buick Skylark resulted in markedly similar performance improvements.

GREASES A manual transmission lubricant which tested well comprises S A E lubricant, candelilla and beeswax, preferably in respective quantities of 1 gallon, l ounce and 2 ounces.

A wheel bearing and chassis lubricant consisting essentially of conventional S A E 80 grease, a natural oil such as jojoba or sesame and a natural wax, such as carnauba or candelilla, is combined in the proportions of 25 pounds of grease, l pint of oil and 6 ounces of wax. The oil and wax are first combined after heating and then added to the heated grease. Candelilla is sometimes called colloquially carmanilla."

In spin tests an automobile front wheel was raised from the ground, spun to maximum RPMs by hand and allowed to rotate unimpeded. The wheel came to rest after three minutes. The same wheel was raised, demounted, the bearings cleaned and repacked with the described lubricant of the invention and remounted. The wheel was then spun by hand to maximum RPMs as before and allowed to rotate umimpeded. The wheel came to rest after one hour and five minutes.

It has been found that many other natural waxes and vegetable oils can be combined with conventional petroleum products in accordance with the teaching of 5 form used. Most of the listed waxes melt between l60 to 190 F. Two ounces of the resultant homogenous liquid is then added to about gallons of fuel such as gasoline. Engines tested with the blended fuel performed smoother, started easier and effected a reduction in harmful exhaust emissions when compared to performance on conventional fuel. The latter effect is believed to be due to a lessening of piston drag such that blow-by is decreased into the crankcase, since the piston is freer to move with initial gas expansion at start-up and acceleration. Less blow-by decreases dilu- Waxes Oils palmitrin, stearin) Source Sesame seed (Sesamum indicum) Cotton seed (Olcin. linolien,

Cajun (Furcraea cubensis) Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious) Cohune Palm Oil (Attalia cohune) Jojoba (Simmondsia Californica) Castor (Ricinus communis) The emulsifiers are known by trade names such as tion of TWEEN. SORlBO, SPAN and BRlDJ and are generally identified chemically as polyoxyethylene (l0) Oleyl Ether or polyoxyethylene (20) sorbiton monolaurate.

The invention does not preclude synthesized equivalents of the above natural anti-friction agents. Beeswax in synthetic form, for instance. contributes to a satisfactory petroleum mixture for crankcase or motor oil. However, a blended petroleum product with beeswax in the synthetic form does tend to break. down after about 15,000 miles use and a varnish residue forms.

While castor oil is easy to combine with other ingredients, it has little tolerance for high heat and is thus limited in scope in combination with the other ingredients of the inventive blended petroleum product.

ADDlTlVES Transmission fluid additives have performed successfully when made in accordance with the invention and consist essentially of conventional transmission fluid, a natural wax such as candelilla and a natural oil such as jojoba. Preferably the proportions are 9 quarts fluid, l A ounces wax and l quart jojoba oil.

The process comprises the steps of heating the wax and the oil, dissolving the wax in the oil and mixing the resultant with the transmission fluid, which may also be heated. The temperatures ofthe various beats are preferably within 15 F. of 200.

Very good results obtain when two or more waxes in equal amounts are combined to make up the wax proportion. A combination of carnauba, jojoba and candelilla waxes with jojoba oil and transmission fluid in the stated proportions has resulted in lessening of noise, smoother shifting and improved idle.

Fuel additives consisting essentially of natural antifriction agents in a solvent have been prepared and.

tested. One such additive consisted of 1 ounce of carnauba wax dissolved in one gallon of safflower oil. The carnauba was melted and added to heated safflower oil or solid carnauba wax mixed in heated oil at a temperature matching the melting point of the wax. Carnauba has a melting point of about 180 F. in the commercial crankcase oil and unsettling of carburetor adjustment, the chief result of presently required crankcase ventilation systems imposed by legislation.

A diesel fuel additive with beneficial effects on engine performance consists essentially of beeswax dissolved in safflower oil under heat, and may be added to diesel fuel in the proportion of 1/40 ounce of mixture additive to one gallon of fuel.

It has been found that beeswax in liquid form may be added directly to a small amount ofdiesel fuel when the latter is elevated in temperature below its flashpoint and the resultant added to bulk fuel. The liquid wax is obtained by melting.

Lowered smog emissions and improved fuel consumption were proved with 2 ounces of the wax-oil mixture added to 40 gallons of diesel fuel in the tank of a truck then tested over the road.

Similar valuable improvement has occurred in performances of fuels such as aviation gasoline and keroscne jet fuel when a natural anti-friction agent such as a natural wax or a blend of natural waxes in a suitable solvent is added in the desired proportions to such fuels. An additive including carnauba or beeswax has benefitted jet fuel. Beeswax additive has enhanced performance of both aviation and automotive gasoline fuels.

Blended natural waxes combined with conventional motor oils has provided high performance and test results. One such blended petroleum product consisted essentially of S A E 20 motor oil, a carnauba wax, candelilla wax and the distilled wax ofjojoba oil in the proportions of 3 ounces of the combined waxes homogenously mixed with l gallon of the S A E 20 motor oil. An independent test laboratory made tension tests of the above-described blended petroleum product. Test results indicated greatly increased tensile strength in the range of 35,000 as compared with a figure of 28,000 32,000 for conventional motor oil and about 27,000 for so-called specialty" oils of conventional composition.

The tested petroleum product was tested shortly after being processed. Under certain conditions, where complete homogeneity is lacking, the natural waxes may eventually separate and settle. It is therefore desirable to include an emulsifier in the product. In a blended petroleum product such as that tested the emulsifier is added in an amount approximating one percent by volume.

In small quantities the petroleum product like a motor oil may be prepared by mixing 2 ounces of beeswax and 1 ounce of carnauba wax in 1 quart of petroleum oil heated to about 140. The resultant is then added to 3 quarts more of heated oil. The mixture is then cooled to about 120 and the whole mixed mechanically with about 1-1/3 ounces of an emulsifier like Bridj 89. Such a petroleum product has a long shelf life in addition to improved anti-friction qualities.

If the first mixture of petroleum oil and additive is positively agitated at the proper temperature, quantities of additive up to about 2- 1/2 ounces stay suspended without the aid of emulsifiers. However, when the concentration of additive exceeds that amount and agitation is nominal during initial mixing it is desirable to include an emulsifier.

While waxes and natural oils of various types and from various sources have been set forth herein as examples, it is to be understood that the invention contemplates as ingredients may other un-named antifriction agents of natural, contrasted with mineral, source and combined in various proportions with petroleum, or with each other. Therefore, since many variations within the scope of the invention will occur to those trained to this field in view of the teaching herein, it is desired that the invention be measured by the appended claims rather than by the illustrative disclosure herein.

[ claim:

1. A product useful as a lubricant or fuel additive which consists essentially of a hydrocarbon lubricant, a wax constituent dispersed in said hydrocarbon lubricant, and an emulsifier in an amount sufficient to maintain said wax constituent uniformly dispersed in said hydrocarbon lubricant, the wax constituent being selected from the group consisting of candellila, carnuba, Chinese, jojoba, beetle, myrtle, and sugar cane waxes, beeswax, a synthetic version of one'of the foregoing natural waxes, and mixtures of the aforesaid waxes, and said wax constituent being present in an amount ranging from not more than one up to 10 parts of wax per parts of the hydrocarbon.

2. The product of claim 1, wherein the wax constituent is candellila or a synthetic version thereof.

3. The product of claim 1, wherein the wax constituent is carnuba or a synthetic version thereof.

4. A product useful as a lubricant or fuel additive which consists essentially of a hydrocarbon lubricant, a wax constituent dispersed in said hydrocarbon lubricant, and an emulsifier in an amount sufficient to maintain said wax constituent uniformly dispersed in said hydrocarbon lubricant, the wax constituent being selected from the group consisting of candellila, carnuba, Chinese, jojoba, beetle, myrtle, and sugar cane waxes, beeswax, and mixtures of the aforesaid waxes, and said wax constituent being present in an amount ranging from l-l0 parts of wax per 120 parts of the hydrocarbon lubricant.

5. The product of claim 4, where the wax constituent is carnauba wax.

6. The product of claim 4, wherein the wax constituent is candellila wax.

7. The product of claim 4, wherein the emulsifier is selected from the group consisting of polyoxyethylene wax per l20 parts of the hydrocarbon lubricant.

I igigg OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,849,323 e Dated November 19, 1974 Inventofls) Clive Hollinshead It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent 1 and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

- "I Column 6, line 2, change "carnube" to --carn'auba Column 6, line 12 change "carnuba" to carna\ 1ba-.

Column 6, line 19, change "carnuba" to --carnauba.

Signed and sealed this 21st day of January 1975.

(SEAL) Attest:

MCCOY M. GIBSON JR. (3. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Referenced by
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U.S. Classification508/308, 44/301, 508/451, 508/463
International ClassificationC10L1/18, C10M159/08, E04F13/08
Cooperative ClassificationC10M2207/404, C10N2240/042, C10M2207/40, C10M159/08, C10M2205/18, E04F13/0885, C10N2250/10, C10M2207/289, C10M2209/104, C10N2240/046, C10N2240/08, C10N2240/04, C10L10/08, C10L1/1802, C10N2240/044
European ClassificationC10L10/08, E04F13/08Q, C10M159/08, C10L1/18F