US 3850294 A
A package of roving of unsized continuous filaments of glass whereby the package is saturated with water maintaining the filaments in group orientation by the water.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Philipps et al.
[ Nov. 26, 1974 Related US. Application Data Continuation of Ser. No. 138,843, April 29, 1971, abandoned, which is a continuation of Ser. No. 2,760, Jan. 14, 1970, abandoned, which is a division Assignee:
of Ser. No. 493,505, Oct. 6, 1965, Pat. No.
U.S. Cl 206/205, 57/140 G, 206/410, 242/18 G, 242/159 Int. Cl B65d 81/22, B65d 85/67 Field of Search 65/2, 3, 9; 206/46 PV,
206/46 ST, 46 R, 59 A, 59 B, 64; 220/3, 83;
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,386,158 10/1945 Collins 242/42 2,973,783 3/1961 Boe 1. 65/3 UX 3,188,779 6/1965 Elden 206/46 PV 3,281,223 lO/1966 Simison 65/3 3,367,587 2/1968 Klink et all 242/18 G Primary ExaminerWilliam 1. Price Assistant ExaminerSteven E. Lipman Attorney, Agent, or FirmCarl G. Staelin; John W. Overman; Harry 0. Ernsberger [5 7 ABSTRACT A package of roving of unsized continuous filaments of glass whereby the package is saturated with water maintaining the filaments in group orientation by the water.
8 Claims, 11 Drawing Figures PATENTE nuv 2 61974 SHEEI 3 OF 3 PACKAGE OF SATURATEI) UNSIZED GLASS FILAMENTS This is a continuation of our application, Ser. No. 138,843, filed Apr. 29, 1971, now abandoned which is a continuation of our application, Ser. No. 2,760, filed Jan. 14, 1970, now abandoned which is a division of our application, Ser. No. 493,505, filed Oct. 6, 1965, now US. Pat. No. 3,498,770.
This invention relates to method of and apparatus for treating, conditioning and processing roving or bundles of mineral filaments or fibers and more especially to treating, conditioning and processing roving or linear bundles of continuous filaments of glass.
In conventional production and methods of forming and processing roving of glass filaments or fibers it has been a practice to apply a size or bonding material on the filaments as they are formed and gathered into a roving formation to attain some degree of integrity or bonding of the filaments in roving formation. Such bonding materials are usually in the form of emulsions and upon evaporation of the water, the residue solids or bonding agents hold the materials in a group or roving formation. I
In sized rovings processed in this manner, it is found that upon further processing and handling, particularly where the roving is severed into short lengths for use in reinforcing plastics or producing molded articles, the filaments of the severed lengths of roving are substantially dispersed during cutting and in a large measure defeat their purpose as reinforcement in plastics. It is found that roving of mineral fibers or filaments in a dried or size-set condition are not adequately held together where several rovings are combined into a single roving probably because of fracture of the size or bond during processing. When a sized roving is fed to a cutting device with the roving in a dry condition, only partial cutting takes place and usually a sbustantial number of the filaments in the roving are not severed because they readily separate when impinged by the cutter or severing device. It is believed that this condition results by reason of fracture of the bond or size under impingement by the cutter and, the bond being dry and hard, destroys any integrity in the filaments to be maintained in a group. When two or more rovings bearing a dry bond or size are combined into a single roving, the handling and the mechanical operation of combining the rovings causes the bond to fracture and the filaments to separate, rendering the combined roving unsatisfactory for further processing because of the lack of integrity of the filaments in the roving. Such condition promotes interabrasion of the filaments and results in frequent filament breakage in combining rovings as well as a high fuzz level.
The present invention embraces a method of moisture-conditioning or treating the roving as the filaments of the roving are formed and wound in a package or treating or conditioning the roving prior to further processing with water or other vaporizable liquid whereby the roving while in wetted condition may be satisfactorily severed into short lengths or combined with other rovings to form a multiple assembly roving or subjected to other processing steps which may be satisfactorily carried out or performed by reason of the wetted condition of the filaments renders them more readily grouped.
An object of the invention resides in packaging or maintaining a package of roving of glass filaments in a wetted condition whereby the water or other vaporizable liquid effects a coherence of the filaments or fibers in the bundle or roving enabling the handling and processing of the roving to attain advantages and results not attainable in the processing of sized roving.
Another object of the invention resides in maintaining a package of roving or bundle of filaments of glass in a wet condition and processing the roving while the package is in a wetted condition.
Another object of the invention resides in forming a roving and conditioning the roving with water, the wetness rendering the filaments more readily grouped and accordingly more easily handable during processing.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a package of roving or a linear bundle of filaments of glass moisture-conditioned or wetted with water or a vaporizable liquid which, when volatilized during subsequent processing operation, does not result in the filaments being in a bonded condition.
Another object of the invention relates to the pro cessing of roving of glass filaments or fibers treated with water prior to severing the roving into short lengths and evaporating the moisture from the severed lengths of roving whereby the filaments of the short lengths of roving are maintained in grouped or integrated condition without bonding providing improved reinforcement for resinous materials in the production of reinforced molded end products.
Another object of the invention resides in processing a linear bundle or roving of unsized filaments of glass wetted with water or other vaporizable or fugitive liquid, rendering the unsized roving or bundle suitable as reinforcement for high temperature plastics and resins by reason of the absence of sizing on the filaments which would be oxidized or otherwise adversely affected during processing at high temperatures.
Another object of the invention resides in waterconditioning of a roving or linear bundle of glass filaments to render the filaments of the roving or bundle more readily grouped during processing without bonding by reason of the cohering characteristics or surface ten sion of moisture on the wetted filaments, providing a bundle or roving of filaments suitable for uses wherein sized filaments cannot be satisfactorily processed or used.
Further objects and advantages are within the scope of this invention such as relate to the arrangement, operation and function of the related elements of the structure, to various details of construction and to combinations of parts, elements per se, and to economies of manufacture and numerous other features as will be apparent from a consideration of the specification and drawing of a form of the invention, which may be preferred, in which:
FIG. 1 is a semidiagrammatic front elevational view of an apparatus for carrying out the method of forming and packaging roving of continuous filaments of heatsoftenable material under conditions providing a moisture saturated package;
FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an isometric view of a cylindrically-shaped square end moisture conditioned packaged formed on the apparatus shown in FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIG. 4 is a semidiagrammatic isometric view illustrating a method of processing the wetted roving;
- FIG. 5 is a semidiagrammatic view illustrating the method of processing wetted roving in forming composite or multiple assembly roving;
FIG. 6 illustrates a package of wetted roving enveloped in a moisture impervious closure;
FIG. 7 illustrates a method of wetting roving as it is withdrawn from a package to moisture condition the roving for processing; FIG. 8 illustrates a modified method of moisture conditioning roving preparatory to processing;
FIG. 9 illustrates a further modification of method for wetting roving preparatory to further processing;
FIG. 10 illustrates a method of wetting roving by package immersion; and
FIG. 11 illustrates the group orientation of filaments in severed lengths of wetted roving;
While the method and apparatus of the invention embraces moisture conditioning of a roving or linear bundle of glass filaments in package form, or moisture conditioning a roving or linear bundle as it is withdrawn from a package to facilitate severing the roving or linear bundle into short lengths or combining rovings or linear bundles into a composite multiple assembly roving, it is to be understood that the method of moisture conditioning a roving may be utilized for treating roving preparatory to the performance of other processing operations.
FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings illustrates a method and apparatus wherein streams of glass or other heatsoftened mineral material are attenuated to continuous filaments under conditions wherein the newly formed filaments are moisture conditioned or wetted with a vaporizable liquid such as water, the filaments gathered into a roving or linear bundle collected in a wound package under conditions wherein the filaments are maintained in a wetted condition during package formation whereby the completed package is substantially saturated with moisture to facilitate further processing operations.
The wetted roving or bundle of filaments of glass is of substantial mass in that the roving comprises filaments or strands of filaments upwards of two thousand or more filaments in a roving or bundle, the package of the roving being preferably wound in cylindrical shape with square ends and containing thirty pounds or more of roving. In FIGS. 1 and 2 there is illustrated a receptacle or stream feeder 10 containing a supply of heatsoftened glass or other filament-forming material.
The feeder 10 may be supplied in a conventional manner with prerefined glass in the form of spheres or marbles which are reduced to molten condition either by heating the feeder or in a melter disposed above the feeder. The feeder may be connected with a forehearth (not shown) supplied with molten glass from a melting and refining furnace. The feeder 10 is provided at its end with terminal lugs 12 for connection with a source of electric energy for electrically heating the glass in the receptacle to maintain the glass at a proper temperature and viscosity for attenuation to filaments.
The floor or tip section 14 of the feeder is provided with a large number of depending projections or orificed tips 16 for flowing streams l8 of glass from the feeder, the number of orificed tips being equal to the number of filaments attenuated and converged into a roving or linear bundle, each stream being attenuated into an individual continuous filament. Thus, if two thousand filaments are contained in the roving, the floor section 14 would have two thousand orificed projections.
The individual filaments are of an average diameter of about thirty seven hundred thousandths of an inch, although the filaments may be of greater or lesser size if desired. The large number of filaments making up the roving and the size of the filaments enables attenuation of the streams at a comparatively slow linear speed of about 4,500 feet per minute with a slow traverse for distributing the roving lengthwise of a collector in forming a package.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the filaments 20 attenuated from the stream 18 are converged into a roving or linear bundle 22 by gathering shoes or guides 24 and 26 supported in any suitable manner. Nozzles 28 are disposed adjacent the feeder and are adapted to direct sprays of water onto the newly formed filaments. In carrying out the method of the invention, it is desirable that an ample amount of water be delivered onto the filaments so that the filaments are thoroughly wetted or moisture conditioned. An applicator 30, which may consist of a moving belt 32 acquiring a film of water by immersion in a receptacle 34 amd wetting the filaments by contact, may be employed to assure thorough wetting of the filaments.
The roving 22 is collected into a wound package 35 by a winding apparatus 36, the roving being wound on a tubular sleeve or collector 38 telescoped onto a rotatable collet 40, the winding of the roving into a package attenuating the glass streams 18 to filaments 20.
The winding collect 40 is rotated by an electrically energizable motor 42 contained within the housing 44 of the winding apparatus. The speed of the collct driving motor 42 is progressively reduced by conventional means (not shown) as the package of roving increases in size so as to maintain substantially constant the linear speed of the filaments 20 in order to attenuate lilaments of uniform size.
During a package winding operation, the roving is traversed lengthwise of the package being formed to distribute the strand throughout the length of the package. The traverse means illustrated is inclusive of a hollow arm or member 46 swingably supported by the housing 44, the arm being provided with a tubular horizontal section 48 in which is journally mounted a rotatable traverse actuating member 50. The member 50 is of cylindrical shape and has its peripheral surface fashioned with a multiple return groove or cam of conventional construction for reciprocating a traverse member 52.
The axis of the traverse actuator 50 is parallel with the axis of the winding collet 40. The traverse member 52 cooperates with the multiple return grooves in the member 50 for reciprocating the traverse. The traverse is provided with a guide member 54 normally disposed adjacent the periphery of the package of guiding the roving onto the package. The traverse actuator 50 is driven by means of a chain 56 cooperating with sprockets 57 and 58 driven by the motor 42 to maintain a proper speed ratio between the collet 40 and the traverse actuating member or cam 50.
The arm 46 supporting the traverse mechanism is arranged for pivotal movement about its journal support under conventional control means (not shown) to accommodate the enlarging package. This method of forming a package enables the production of a comparatively large package of roving of cylindrical shape, having square ends 37 as shown in FIG. 3. As the roving is supplied with water from the spray nozzles 28 and,
. if desired additional water supplied to the filaments by the applicator 30, the filaments of the roving are thus enveloped in moisture or moisture conditioned at the time the roving of filaments is wound into the package.
The package is wound at a comparatively slow speed which is progressively reduced as the packaged increases in size. By reason of the comparatively slow speed winding of the roving into a package, a substantial amount of the water delivered onto the filaments is retained by the roving in the package so that the package is substantially saturated with moisture.
The moisture content of the finished package is usually from ten to twenty percent by weight of the package. Thus the completed package 36 of roving, when removed from the collet 40, is in a thoroughly wetted condition as the centrifugal forces of rotation of the collet during winding dispel only excess water leaving a substantial amount of water in the package.
It has been a usual practice to apply a size or bonding material to filaments of a roving and, upon drying of a package, the size bonds the filaments of the roving together. When the sized roving is subjected to further processing, such as cutting the roving into short lengths or combining sized rovings to form a composite roving, the cutting or other processing operations fractures the bond so that the filaments of the rovings are not held togehter.
When a dry roving of sized filaments is fed to a severing or cutting device, it is found that only partial cutting takes place and that many of the filaments of the roving remain uncut. It is thought that the impingement of the cutter on the sized filaments fractures the bond causing the filaments to separate to an extent that all of the filaments are not severed.
One of the features of the present invention resides in th method of cutting or processing the roving in a wetted condition. FIG. 4 illustrates the method of processing the wet roving by severing the roving into short lengths. The apparatus is inclusive of pairs of feedrolls 60, 62 adapted to withdraw the roving 22 from two packages 35 of roving in moisture saturated condition, as when removed from the winding machine collet 40.
Thus in carrying out the roving severing process the moisture saturated packages 35 of roving are conveyed from the winding machine to the position shown in FIG. '4 and th wet roving drawn from the packages by the feed rolls.
Associated with each pair of feed rolls is a rotatable cutting device 64 having severing knives 65 which engage and sever the rovings 22 into short lengths indicated at 68. The pairs of feed rolls and the cutting devices 64 are rotated at comparatively high speed.
The feed rolls 62 of each pair are preferably fashioned with a peripheral surface of rubber or other yieldable material which cooperates with the cutter 64 to sever the rovings. The severing devices may be of the character shown and described in Stotler U.S. Pat. No. 2,719,336. It is found that the cutters or knives 65 engaging the wet roving effect a complete severing of all of the filaments of the roving.
It is believed that this advantageous result is attained by reason of the cohesion or surface tension of the water or moisture tending to hold the roving or linear bundle of unbonded filaments together during the severing operations. The severed lengths of roving 68 are shown in FIG. 11 to illustrate that the filaments remain in a group formation when the roving is processed in a wetted condition.
In further reference to FIG. 4, the cutting instrumentalities are contained in an enclosure 70, the severed lengths of roving, moving downwardly by gravity through the enclosure 70, are collected on the upper flight 72 of an endless conveyor 74. The conveyor 74 is supported upon rolls 76 and one of the rolls being driven by motive means (not shown) to move the upper flight 72 of the conveyor in a right-hand direction.
Disposed adjacent the upper flight of the conveyor is a drying oven or drying device 80 for evaporating or volatilizing the moisture on the severed lengths of roving 68 while entrained on the conveyor flight 72.
The dryer 80 is preferably of a conventional dielectric type as it rapidly evaporates the water from the cut roving. However, radiant heat or other suitable type of dryer for evaporating or dispelling the moisture from the cut roving may be employed. The dried lengths of roving 68' delivered from the dryer 80 are particularly usable as reinforcement in plastic articles and products, as the bundles of filaments of the cut rovings when mixed with softened plastic retain, at least in part, the filament groupings thereby providing improved reinforcement for plastic moldings.
The wetted or moisture saturated rovings may be processed or combined into a multiple assemblage roving product or composite roving. In combining rovings of sized filaments, the combining operation, necessarily involving flexure of the rovings, engenders fracturing of the size or bond, causing the filaments to separate, resulting in an inferior product and one which cannot be further processed because of the disintegration of the bond and its inability to hold the filaments in group or bundle formation.
FIG. 5 illustrates combining wet rovings into a composite or multiple assembly roving. Packages 35 of moisture conditioned or wetted rovings are disposed in a position whereby the wetted rovings 22"may be withdrawn from the packages and converged into a multiple roving assembly or composite roving 82, the composite roving being wound into a package 84 mounted on a rotating collet 85, the collet rotated by suitable motive means (not shown) in a conventional manner.
In combining the wet rovings 22', they are converged into one linear bundle or multiple roving 82 by a guide roll 86, and directed around idler or tensioning rolls 88 and 89.
An oscillating traverse member or arm 90, oscillated by conventional means, is equipped with a guide eye 92 accommodating the composite roving 82 for traversing the combined rovings lengthwise of the package 84 during package formation. In the method of combining of two or more rovings 22 in the manner illustrated in FIG. 5 utilizing unsized rovings in wetted condition, the water or moisture on the rovings tends to hold the fllaments of each roving in a group without bonding, enabling the flexing of the rovings in the combining operation without separation of the filaments. In this manner a multiple roving assembly or composite roving is produced without in any way impairing the high strength characteristics of each roving in the assemblage.
Through the herein described method of winding a roving or linear bundle of filaments in wetted condition into a package, or combining wetted rovings into a composite or multiple assembly roving, the filaments comprising the rovings, under the cohering characteristics or surface tension of the water or moisture on the filaments, ar maintained in group formation without bonding. This characteristic makes possible the further reprocessing of the packages of roving or composite roving Thus, the invention enables the handling and reprocessing of rovings or linear bundles of glass filaments without disruption of the groups of filaments and without impairing the strength characteristics of the roving.
In manufacturing processes utilizing the rovings, the severing operations or further processing operations may be carried on by processors at establishments remote from the filament attenuating and roving forming station shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. Furthermore, considerable time may elapse between the formation of the moisture-conditioned or moisture-saturated package and its further processing, thus necessitating storing the packages for the intervening period of time.
In order to maintain the packages in saturated condition without loss of moisture, the packages may be enveloped in a moisture-impervious bag or envelope 94, shown in FIG. 6. The bag of envelope 94 may be fashioned of moisture impervious plastic film of conventional character and the bag closed by heat sealing or ether means such as a securing ring or tie strip 96. By utilizing a bag or closure of plastic film, such as polyethylene film of one mil or less in thickness, no appreciable weight or size is added to the package by this preparation for storage or shipping. Furthermore, the plastic envelope. or container may be fashioned to closely embrace the contour of the package and minimize liability of damage to the package It has been found that packages of roving of unsized or unbonded glass filaments, which have lost substantial moisture by evaporation, may be successfully severed in the manner illustrated in FIG. 4, or processed in forming composite rovings as illustrated in FIG. 5, by wetting or moisture-conditioning the roving prior to severing or processing the roving. FIG. 7 illustrtes one method of wetting a roving of unsized filaments preparatory to severing the roving into short lengths or otherwise processing the same. In the method shown in FIG. 7, the rovings 22" are withdrawn from the central regions of the packages 35 Disposed above the hollow central region of each package is a nozzle 100 for delivering sprays of water or other non-residue vaporizable liquids which have the characteristics of wetting the filaments. As the rovings 22" are withdrawn from th package, the sprays of water or other wetting liquid wets the filaments of the roving to an extent that the cohering characteristics or surface tension of the water or liquid holds the filaments in a group. Rovings moisture-conditioned or wetted in this manner may be successfully severed into short lengths or combined into composite roving in the manner hereinbefore described.
FIG. 8 illustrates another method of moisture conditioning or wetting rovings of unsized filaments withdrawn from packages for processing. The rovings 22a drawn from the inside or central regions of the packages 35a of roving.
A receptacle or container 102 is provided containing .water 104 or other nonresidue vaporizable liquid. Im-
mersed in the water and having portions disposed for engagement with the rovings 22a are water saturated bodies or applicators 108, the roving passing in contact with the saturated bodies 108 to wet the filaments of the rovings.
The bodies 108 may be of any suitable material in which the water or liquid will be dispersed by capillary action such as sponge, wettable fabric or clumps of wettable fibers or other material for transferring water onto the rovings.
FIG. 9 illustrates another means or method of wetting rovings of unsized filaments to moisture condition the rovings for processing operations. Rovings 2212 are drawn from the central or inside region of the packages 35b of roving. A container 110 is adapted to contain water 112 or other non-residue vaporizable liquid. Joumally supported by the container 110 is a rotatable roll applicator 114 partially immersed in the water 112 whereby the periphery of the roll continuously acquires a film of water. The rovings 22b are drawn tangent to the periphery of the applicator roll 114 and in contact therewith whereby the rovings acquire a film or coating of water. The container 110 is connected with a water supply by conventional means (not shown).
FIG. 10 illustrates a method of wetting or moisture conditioning roving of unsized glass filaments prepara tory to cutting operations or other processing operations of the roving. A container is filled with water 122 to a height to cover a package 350 of roving.
When it is desired to process a package of dried roving of unsized filaments or a package having a low moisture content, the package is immersed in the water in the container 120 and the roving 22c withdrawn from the package. In this manner the roving is thoroughly wetted in preparation for further processing.
The method and apparatus hereinbefore described enables the processing of rovings or linear bundles of unsized filaments of glass treated with water or moisture-conditioned whereby the roving may be handled in a wetted state. The moisture-saturated package may be processed immediately after its removal from the winding apparatus shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 without further water treatment. If moisture-saturated packages of roving are to be stored or shipped, the packages may be enveloped in moisture impervious closures in the manner shown in FIG. 6, preventing any loss of moisture from the packages.
If packages of roving of unsized filaments have been partially dried because of evaporation in open air in storage without being enclosed in moisture impervious envelopes, the roving may be wetted or moisture conditioned by the methods illustrated in FIGS. 7 through 10. The roving of unsized glass filaments in wetted con dition may be positively sheared or cut up or chopped into short lengths, or the roving subjected to processing operations involving flexure of the roving as there is no size or bonding material on the filaments which may be fractured during handling thus enabling the roving to be processed or reprocessed without impairing the characteristics of the roving because the filaments of the wetted roving are held in a linear bundle or roving formation by the moisture and without bonding.
It is apparent that, within the scope of the invention,
modifications and different arrangements may be made ing all variations thereof.
1. A package of roving of unsized continuous filaments of glass, said package being saturated with water whereby the filaments are maintained in group orientation in the roving by the water.
2. A package of roving according to claim 1 including an impervious envelope enclosing the water saturated package of roving.
3. The combination according to claim 2 wherein the impervious envelope is of resinous material.
4. A package of roving of unsized continuous filaments of glass, said package being saturated with a vaporizable liquid whereby the filaments are maintained in group orientation in the roving by the liquid.
5. A package of roving of unsized continuous filaments of glass, said package being of circular cylindrical shape having square ends, said package being saturated with a vaporizable liquid.
6. A water saturated package comprising a linear body of unsized continuous filaments of glass, the linear body being disposed in successive layers in the package, each of said layers extending full length of the package providing square ends for the package.
7. A water saturated package according to claim 6 wherein the convolutions of the linear body are in sideby-side contiguous relation with the convolutions of one layer in crossing relation with the convolutions in an adjacent layer.
8. A package comprising a plurality of rovings, each of said rovings comprising linear bundles of unsized continuous filaments of glass, said package being satu-