|Publication number||US3852535 A|
|Publication date||Dec 3, 1974|
|Filing date||Nov 16, 1973|
|Priority date||Nov 16, 1972|
|Also published as||DE2357067A1, DE2357067B2, DE2357067C3|
|Publication number||US 3852535 A, US 3852535A, US-A-3852535, US3852535 A, US3852535A|
|Original Assignee||Zurcher Jean Frederic|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (14), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1191 Zurcher 1 1 Dec. 3, 1974 PITCH DETECTION PROCESSOR Primary Examiner Kathleen H. Claffy  Inventor: Jean-Frederic Zurcher, 34 jj i 7f g 'f s s Residence Corlay, Lannion, France mmey gen lrm fa am a I Z 22 Filed: Nov. 16, 1973 [571 ABSTRACT ] Appl No: 416,623 Processor for the detection of the pitch of a speech wave for use in connection with a vocoder system. It comprises means for detecting the major peaks of the g" Application y Data speech wave, means for converting said major peaks Nov. 16, 1972 France 72.40703 into marker pulses defining therebetween pitch periods and a processor unit for treating the marker  US. Cl. 179/1 SA, l79/1 SD pulses. The program of treatment is the following: (i)  Int. Cl. GlOl 1/00. omission of a marker pulse separated from the preced-  Field of Search 179/ 1 SD, 1 SA ing marker pulse by an interval shorter than the preceding period by more than a tolerance amount with,  References Cited prohibition to omit two consecutive marker pulses;
UNlTED STATES PATENTS (ii) selection of the preceding period if the actual pe- 2 974 28] 3/196 Fcldman SD riod is larger or shorter than the said preceding period 3 109 142 10/1963 Mammal (K :IZIIIII: 179/1 SA by more than a tolerance amount with Prohibition to 3:549:806 12/1970 Wood 179/1 so Select two times in Succession the preceding'pefiod; 3,622,704 11/1971 Ferrieu 179/1 SA division y two of the value of the Pitch if it is larger than a lower limit, say l5ms or 8ms for respec- FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS tively a male and a female mica 1,163,567 2/1964 Germany l7 9/l SD 3 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures SPH'O/ g MVE M/PUT I MAJOR PfA/f C/RCU/T mama/7 Z/Al/T MMSUR/NG PROCESSUR N S TOR/N6 2v 1 0/ 50-0/1 1/0/(50 W. c/Rcu/r SOU/VD-MZ/S/O/l/ U/PCU/T T" PATENTEL DEB 31974 SHEET 3 BF 9 SHEET 5 OF 9 llil-lull'llt'llll PATENTEL 55E 3 I974 mom PATENTEL 9E3 l 74 SHEET 8 OF 9 BE 3 I974 PATENTEL SHEET 3 0F 9 m m a gfigc $5; M NM WWW wk Na g Na 5 2% gbwmfi NE: W mg E ESE 72 1 PITCH DETECTION PROCESSOR This invention relates to the analysis of speech sound waves and, more particularly, to systems and means for instantaneous determination of the fondamental frequency or pitch of speech waves.
The pitch of speech waves is usually referred to as the repetition of wave patterns which are formed by certain combinations of frequency components having definite amplitude levels and frequency ratios, one with respect to another. In channel vocoder systems, the parameters which are extracted from the speech wave are the energies contained in adjacent frequency bands of the speech wave spectrum, a voiced-invoiced sound decision and pitch. The voiced-invoiced sound decision and the pitch are used to specify the harmonic content of the complex speech wave.
Numerous pitch detectors are described in the prior art. They generally detect the fondamental frequency of a complex speech wave by selecting the major peaks of said wave by means of an arrangement comprising RC elements to which is applied the rectified complex wave voltage. The purpose of such an arrangement is to charge the capacitor of the RC circuit to the level of a major peak and eliminate the minor peaks by way of a slow discharge through the resistor of the circuit. Thus the pitch detector'converts the analog speech signal into a signal which retains the rising front edge of the major peaks, replaces the descending rear edge of these peaks by a decaying waveform and produces marker pulses each time the amplitude of the speech signal exceeds the decaying waveform signal.
The simple RC network arrangement which has been just referred to is insufficient, if used alone, to correctly select a major peak per pitch.'It has been proposed in v other the successive time intervals separating two adjacent marker pulses and to cancel those of the intervals which differ from the preceding one in any directionby more than a given percentage and replace them by-the said preceding interval.v v a Thus the pitch detectors of the prior art processes the time intervals between adjacent marker pulses and they consider as a possible pitch each interval between two such marker pulses. Due to the fact that, during transmission it often occurs that the lower frequencies of the speech signal are firmly attenuated by the transmission medium, it results that the major peaks defining the fundamental frequency of the speech signal are practically not higher than the peaks due tothe combination of harmonic components. In fact it is quite frequent 2 selection of the preceding period if the actual period is larger or shorter than the said preceding period by more than a tolerance amount, but it completes this correction condition to:
, (second condition), selection of the preceding period if the actual period is larger or shorter than the said preceding period by more than a tolerance amount with prohibition to select two times in succession the preceding period and adds the two following conditions:
(first condition) omission of a marker pulse separated from the preceding marker pulse by an interval shorter than the preceding period by more than a tolerance amount with prohibition to omit two consecutive marker pulses;
- (third condition) division by two of the value of the pitch if it is larger than a lower limit, say 15 ms (65 Hz) for a male voice and 8 ms (125 Hz) for a female voice.
The correction process and the results deriving from the first, second and third conditions are explained in relation to FIG. 9.
Line 1 of FIG. 9 shows nine idealized pitch periods 90 and 92-99, whereof the seven latter ones comprise two marker pulses, 930, 931, 940, 941, 950, 951, 960, 961', 970, 971, 980, 981, 990, 991, the first period 90 being equal to two times the others. In theprior art pitch detection systems, none of the periods 93-99 is retained since they 'are each formed of two periods largely differing therebetween and they would be replaced by the repetition of seven times the period 92.
I If contrarily to FIG. 9, periods 93-99 were not equal to period 92 or not equal therebetween, the pitch detection stands in error for seven periods. p
In the pitch detector of the invention, according to the first condition, marker pulses 931, 941,... 99laredisregarded since they are very proximate to pulses 930, 940,... 990 respectively and periods 93-99 are detected without error (line 20f FIG. 9).
Let us assume now the marker pulse distribution of line 3 before correction. There are supplementary peaks 922, 932, 942,... 992 in periods 92 to Pulse 922 which is'too proximate to pulse 920, is cancelled.- Pulse 930 is also too proximate to pulse 922 but it is'not cancelledsince cancellation of two successive marker pulses is prohibited. Pulse 932 is farther from pulse 930 than pulse 930 from pulse 922 and accordingly it is not cancelled. But pulses 940, 950,... 990 are cancelled. It
- results a period 930-932 which is shorter than the pre-' that two or more major pulses of substantially equal ceding one and which is omitted according to the second condition (line 4):
According to the third condition period is split into two halves 90', 91-. I
' The invention will be better understood with reference to the description which follows and to the attached drawings in which: 1
FIG. 1 shows a diagram in the form of blocks of the pitch detection processor according to the invention; I FIG. 2 showsadetailed diagram in the form of blocks of the major peak selector unit 3 of FIG. 1 according to the invention; i
FIG. 3 shows one embodimentvof one of the two integ'ratorsofFIG.2;"'
FIG. 3a shows a diagram of signals illustrating the operation of the apparatus of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 shows a detailed embodiment in the form of blocks of the processor unit 4 of FIG. 1 according to the invention; I
FIG. 5 shows a second diagram of signals illustrating the operation of a duration modulator comprised in the processor unit of FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 shows the program of the pitch detection processor; I
FIG. 7 shows a third diagram of signals illustrating the operation of the processor unit of FIG. 4;
FIG. 8 shows the mesuring and storing circuit of the pitch detection processor; and
FIG. 9 is a diagram of signals already explained in the introductory part of the specification.
In all these figures the same elements bear the same reference numbers.
FIG. I shows the general arrangement of the apparatus according to the invention in the form of blocks. This FIG. 1 shows the input circuit 1 which generates the vocal signals to be analysed in relation to the voiced-invoiced sound decision circuit 2 and the major peak selector unit 3. The two blocks 2 and 3 are connected to oneanother and with the processor unit 4, itself in communication with the measuring and storing circuit 5 controlled also by the decision circuit 2.
The circuit 2 which determines the presence or absence of voicingin the signal to be analysed and generates a corresponding decision signal P or F is of a known type. It applies the principle according to which the energy of the voicedsounds beingiespecially concentrated in the band of frequencies lower than 700 Hz 'whilst that of the non-voiced sounds is beyond 1,500 Hz thus it suffices to compare the energy E, of the signal to be analysed taking in the band beyond 1,500 Hz with the energy E, of the signal taken below 700 Hz.
, The output signal of circuit 2 becomes equal to 1 when the energy detected E, is greater than E but this conditiori must be confirmed. It is zero in the contrary case and this condition needs no confirmation.
To come to this result, it suffices to provide two fillering and detecting chains, onefiltering the speech signal from the lowest audio-frequency to 700 Hz, thus generating the energy vE, whilst the other filters the speech signal from the lowest audio-frequency to. 1,500 Hi, thus generation the energy E The output signals of the chains are compared in a differential amplifier which gives the signal P or F.
These arrangements however would not be sufficient for ensuring the correct voicing" detector operation. Also by precaution, a circuit detecting the presence of speech isaddedQThis circuitcomprises a'chain similar to the two preceding ones but where the frequency pass-band isthe ordinary vocal band without limitation. A comparator changes state when a threshold fixed experimentally is passed. Insofar as this threshold is notpassed the apparatus considers that the signal submitinputs of two chains of circuitsthe different elements als with a subscript] for the upper chain and a subscript 1 for the lower chain.
These two chains comprise amplifiers 20, and 20 the bottom chain being provided in addition with an analog inverter 19,. The signal a coming from 1 therefore is subjected to the same treatment in these two chains except inversion, the top chain being allocated to the treatment of positive major peaks and that of the bottom to the treatment of negative major peaks. It suffices therefore to describe the top chain.
The amplifier 20, is followed by an expander 21, comprising a diode in parallel with a series resistor connected to a shunt resistance. This expander of known type (see US. Pat. No. 2,957,134 issued Oct. 18, 1960 to M.V. KALFAIAN) has function of favouring the passage of the positive peaks for which the diode presents in fact a low resistance whilst the remainder of the signal'which passes this diode is weakened. This expander therefore renders the peaks finer so as to define better their position in time. The signal thus treated is admitted into an impedance matching CCT 22, which does not transmit its direct component and does generates a signal u,. Impedance matching CCT 22, allows matching the output impedance of the expanser 21, to the input impedance of the comparator 28, as regards the signal u, and to the input impedance of a second v ing from the comparison is applied to adapter 26,
which controls switch 17, and to an impedance adapter 24,. The output signal of adapter 24, is applied to the input-of amplifier 20, where it is added to the speech signal. In addition, this output signal is applied to monostable flipfiop 27 which is triggered by the rear front of the comparison-impulse (FIG.'3a, line g) and controls bistable flipflop 29 (FIG. 3a, line h). In addition, the signal P coming from the voiced-unvoiced sound decision circuit 2, controls the switch 17.
The diagram of one of the two integrators 25, and 25 is given in FIG. 3. It comprises two transistors mounted in the so-called Complementary two-stage emitter follower, PNP 31 and NP N 30, the output terminal of which can be .groundedeither through'a RC network 32, 33 or through this network in parallel with an additional resistor '34; this resistor is inserted by switch 17. The switch 17 behaves like a variable resistor passing progressively from a zero value to an infinite value within four to five periods when the signal P passes from state 0 to state 1". The integrator has therefore two time constants RC and R R, C/R R, (R, R, resistances of resistors 32, 34; C capacitance of capacitor 33). The operation of these integrators is the following: if a'positive peak comes from 23, or 23 to the base of the transistor 30 the current supplied by the two transistors30 and 31 causes the voltage at the terminals of the capacitor 33 to increase until the summit of the peak is reached. Then. the amplitude of this peak dev creases and the emitter-base circuit of the transistor 30 of which are designated' bysthe same-reference numeris polarized in opposite direction, since the voltage at the terminals of the capacitor 33 has not decreased as rapidly as the voltage at the base of the transistor 30. This explains that this complementary two stage emitter follower circuit although possessing a low output impedance can only supply a substantial current in a single direction like the so-called Darlington circuit.
Under these conditions the two transistors begin to block. The voltage u, then becomes greater than the voltage u,, the comparator 28, changes state which has the effect of activating switch 17, and shortcircuiting the input of the integrator 25,. The two transistors 30 and 31 then block completely and capacitor 33 discharges into the equivalent resistance R R,/R R,.
It should be noted that the discharge of capacitor 33 is effected through an equivalent resistor which has two resistance limits namely the resistance of resistors 32 and 34 in parallel and the resistance of resistor 32 and progressively varies between these limits due to the passage of the transistor constituting the switch 17 from the conductor state to the blocked state.
FIG. 3a shows signal waveforms intended to explain how the circuits of FIG. 2 operate.
Line a shows the speech signal after low-pass filtering. In line b the direct component CC, of the speech signal is replaced by a larger direct component CC which results in the cancellation of the minor peaks. In line 0, the signal 14, is replaced by a decaying signal u, in the intervals between the major peaks. Line d shows the marker pulses derived from the major peaks.
In line f, the decaying part of the signal hasa too weak slope to intersect the major peak at T,. Thusthis major peak would not give rise to any marker pulse if special precautions were not taken. To mitigate it; a part of signal u, is subtracted from signal u, by means of capacitor 28,, and resistors 28, and 28,;,. Thus the decaying signal, instead of being a mere decreasing exponential signal, is a signal fluctuating about this exponential signal which, this time, intersects the major peak at T, (FIG. 3a, line j). r t
The lines 1 and 3 illustrate the usual operation of the apparatus and the corresponding marker pulses. The instant of occurrence of the forward front of the marker pulses is determined by the intersection of the curves representing u, and u, and this intersection is subject to displacements in time imparted by the variations of amplitude of the voltage 11,. This is shown by the peak in bloken line of line f and the corresponding marker pulse in broken line of line g.
On the other hand the intersection relative to the rear front is 'marked by the origin of the decrease of u, which coincide with the peak of u,. At the moment when u, becomes greater than u, the comparator 28, changes state happening which is produced at moments very close to the peaks of u, and explains the independence of the position of the second front .in respect of the amplitude of 14,. An advantage of this is taken by triggering monostable flipflop 27 by the rear fronts of impulses g. The resulting pulses are pulses h of FIG. 3a.
In other respects to confirmthe change of stage of state. This feedback facilitates therefore the taking into account of a single peak on two peaks which follow very closely and which are almost equal.
At the beginning of a voiced sound, a compressor comprised in the input circuit I is put into operation. Thus the voice'd signal decreases during a time interval of, say, four to five periods of the basic frequency of the voice. During this decreasing period, the selection of the major peaks cannot be achieved by the means which have just been described because the decrease of the signal u, is not sufficiently rapid. For increasing the decaying constant of signal 14 resistor 34, which minimizes the constant to R R, C/(R R,), is inserted in the RC network of FIG. 3 by means of switch 17. The progressive passage of the decaying factor from its minimum to its maximum value which latter value corresponds to the stablephase of the compressor, is effected in four or five pitch periods.
The operation of the chain of the bottom of FIG.-2 is similar to that of the chain at the top by substituting for the positive peaks the negative peaks of the signal to give rise to impulses i similar to the impulses g which have just been discussed and which are directed towards the bistable flipflop 29 whilst that of the chain at the top are applied to this bistable flipflop through the.
The signal j generated by flipflop 29 and the signal P generated by decision circuit 2 controls the processor unit 4 of FIG. 1 the detailed diagram of which is given in FIG. 4. The output signals of the processor unit 4 are the signals F, and F 1 The signal P is utilised directly to reset a counter formed by the flipflops 471,- 472 and 474 and the complementary signal I obtained in. the inverter 452 is utilised to feed the OR-gates 44 45 44, and 45,. These gates serve similar members saw-tooth voltage generators 40,, and 40, and switches 43,, and 43,, said switches being identical with switch 17 of FIG. 2 and'controlling respectively .pulse duration .modulators 41,, and 41,-. The saw-tooth voltage, generators are started and stopped by the fronts of pulses P and by control pulses Q or Q, derived from the negative fronts of pulses j. The saw-tooth voltage 502 decreases from zero to a level 503 reached at the next control pulse. During the preceding saw-tooth signal 500, the duration modulator has stored therein the level 501 which was the maximal amplitude reached by the saw-tooth voltage 500. The saw-tooth voltage 504 and an attenuated level 503 derived from level 503 through an attenuator connected between duration modulators 41,, and comparator 42,, are applied to the said comparator. Comparator 1 42,, produces pulses e whose front edges coincide with the equality of the actuel saw-tooth voltage and the attenuated maximal level of the preceding saw-tooth voltage and whose rear edges coincide with the control pulses.
The output signals of the comparators 42,, and 42, are put in form and amplified in amplifiers 48 48, and 48, which have two outputs and giving complementary signals. The logical signals e coming from the chain 40,, to 48,, control the flipflopv 455 and those e, and e, coming from the chains 40, to 48, and 48, control the AND-gates 460 which itself controls the OR-gates 464 and 468.
marker pulses when the actual pitch period is longer I than the preceding period by a given amount. The amount is defined by the attenuator connected to the input of the comparator across the lead coming from the duration modulator.
Referring now to the lower part of FIG. 4, signal j coming from the selector unit 3 is applied to the input of the monostable flipflop 453 which utilises the descending fronts of this signal and generates pulses Q and 6 (FIG. 7) having a duration of 10 ms. The signal Q drives in its turn a monostable flipflop 454 which utilises the ascending fronts of the driving pulses and generates pulses of duration equal to ms and designated by Q, and 6 (FIG. 7). The signal 6 controls AND-gates 456 and 462 and together with signal P OR- gate 45,. This signal I is also applied to the input of the -OR-gate 44,, together with signal Q, and s ignal (2 causes the flipflops 471 and 472 to progress..Q, also resets the flipflop 445 which counts pulses-". The, flipflops 471 and 472 control the AND-gate 473 which when these flipflops are both in state one and when P is also instate l is open and sets flipflop 474 in state O. When the signal? is in the state 0, it resets the flipfiops 471, 472 and 474.
The flipfl'op 455 produces from pulses 'the pulses 0,
' and their complements 0 0, together with 6 is applied plied to monostable flipflop 459 which generates the signal Q lag-shifted with respect to Q, resets flipflop 458 whilst 6 feeds OR-gate 44, controlling sawtooth generator 40,.
In addition this same signal F, is inverted in 463 and becomes F, whichis applied to the measuring and storing circuit 5. Thesignal F is also applied to OR -gate 464 together with the product (e, X e,') to give the signal v which controls the fl'ipflop 466 which supplied the signals B, and I31.
Different signalsabove referred to, namely 0 coming from flipflop 474, (e, X e,') coming from AND-gate 460 and-1T, coming from flipfiop 466 are applied to OR- gate 468 generating the signal F, B (e, X e,') +6 which is applied to the input of AND-gate 470'together with signal F; for forming the signal F, which controls monostable flipflop 467. The signalQ obtained at the output of 467 resets flipflop 466.
The circuit of FIG. 4 operates according to the algorithm of FIG. 6. 1
The j pulses are counted, the first being that which appears after the signal P has taken the value 1 and has reset the counter formed by flipflops 471,472, 474. If three j pulses have been counted, 471 and 472 are both in state one and flipflop 474 changes over to state one,
thus generating signal 0 which lasts during all the time where P 1. Thus is achieved the first phase of the program j 3 As long as j s 3, 5 activates OR-gate 461 and pulses F are transmitted to the measuring and storing circuit 5. OR-gate 468 being also activated, transfer pulses F, are also transmitted to circuit 5.
Pulses j control the circuit chain producing pulses e for detecting whether a period T, is shorter than the preceding T--, or not:
where e is the attenuation factor.
If the answer is negative, the signal 6 changes over flipflop 455 to 0, which activates OR-gate 461 and AND-gate 462. The signal F, is then applied to measuring and storing circuit 5.
If the answer is positive, pulse F is generated or not according to the value of signal B which answer the question: Was pulse (j 1) taken into account or not? If the impulse (j 1) has not been taken into account, F l, the OR-gate 461 is active and F, is generated and causes the measurement of T, by the circuit On the other hand it must be verified that the period T, determined by the interval between two impulses of F is comprisedbetween the limits given by the previous situation namely the period T with a tolerance fixed by a parameter 6 as previously which-poses the question: i
to which the chains 40,, 41,, 42,, 42 48, and 48 (FIG. 4) reply by way of the AND-gate 460 giving the function (e, X e',) the value 0 or 1.If(e, X e-,) 1, the OR- gate 468 is active and the transfer of the periodT', is authorised by F g If (e, X e,) O, the transfer of the period T, may take place or not according to the value of 8,; if the preceding transfer has not taken place the signal B representing the reply to the question of the transfer of T,, is equal to 0 (5, l and the signal F, is generated by giving the autorisation of transfer'of the contents of the counter of the block 5 to the register of th same block.
FIG. 7 shows a complete operation of a system from the signal a similar to the signal a of FIG. 3a. The signals'h and i are generated as has been stated and are shown here by their complements F and from where the output signal j of the flipflop 29 (FIG. 3) results. These pulses j give'rise to pulses Q in 459 and pulses Q, in 454 (.FIG. 4).
The signal P obtained in the decision circuit 2 triggers the saw-tooth voltage generator 40,, (FIG. 4) and the duration modulator 41 The comparator 42,, gives rise to the signal e at the output of amplifier 48 The negative front of this e signal causes the flipflop 455 to change over and this flipflop is reset by the 6 signal which gives. the signal 5,. Y Y
The first Q, pulses located at the left hand side of the vertical line xx correspond to the start of a voiced sound and it requires atleast three Q, pulses for the counters 471, 472 causing the change-of the state of 474 generate the signal 0. Fiipflop 474 is reset when the signal P comes to zero. In the AND-gate 456 the product (0, X6) is obtained and causes thestate of 458 to change. Thus the ascending fronts of the signal F are obtained whilst the OR-gate 461 generates the (6+ b) signal. This signal is applied together with signal 6 to AND-gate 462 which generates signal F the negative fronts of which give rise to the signal O by the action of monostable flipflop 459. These pulses delayed with regard to Q reset flipflop 458. The vertical xx determines a transitory time in the course of which the apparatus detects the nature of the signal a, voiced or unvoiced, and defines the period.
The continuation of the diagram of FIG. 7 concerns the second stage of the processor unit of FIG. 4 in which are located the sawtooth voltage generator 40 the duration modulator 41, and the comparators 42 and 42 These comparators produce the pulses e and e which together with the signal F are applied to OR- gate 464 to form the signal v. The flipflop 466 changes state on the ascending fronts of v and generates the-signal fi which together with (e X e',) and 0 is applied to OR-gate 468 for generating the train of pulses F authorizing or not the transfer of T; in the register of the I measuring and storing circuit 5.
To reset flipflop 466 a signal Q; is produced by the monostable flipflop E7 activated by the rear edges of the signal (F, X F generated by the AND-gate 470.
Referring now to FIG. 8, there is shown the measuring and storing circuit 5 whose input signals are the signals F, F, and F The signal P when it is in the state 1 resets flipflop 701 and this flipflop is set to one by the signal F delayed by the delay circuit 703; the signal (P X F generated by AND-gate 702 serves as a reset signal for the counter 704 which comprises here seven flipflops and which counts the clock pulses generated by pulse generator 700.
The signal (F X E) is effected by means of inverte 705 and AND-gate 706. This signal is utilised as a transfer signal for transferring the contents of counter 704 into register 707. The contents of this register is received in decoder 710 and when it is greater than a predetermined number, a displacement order of one binary weight is sent to the output register 71! and this register stores a corrected combination equal to the combination registered in 707 divided by-2.
When the signal P 'of FIG. 7 passes to the state 1 the flip-flop 701 is held at zero until the first pulse F which is delayed in delay circuit 703 by a delay during which the transfer of the preceding information recorded in the register 707 takes place if a transfer pulse F, has appeared before the signal P takes up again the state zero, this latter state resetting the register 707.
It results from the arrangement of FIG. 8 that the time between two successive pulses F .is always- It is to be noted that decoder 710 performs the third correction listed in the introductory part by shifting by a binary weight towards the right the binary number being transferred, thus dividing it by two.
What I claim is:
1. A processor for the detection of the pitch of a speech wave for use in connection with a vocoder system comprising means for detecting the major peaks of said speech wave, means for converting said major peaks into a train of marker pulses, each pair of consecutive marker pulses of said train defining a pitch period, means for cancelling in said train each marker pulse separated from the preceding marker pulse by an interval shorter than the preceding pitch period by more than a tolerance amount, means for prohibiting the cancellation of more than a first given number of consecutive marker pulses, means for storing the value of each pitch period defined by two consecutive noncancelled marker pulses and not differing from the preceding pitch period by more than a tolerance amount, means for substituting the preceding pitch period for each pitch period differing from said preceding pitch period by more than a tolerance amount and means for prohibiting the substitution for more than a second given number of consecutive pitch periods, of the respective preceding pitch periods.
2. A processor for the detection of the pitch of a speech wave as set forth in claim 1, in which said first and second numbers are both equal'to 2.
3. A processor for the detection of the pitch of a speech'wave for use in connection with a vocoder system comprising means for detecting the major peaks of said speech wave, means for converting saidmajor peaks into a train of marker pulses, each pair of consecutive marker pulses of said train defining a pitch period, means for cancelling in said train each marker pulse separated from the preceding markerpulse by an interval shorter than the preceding pitch period by more than atolerance amount, means for prohibiting the cancellation of morevthan a first given number of consecutive marker pulses, means for storing the value of each pitch period defined by two consecutive noncancelled marker pulses and not differing from the preceding pitch period by more than atolerance amount, means for. substitutingthe preceding pitch period for each pitch period differing from said preceding pitch period by more than attolerance amount, means for prohibiting the substitution formore than a second given number of consecutive pitch periods, of the respective preceding pitch periods and means for dividing by two the value of those of the recorded pitch periods that are largerthan a predetermined value.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2974281 *||Nov 1, 1957||Mar 7, 1961||Bell Telephone Labor Inc||Selective signal recognition system|
|US3109142 *||Oct 6, 1960||Oct 29, 1963||Bell Telephone Labor Inc||Apparatus for encoding pitch information in a vocoder system|
|US3549806 *||May 5, 1967||Dec 22, 1970||Gen Electric||Fundamental pitch frequency signal extraction system for complex signals|
|US3622704 *||Dec 15, 1969||Nov 23, 1971||Gilbert M Ferrieu||Vocoder speech transmission system|
|DE1163567B *||Oct 31, 1958||Feb 20, 1964||E H K Kuepfmueller Dr Ing||Einrichtung zur Erkennung von Sprachlauten|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4004096 *||Feb 18, 1975||Jan 18, 1977||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Process for extracting pitch information|
|US4054749 *||Nov 29, 1976||Oct 18, 1977||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Method for verifying identity or difference by voice|
|US4063030 *||Oct 26, 1976||Dec 13, 1977||Zurcher Jean Frederic||Detection circuit for significant peaks of speech signals|
|US4280387 *||Feb 26, 1979||Jul 28, 1981||Norlin Music, Inc.||Frequency following circuit|
|US4550598 *||Oct 31, 1983||Nov 5, 1985||The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company||Apparatus and method adapted to test tires by eliminating jitter from data signals without losing data|
|US4653098 *||Jan 31, 1983||Mar 24, 1987||Hitachi, Ltd.||Method and apparatus for extracting speech pitch|
|US4783805 *||Dec 3, 1985||Nov 8, 1988||Victor Company Of Japan, Ltd.||System for converting a voice signal to a pitch signal|
|US4879748 *||Aug 28, 1985||Nov 7, 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company||Parallel processing pitch detector|
|US4890328 *||Aug 28, 1985||Dec 26, 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company||Voice synthesis utilizing multi-level filter excitation|
|US4912764 *||Aug 28, 1985||Mar 27, 1990||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Digital speech coder with different excitation types|
|US5471527||Dec 2, 1993||Nov 28, 1995||Dsc Communications Corporation||Voice enhancement system and method|
|US6140568 *||Nov 5, 1998||Oct 31, 2000||Innovative Music Systems, Inc.||System and method for automatically detecting a set of fundamental frequencies simultaneously present in an audio signal|
|WO1987001498A1 *||Jul 25, 1986||Mar 12, 1987||American Telephone & Telegraph Company||A parallel processing pitch detector|
|WO1993009531A1 *||Oct 30, 1992||May 13, 1993||Peter John Charles Spurgeon||Processing of electrical and audio signals|
|Cooperative Classification||G10L25/90, H05K999/99|