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Publication numberUS3854140 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 10, 1974
Filing dateJul 25, 1973
Priority dateJul 25, 1973
Publication numberUS 3854140 A, US 3854140A, US-A-3854140, US3854140 A, US3854140A
InventorsPerrotti E, Ranghelli J
Original AssigneeItt
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Circularly polarized phased antenna array
US 3854140 A
Abstract
This relates to a mat-strip dual circularly polarized phased antenna array with independent steering of both right hand circularly polarized and left hand circularly polarized antenna beams. This is obtained by superimposing in a common aperture two linearly polarized phased arrays with their dipole element axis in space quadrature and by setting one polarizer over both linearly polarized arrays. The two circularly polarized antenna beams can be independently and simultaneously scanned, operated in transmit or receive, operated at different frequency and be designed for different bandwidth, gain and slidelobe characteristics. The beams are oppositely polarized through the use of a single polarization device interposed over orthogonal linear arrays. The linearly polarized arrays are phased by a separate phase shifter coupled to the mat-strip power division distribution network of each of the arrays, by providing one or more mat-strip phase shifter which can be controllably connected into the distribution network and/or by controlling the manner in which the distribution network is connected to the mat-strip dipole elements of the array.
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CIRCULARLY POLARIZED PHASED ANTENNAv ARRAY BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to antenna arrays and more particularly to antenna arrays employing mat-strip and printed circuit techniques to achieve a crcularly polarized phased antenna array.

The term mat-strip as employed herein is defined as a photo etched or printed balanced transmission line printed on opposite surface of a printed circuit (PC) board in such a manner that both conductors are superimposed, are equal in width and are equal in length. This is in contrast to a stripline transmission line which is an unbalanced transmission line requiring two ground planes one above and one below a single conductive strip and to a microstrip transmission line which consists of a conductive strip above a ground plane having a much greater width than the conductive strip. A microstrip transmission line is analogous to a two wire line in which one of the wires is represented by the image in the ground plane of the wire that is physically present. Another way of expressing what a mat-strip transmission line is is to state that it is a balanced transmission line in which the image wire of a microstrip transmission line has materialized and the ground plane ofa microstrip transmission line has been removed.

An antenna dipole element in mat-strip technique consists of one half of the dipole element (one wing) being disposed on one surface of a PC board having one end thereof connected to one conductor of a matstrip transmission line and the other half of the dipole element (other wing) being disposed on the other surface of the PC board having one end thereof connected to the other conductor of the same mat-strip transmission line. A ground plane is associated with the dipole elements (it has no function in the mat-strip transmission line) to ensure that the radiation from the dipole element is from one surface of the PC board, namely, the surface of the PC board removed from the ground plane.

In current practice, crcularly polarized phased antenna arrays are realized in several ways. One such antenna array uses array elements which directly generate crcularly polarized energy, such as spiral antennas, and where phase scanning is achieved by adding a phase shifter to each element. The disadvantages of this type antenna are the availability' of only one handedness of circular polarization and the multiplicity of components which result in added losses and costs.

A second type of crcularly polarized phased antenna array uses an array consisting of two linearly polarized antennas in spatial quadrature which are driven by a polarizer to phase the linearly polarized antenna in time so as to generate circular polarization from the two linearly polarized antennas. By the addition of a mode transducer both left hand and right hand circular polarization are simultaneously generated. A typical sample is a crossed dipole pair fed from a quadrature hybrid. The disadvantages of this type of array include limitation of two crcularly polarized antenna beams to the same frequency band because they share a common set of components, namely, the polarizer and the mode transducer. Also, the multiplicity of components increases the losses and cost of the antenna.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to provide a circularly polarized antenna array employing the techniques disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,681,769 issued to E. J. Perrotti, J. C. lRanghelli and R. A. Felsenheld and the copending application of J. C. Ranghelli and E. J. Perrotti, Ser. No. 384,188, filed July 3l, 1973 both of which are assigned to International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation which overcomes the disadvantages ofthe above-mentioned prior art crcularly polarized antennas. The disclosure of both U.S. Pat. No. 3,681,769 and copending application, Ser. No. 384,188 is incorporated herein by reference.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a crcularly polarized antenna array wherein the antenna beam is either left hand or right hand crcularly polarized.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a crcularly polarized antenna array which provides in a single aperture two completely separate and independent antenna beams having completely separate and independent beam forming and scanning arrangements where each ofthe antenna beams have a particular handedness of circular polarization.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a crcularly polarized antenna array capable of producing two crcularly polarized antenna beams, one of which is right hand polarized and other of which is left .hand polarized, wherein the separate antenna beams are operated independently of each other relative to frequency of operation, scanning angle, beam shaped, and/or transmit-receive mode.

A feature of the present invention is the provision of an antenna array comprising: N linearly polarized dipole elements each having a given orientation, where N is an integer greater than one; a ground plane superimposed relative to, disposed below and associated 'with the N elements; a power distribution network coupled to the N elements; a polarizer disposed in a superimposed relation to, disposed above and associated with the N elements to provide a crcularly polarized antenna beam having a predetermined one of left handed circular polarization and right handed circular polarization; and a phase shifting arrangement selectively coupled to the distribution network to control the antenna beam to have different selected angular directions.

Another feature of the present invention is the provision of an antenna array comprising: a first printed circuit board including thereon N linearly polarized matstrip dipole elements each having a given orientation,

-where N is an integer greater than one; a second printed circuit board including thereon M linearly polarized mat-strip dipole elements each having an orientation orthogonal to the given orientation, where M is an integer greater than one, the second board being coextensive with and disposed in spaced, parallel relation to the first board; a first ground plane coextensive with, parallel to and spaced a predetermined amount from one surface of one of the first and second boards; a second ground plane coextensive with, parallel to and spaced the predetermined amount from one surface of the other of the first and second boards, the second ground plane being transparent to the radiations to or from the dipole elements of the one of the first and second boards; a first mat-strip power distribution network carried by the first board coupled to each of the N dipole elements; a second mat-strip power distribution network carried by the second board coupled to each of the M dipole elements; a polarizer disposed coextensive with, parallel to and spaced above the first and second boards to provide a first circularly polarized antenna beam having a predetermined one of left handed circular polarization and right handed circular polarization and a second circularly polarized antenna beam having the other of left handed circular polarization and right handed circular polarization independent of the first antenna beam; a first phase shifting arrangement selectively coupled to one of the first and second distribution networks to control one of the first and second beams to have different selected angular directions; and a second phase shifting arrangement selectively coupled to the other of the first and second distribution networks to control the other of the first and second beams to have different selected angular direc'- tions. v

Although the antenna array described herein was originally conceived for use as a communications antenna` this antenna is also applicable for radar and other systems where multi-beam antennas with polarization diversity and frequency diversity are required.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING tenna array, and (3) the parallel ground planes for the dipole elements ofthe top most antenna array in accordance with the principles of this invention;

FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view of FIG. 1 taken along line 2-2;

FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of FIG` 2 taken along line 3-3;

FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view of the lower most matstrip linearly polarized phased antenna array taken along line 4-4 of FIG. l',

FIG. 5 is a plan view of an alternative dipole element that may be employed for the dipole elements of both the mat-strip linearly polarized phased antenna arrays of FIG. l;

FIG. 6 is a cross sectional view of FIG. 5 taken along line 6-6;

FIG. 7 is a cross sectional view of FIG. 1 taken along line 2-2 illustrating an alternative relative location of the three PC boards in accordance with the principles of the present invention',

FIG. 8 is a cross sectional view of FIG. l taken along line 2-2 illustrating an alternative ground plane for the upper most of the PC board arrays in accordance with the principles of this invention;

FIG. 9 is a cross sectional view of FIG. l taken along line 2-2 illustrating another alternative ground plane for the upper most of the PC board arrays in accordance with the principles of this invention;

FIG. 10 is a schematic illustration of the relationship between the axis of the dipole element of the upper most PC board array and the axis of the polarizer to generate right handed circular polarization; and

FIG. 11 is a schematic illustration of the axis of the dipole elements of the lower most PC board array and the axis of the polarizer to generate left handed circular polarization.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIGS. 1-4 there is illustrated therein a stacked or sandwich type arrangement of PC type linearly polarized phased antenna arrays, associated ground planes and a common polarizer to enable the production of two independent antenna beams, one beam having right handed circular polarization and the other beam having left handed circular polarization in accordance with the principles of this invention. The antenna array includes a dielectric sheet 1 having disposed thereon by PC technique dipole antenna elements 2in the form of two sections (dipole wings) 3 and 4, wing 3 being disposed on the upper surface 5 of sheet 1 and wing 4 being disposed on the lower surface 6 of sheet 1. As illustrated, this linearly polarized phased antenna array includes a plurality of pairs of dipole elements 2 interconnected by symmetrical parallel power fed by a mat-strip type balanced power division transmission line distribution network 7 including various balanced mat-strip type conductors 8 and 9 to provide power division and parallel feeding ofthe groups of dipole elements. The linearly polarized dipole element array on sheet l is symmetrical in all quadrants as are their transmission line networks 7.

It should be noted that as in the cited patent the matstrip conductors of balanced transmission line distribution network 7 are formed by two strip conductors, such as strip conductor 10 disposed on surface 5 of sheet l and strip conductor Il disposed on surface 6 of sheet 1 superimposed with respect to conductor I0.

The lower most linearly polarized antenna array is disposed by PC techniques on 4dielectric sheet l2. While the dipole antenna elements 2' have symmetry in each quadrant of sheet l2 it is not required in the antenna array of this invention that dipole elements 2' be symmetrical with 'respect to dipole elements 2. As noted in FIG. l dipole elements 2' are oriented 90 with respect to dipole elements 2. This lower array on sheet 12 is parallel fed by a mat-strip type balanced power division transmission line distribution network 7' which is identical to network 7 on sheet l, but also oriented at a relationship with respect thereto.

The ground plane for the linearly polarized antenna array on sheet l2 is provided by the bottom of metallic housing 173 while the ground plane for the antenna array on sheet l is provided by a third PC board including dielectric sheet 14 having disposed thereon metallic strips l5 which are oriented and disposed thereon to be parallel to and in a superimposed relationship with the dipole elements of the top most linearly polarized phase antenna array on sheet 1. In the embodiment il- Iustrated in FIG. 2, this ground plane is disposed between the linearly polarized arrays on PC boards l and 12.

The array on sheet 12 must be spaced from the ground plane 13 by one quarter wavelength. Likewise, the spacing between the array on sheet l and the ground plane provided by parallel conductor l5 is also equal yto one quarter wavelength. The one quarter wavelength spacing for these two linearly polarized phased antenna arrays are nominal values for the operating frequency range of the individual ones of the linearly polarized phased antenna arrays. lt should be noted that spacing is not critical between arrays since the velocity in free space and the coax sections is almost equal.

To convert the linearly polarized antenna beam from the array on sheet 1 to right hand circular polarization and to also convert the linearly polarized beam from the antenna array on sheet 12 to left hand circular polarization a common polarizer is provided superimposed with respect to these two linear arrays. This common polarizer includes a dielectric sheet 16 having disposed thereon by PC techniques a plurality of spaced conductive polarizers 17 shown for purposes of explanation as meander lines. The polarizer is a spatial filter having prescribed width of conductors proportioned to give the desired characteristics for both of the circularly polarized antenna beams each of which has a predetermined one of right handed and left handed circular polarization. Polarizer 17 can take many different forms other than the meander type polarizer illustrated, such as a system of bars, a system of printed straight conductors, and variable dielectric constant stubs.

lt will be noted that networks 7 and 7' include in cach of the strip conductors thereof decreased width portion and increased width portions at the branching positions or locations thereof. The decreased width portions and ,the increased widthportions are each one quarter wavelength at the operating frequency of the associated linearly polarized phased antenna array to provide a reflectionless power transformation between the transmission line sections themselves and from the transmission'line sections to the dipole elements 2 and 2'.

The spacing between sheets l, l2 and 16 and ground plane 14 are maintained at the appropriate predetermined value by the employment of bolts 18 extending through ground plane 14 and sheets l., 12 and 16 with appropriate length spacers or stand-offs 19, 20, 21 and 22 disposed thereon to maintain the desired spacing of the stacked arrangement. In addition to these bolts and separators` the coaxial transmission line portion of the combined balun and power dividing arrangements, to be described hereinbelow, also cooperate in maintaining the desired separation of the stacked members. These separations can also be maintained by frame structures made of low density foam. This would lend itself to a bonded sandwich construction.

The transmission networks 7 and 7' are fed from a combined balun and power divider and is of the double ended balun type. Energy is coupled to or from each of the arrays by similar waveguides 23 and 23a coupled to separate and independent transmitter or receiver illustrated at 25 and 25a. The unbalanced to balanced transformation is obtained by the combined balun and power divider in accordance with the above cited U.S. patent which includes similar coaxial transmission lines 26 and 26a'having inner conductors 27 and 27u. respectively, extending through sheets l and 12, respectively, for electrical contact with strip conductors 28 and 28a, respectively. Conductors 28 and 28a each extend radially in two directions from center conductors 27 and 27a with the ends thereof being respectively connected to the inputs of networks 7 and 7. The outer conductors 29 and 29a of coaxial transmission lines 26 and 26a are physically supporting and in electrical contact with strip conductors 30 and 30a, respectively, having the configuration as shown in FIG. 1 which is obviously wider than the conductors 28 and 28a and the conductors forming networks 7 and '7'. Thus, the combined balun and power divider of this invention provides a direct transition from waveguides 23 and 23a to the balanced mat-strip distribution networks 7 and 7'. It also provides a positive mechanical connection to the balanced line of networks 7 and 7 of the printed array without the use of solder joints and, in addition, and more importantly provides an immediate power divider with a relatively large heat sink formed by conductors 30 and 30a thereby enabling the feeding of greater power into networks 7 and 7.

The conductors of networks 7 and 7' and dipole elements are composed of conductive material, such as copper, copper clad material or the like. The dielectric sheets 1 and 12 and 16 are composed of a low loss dielectric, such as Tellite, Rexilite, Z-Tron and Duroid. The latter two low loss dielectric materials are also high temperature materials and, of course, would be particularly applicable to the present invention under high temperature conditions.

Due to the orientation of the dipole element arrays on sheets 1 and l2 and the orientation of the ground strip conductors 15, the dipole elements 2 and the balanced transmission lines of network 7 and the strip ground conductors l5 are invisible or transparent to radiation to and from dipole elements 2' on sheet 12.

A phase shifting arrangement is provided for each of the arrays of sheets 1 and 12 so that the resultant circularly polarized independent antenna beams produced by the array of this invention may have their angle or direction independently scanned or moved. The antenna beams of the two linearly polarized phased antenna arrays may be independently scanned inaccordance with the principles of this invention. Each of the linearly polarized arrays includes one or more mat-strip loaded line type phase shifter which includes an impedance matching transformer 31 and 31a, two shunt matstrip transmission lines 32 and 32a coupled at opposite ends of the one quarter wavelength impedance transformer 31 and 31a, respectively. There is provided associated with each of the shunt transmission lines 32 and 32a a radio frequency ground terminating and direct current bias mat-strip pads 33 and 33a connected to the adjacent ends of the shunt transmission lines 32 and 32a by normally non-conductive switching diodes, such as a PIN diodes 34 and 34a. Diodes 34 and 34a are parallel to the PC boards. When it is desired to shift the phase ofthe radio frequency energy fed to or from one of the dipole elements 2 or 2', diodes 34 or 34a are rendered conductive by means of switching voltage from source 35 through switching arrangements 36. Once the diodes 34 or 34a have been rendered conductive by connecting the switching voltage through switching arrangements 36 to pads 33 or 33a, pads 33 or 33a will provide the desired radio frequency ground termination for shunt lines 32 or 32a and thereby provide in one step a 45 phase shift. The radio frequency ground for pads 33 or 33a is provided by by-pass capacitors disposed in housing 13 through which the direct current voltage is coupled from source 35 to pads 33 or 33a. This mat-strip phase shifter arrangement just described will provide a retarded 45 phase shift of the energy fed to an appropriate one of the dipole elements 2 or 2'. In accordance with the teachings of the above cited copending application Ser. No. 384,188 it would be possible to provide a plurality of similar mat-strip loadline type phase shifters so as to provide discrete strips of 45 of radio frequency phase shift in networks 7 and 7a. It should be kept in mind that the phase shifter selectively switched into the distribution network 7 or 7' can be used by itself or in conjunction with phase shifters 24 and 24a.

Referring to FIGS. 5 and 6 there is illustrated an alternative arrangement for the dipole elements 2 or 2' that can be substituted for those dipole elements illustrated in FIG. 1. The dipole elements of FIGS. 5 and 6 will also cooperate in providing a l80 step of phase shift and, thus, is considered as a portion of the phase shifting arrangement either operating separately or in conjunction with phase Shifters 24 and 24a and the mat-strip loaded line type phase shifter described hereinabove. In the arrangement of FIGS. 5 and 6 there is provided a first dipole wing 37 and a second dipole wing 38 disposed by PC techniques on an upper surface of a dielectric sheet 39. These dipole wings 37 and 38 are connected to the upper strip conductor of network 7 or 7l by switching diodes, such as PIN diodes 40 and 41, respectively. In a superimposed relationship to wings 37 and 38 are provided wings 42 and 43 on the lower surface of sheet 39 connected to the lower conductor of networks 7 or 7' by switching diodes, such as PIN diodes 44 and 45. Diodes 40, 4I, 44 and 45 are parallel to sheet 39. Also diodes 40, 4l, 4 4 and 45 are normally non-conductive and switching arrangement 36 (FIG. 2) is coupled to the low impedance point of wings 37, 38, 42 and 43 through by-pass capacitors 50' disposed in housing I3. By selecting the switching voltage to be coupled to wings 38 and 42 diodes 4I and 44 will be rendered conductive to thereby connect wings 38 and 42 to the distribution network 7 or 7'. With this connection and thereby the position of the dipole wings 38 and 42 on the upper and lower surface, respectively, of sheet 39 electric energy will pass through the dipole wings 38 and 42 in a given direction. To achieve a 180 phase shift the switching voltage applied to wings 38 and 42 is removed and a switching voltage is coupled to wings 37 and 43 so as to render diodes 40 and 45 conductive to thereby connect wings 37 and 43 to networks 7 or 7'. With this orientation of the dipole wings with respect to the upper and lower surface of dielectric sheet 39 electric energy will pass through wings 37 and 43 which is opposite to direction ofthe electric energy passing wings 38 and 42 when they were actively coupled to networks 7 and 7 thereby achieving the desired 180 phase shift.

As mentioned hereinabove the ground plane for the array disposed on sheet l as illustrated in FIG. 2 is provided by co-nductive strips disposed on sheet 14 which is positioned between sheets I and I2 carrying the two linearly polarized arrays. This is not a critical location for the ground plane carried by sheet 14. In fact, as illustrated in FIG. 7 sheet I4 may be disposed between housing I3 and sheet 12.

In addition, there is available still another embodiment for the ground plane of the linearly polarized phased antenna array disposed on sheet l. This embodiment is illustrated in FIG. 8 and eliminates the third sheet I4. In the embodiment of FIG. 8 the ground plane for the vdipole elements disposed on sheet 1 is provided by parallel, spaced ridges 15a disposed on housing I3 which are parallel to and in a superimposed relation with dipole elements 2 on sheet 1.

Still another embodiment for the ground plane of the array on sheet 1 is provided by the conductive material of the linearly polarized antenna array carried by sheet 12 when the array carried by sheet 12 operates at a relatively high frequency, such as eight gigahertz, and the array carried by sheet 1 operates at a relatively low frequency, such as 200 megahertz. This is illustrated in FIG. 9. This arrangement/of having the lower most array on sheet 12 be the ground plane for the array on sheet 1 is possible if the conductive material disposed by PC techniques on sheet 12 is very dense for the relatively high frequency involved in the lower array and the relatively low frequency involved in the higher array. However, if this is not the case metallic housing I3 will provide the ground plane for the array on sheet I as well as the array on sheet 12. This is possible since a one quarter wavelength at 8 gigahertz is approximately inch which places the array of sheet I2 very close to metallic housing 13. This 3/8 inch separation at 200 megahertz, at which the array of sheet l, is operating is not even recognized as being present by the array of sheet 1, therefore, housing 13 will also provide the ground plane for the array of sheet l. Of course, when there is a large separation of operating frequency for the two linearly polarized phased antenna arrays disposed on` sheets 1 and I2 metallic housing 13 and the conductive art work on sheet l2 could also cooperate to provide the ground plane for the array on sheet l.

FIG. I() illustrates schematically the generation of a right hand circularly polarized or clockwise polarized antenna beam incorporating a polarizer 17 as illustrated in FIG. 1. Polarizer 17 has a relationship with dipole elements 2 of FIG. l where its longitudinal axis 5l is 45 retarded with respect to longitudinal axis 52 of dipole element 2. In this relationship a vector V, is propagated from dipole element 2 and is intercepted by polarizer 17 which produces therein a vector V,V which results in a vector V for propagation. Vector V appears on the z axis in the direction indicated and after the vector VL is rotated 90 to the right or clockwise and after another 90 is rotated again clockwise. This 90 rotation of vector V, which is seen by an observer, will continue to rotate as illustrated in FIG. l0 and thus produces right hand circular polarization.

Referring to FIG. 11 there is illustrated therein schematically the production of a left hand circularly polarized or a counter clockwise circularly polarized beam wherein the longitudinal axis 52' of dipole element 2' is 45 ahead of the longitudinal axis 5l of polarizer 17. When vector V, of the electric field in dipole element 2 is produced as illustrated and intercepts the polarizer 17 a vector VC is produced therein which results in a propagation vector Vl, Vector V will be rotated every 90 along axis z 90 in a counter clockwise or left hand rotation as observed by an observer.

While we have described above the principles of our invention in connection with specific apparatus it is to be clearly understood that this description is made only by way of example and not as a limitation to the scope of our invention as set forth in the objects thereof and in the accompanying claims.

We claim:

l. An antenna array comprising:

N linearly polarized dipole elements each having a given orientation, where N is an integer greater than one;

a ground plane superimposed relative to, disposed below and associated with said N elements;

a power distribution network coupled to said N elements;

a polarizer disposed in a superimposed relation to,

disposed above and associated with said N elements to provide a circularly polarized antenna beam having a predetermined one of left handed circular polarization and right handed circular po- Y larization; and

a phase shifting arrangement selectively coupled to said distribution network to control said antenna beam to have different selected angular directions;

said N elements including N mat-strip dipole elements printed on a first printed circuit board;

said distribution network including a mat-strip power distribution network printed on said first printed circuit board; and said polarizer is printed on a second printed circuit board spaced from said first printed circuit board; said polarizer including a plurality of spaced meander lines printed on said second printed circuit board` each of said printed meander lines having a longitudinal axis disposed at an angle of 45 with respect to the longitudinal axis of said N mat-strip elements. 2. An antenna array according to claim l, wherein each of said N mat-strip elements includes a first dipole wing printed with said given orientation on one surface of said first board spaced from and extending outwardly in -one direction from an end of one conductor of said mat-strip distribution network,

a first normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said first wing and said one conductor of said mat-strip distribution network` a second dipole wing printed with said given orientation on said one surface of said first board spaced from and extending outwardly in a direction opposite to said one direction from said end of said one conductor of said mat-strip distribution network,

a second normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said second wing and said one conductor of said mat-strip distribution network,

a third dipole wing printed on the other surface of said first board in a superimposed relation with said first wing, y

a third normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said third wing and the other conductor of said mat-strip distribution network,

a fourth dipole wing printed on said other surface of said first board in a superimposed relation with said second wing, and

a fourth normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said fourth wing and said other conductor of said mat-strip distribution network; and

said phase shifting arrangement includes llt) a source of switching voltage,

a first switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said first and fourth wings to render each of said first and fourth diodes conductive to connect said first and fourth wings to said mat-strip distribution network to provide energy flow in said N mat-strip elements in a first direction, and

a second switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said second and third wings to render each of said second and third diodes conductive to connect said second and third wings to said mat-strip distribution network to provide energy flow in said N mat-strip elements in a second direction opposite to said first direction,

said first and second switching arrangements being noncoincidently operated.

3. An antenna array according to claim 2, wherein each of said first, second, third and fourth diodes is a PIN diode. 4. An antenna array according to claim 2, wherein said phase shifting arrangement further includes at least one mat-strip phase shifter having a quarter wavelength mat-strip impedance transformer disposed in said mat-strip distribution network, afirst shunt mat-strip transmission line extending perpendicular from one end of said transformer, I

a second shunt mat-strip transmission line exv tending perpendicular from the other end of said transformer parallel to said first shunt transmission line,

four normally non-conducting switching diodes, each of said four diodes being connected to an end of a different one of the conductors of said first and second shunt transmission lines,

four radio frequency ground terminating and direct current biasing printed circuit pads, each of said four pads being connected to a different one of said four diodes` and a third switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said four pads to render each of said four diodes conductive to radio frequency ground said first and second shunt transmission lines by said four pads to provide a predetermined amount of radio frequency phase shift in said mat-strip distribution network.

5. An antenna array according to claim 4, wherein each of said four diodes are PIN diodes. 6. An antenna array according to claim l, wherein said phase shifting arrangement includes at least one mat-strip phase shifter having a quarter wavelength mat-strip impedance transformer disposed in said mat-strip distribution network,

a first shunt mat-strip transmission line extending perpendicular from one end of said transformer,

`a second shunt mat-strip transmission line extending perpendicular from the other end of said transformer parallel to said first shunt transmission line,

four normally non-conducting switching diodes, each of said four diodes being connected to an end of a different one ofthe conductors of said first and second shunt transmission lines, four radio frequency ground terminating and direct current biasing printed circuit pads, each of said four pads being connected to a different one of said four diodes, a source of switching voltage, and a switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said four pads to render each of said four diodes conductive to radio frequency ground said first and second shunt transmission lines by said four pads to provide a predetermined amount of radio frequency phase shift in said mat-strip distribution network. 7. An antenna array according to claim 6, wherein each of said four diodes is a PIN diode. 8. An antenna array according to claim 6, wherein said N mat-strip elements are equal to an even integer symmetrically disposed on said first printed circuit board; and said mat-strip distribution network is disposed on said first printed circuit board extending radially in two directions from a predetermined point and connected to said N mat-strip elements; and further including a combined balun and power divider coupled to said mat-strip distribution network including a coaxial transmission line disposed perpendicular to said first printed circuit board adjacent said predetermined point, said coaxial line having an outer conductor and a center conductor extending through said first printed circuit board to one surface thereof` a first strip conductor disposed on said one surface of said first printed circuit board connected directly to and extending radially in two directions from said center conductor for connection to the inputs of said mat-strip distribution network, said first conductor having a given width, and a second strip conductor disposed on the other surface of said first printed circuit board in a superimposed relation with said first conductor and connected between said outer conductor and said inputs of said mat-strip distribution network, said second conductor having a width greater than said given width. i 9. An antenna array according to claim 8, wherein said phase shifting arrangement further includes an adjustable phase shifter coupled to said coaxial transmission line. l0. An antenna array according to claim 1, wherein said N mat-strip elements are equal to an even integer symmetrically disposed on said first printed circuit board; and said mat-strip distribution network is disposed on said first printed circuit board extending radially in two directions from a predetermined point and connected to said N mat-strip elements; and further including a combined balun and power divider coupled to said mat-strip distribution network including a coaxial transmission line disposedv perpendicular to said first printed circuit board adjacent said predetermined point, said coaxial line having ari outer conductor and a center conductor extending through said first printed circuit board to one surface thereof,

a first strip conductor disposed on said one surface of said first printed circuit board connected directly to and extending radially in two directions from said center conductor for connection for the inputs of said mat-strip distribution network, said first conductor having a given width, and

a second strip conductor disposed ori the other surface of said first printed circuit board in a superimposed relation with said first conductor and connected between said outer conductor and said inputs of said mat-strip distribution network, said second conductor having a width greater than said given width.

11. An antenna array according to claim 10, wherein said phase shifting arrangement includes an adjustable phase shifter coupled to said coaxial transmission line.

12. An antenna array comprising:

a first printed circuit board including thereon N linearly polarized mat-strip dipole elements each having a given orientation, where N is an integer in cluding one;

a Asecond printed circuit board including thereon M linearly polarized mat-strip dipole elements each having an orientation orthogonal to said given orientation, where M is an integer including one, said second board being coextensive with and disposed in spaced, parallel relation to said first board',

a first ground plane coextensive with, parallel to and spaced a predetermined amount from one surface of one of said first and second boards;

a second ground plane coextensive with, parallel to and spaced said predetermined amount from one surface of the other of said first and second boards, said second ground plane being transparent to the radiation to or from said dipole elements of said one of said first and second boards;

a first mat-strip power distribution network carried by said first board coupled to each of said N dipole elements;

a second mat-strip power distribution network carried by said second board coupled to each of said M dipole elements;

a polarizer disposed coextensive with, parallel to and spaced above said first and second boards to provide a first circularly polarized antenna beam having a predetermined one of left handed circular po larization and right handed circular polarization and a second circularly polarized antenna beam having the other of left handed circular polarization and right handed circular polarization independent of said first antenna beam;

a first phase shifting arrangement selectively coupled to one of said first and second distribution networks to control one of said first and second beams to have different selected angular directions; and

a second phase shifting arrangement selectively coupled to the other of said first and second distribution networks to control the other of said first and second beams to have different selected angular directions.

13. An antenna array according to claim 12, wherein said polarizer includes a third printed circuit board including thereon a plurality of spaced meander lines, each of said meander lines having a longitudinal axis disposed at an angle of 45 with respect to the longitudinal axis of both said M and N dipole elements. 14. An antenna array according to claim 12, wherein said first ground plane includes a conductive body. 15. An antenna array according to claim 14, wherein said second ground plane includes spaced, parallel conductive members each having an orientationvparallel to and in a superimposed relation with different one of said M dipole elements. 16. An antenna array according to claim 15, wherein said conductive members are printed on a third printed circuit board disposed between said first and second boards. 17. An antenna array according to claim 15, wherein said conductive members are printed on a third printed circuit board disposed between said conductivc body and one of said first and second boards. 18. An antenna array according to claim 15, wherein said conductive members are spaced, parallel conductive ridges extending from one surface of said conductive body towards said other of said first and second boards. 19. An antenna array according to claim 14, wherein said second ground plane includes said one of siad first printed circuit board. 20. An antenna array according to claim 14, wherein said second ground plane includes said conductive body. 21. An antenna array according to claim 12, wherein said N dipole elements are equal to an even integer symmetrically disposed on said first board; said M dipole elements are equal to an even integer symmetrically disposed on said second board;

said first distribution network is disposed on said first board extending radially in two directions from adjacent a predetermined point and connected to said N dipole elements; and

said second distribution network is disposed on said second board extending radially in two directions from adjacent said predetermined point and connected to said M dipole elements; and

further including a combined balun and power divider independently coupled to each of said first and second distribution networks, each of said combined balun and power divider including a coaxial transmission line disposed perpendicular to the associated one of said first and second boards adjacent said predetermined point. said coaxial line having an outer conductor and a center conductor extending through said associated one of said first and second boards to one surface thereof,

a first strip conductor disposed on said one surface of said associated one of said first and second boards connected directly to and extending radially in two directions from said center conductor for connection to the inputs of an associated one of vsaid first and second distribution networks, said first strip conductor having a given width, and a second strip conductor disposed on the other surface of said associated one of said first and second boards in a superimposed relation with said first strip conductor and connected between said outertconductor and said inputs of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks, said second conductor having a width greater than said given width. 22. An antenna array according to claim 21, wherein each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements includes an adjustable phase shifter coupled to an associ-,

l ated one of said coaxial transmission lines. 23. An antenna array according to claim 22, wherein each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements further includes at least one mat-strip phase shifter having a quarter wavelength mat-strip impedance transformer disposed in an associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a first shunt mat-strip transmission line extending perpendicular from one end of said transformer,

a second shunt mat-strip transmission line extending perpendicular from the other end of said transformer parallel to said first shunt transmission line,

four normally non-conducting switching diodes, each of said four diodes being connected to an end of a different one ofthe conductors of said first and second shunt transmission lines,

four radio frequency ground terminating and direct current biasing printed circuit pads, each of said four pads being connected to a different one of said four diodes,

a source of switching voltage, and

a first switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said four pads to render each of said four diodes conductive to radio frequency ground said first and second shunt transmission lines by said four pads to provide a predetermined amount of radio frequency phase shift in said mat-strip distribution network.

24. An antenna array according to claim 23, wherein each of said four diodes is a PIN diode.

25. An antenna array according to claim 23, wherein each of said M and N dipole elements includes a first dipole wing printed with an associated one of said given and orthogonal orientation on one surface of an associated one of said first and second boards spaced from and extending outwardly in one direction from an end of one conductor of an associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a first normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said first wing and said one conductor,

a second dipole wing printed with said associated one of said given and orthogonal orientation on said one surface of said associated one of said first and second boards spaced from and extending outwardly in a direction opposite to said one direction from said end of said one conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a second normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said second wing and said one conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a third dipole wing printed on the other surface of said associated one of said first and second boards in a superimposed relation with said first wing,

a third normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said third wing and the other conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

Va fourth dipole wing printed on said other surface of said associated one of said first and second boards in a superimposed relation with said second wing, and

a fourth normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacentiends of said fourth wing and said other conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks;

and each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements further includes a second switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said first and fourth wings to render each of said first and fourth diodes conductive to connect said first and fourth wings to'said associated one of said first and second distribution networks to provide energy flow in associated ones of said M and N dipole elements in a first direction, and

a third switch arrangement connected between said source and each of said second and third wings to render each of said second andthird diodes conductive to connect said second and third wings to said associated one of said first and second distribution networks to provide energy flow in associated ones of said M and N dipole elements in a second direction opposite to said first direction` said second and third switching arrangements of each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements being noncoincidently operated.

26. An antenna array according to claim 25, wherein each of said first, second, third and fourth diodes is a PlN diode.

27. An antenna array according to claim l2, wherein each of said first and second phase shifting arrangement includes at least one mat-strip phase shifter having a quarter wavelength mat-strip impedance transformer disposed in ari associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a first shunt mat-strip transmission line extending perpendicular from one end of said transformer,

a second shunt mat-strip transmission line extending perpendicular from the other end of said transformer parallel to said first shunt transmission line,

four normally nonconducting switching diodes, each of said four diodes being connected to an end of a different one of the conductors of said vfirst and second shunt transmission lines,

four radio frequency ground terminating and direct current biasing printed circuit pads, each of said four pads being connected to a different one of said four diodes,

a source of switching voltage, and

a first switching arrangement connected between said source arid each of said four pads to render each of said four diodes conductive to radio frequency ground said first and second shunt transmission lines by said four pads to provide a predetermined amount of radio frequency phase shift in said mat-strip distribution network.

28. An antenna array according to claim 27, wherein each of said four diodes is a PIN diode.

29. An antenna array according to claim 27, wherein each of said M and N dipole elements includes a first dipole wing printed with an associated one of said given and orthogonal orientation on one surface of an associated one of said first and second boards spaced from and extending outwardly in one direction from an end of one conductor of an associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a first normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said first wing and said one conductor,

a second dipole wing printed with said associated one of said given and orthogonal orientation on said. one surface of said associated one of said first and second boards spaced from and extending outwardly in a direction opposite to said one direction from said end of said one conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a second normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said second wing and said one conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a third dipole wing printed on the other surface of said associated one of said first and second boards in a superimposed relation with said firsty wing,

a third normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said third wing and the other conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a fourth dipole wing printed on said other surface of said associated one of saidfirst and second boards in a superimposed relation with said second wing, and

a fourth normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said fourth wing and said other conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks; and

each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements further includes a second switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said first and fourth wings to render each of said first and fourth diodes conductive to connect said first and fourth wings to said associated one of said first and second distribution networks to provide energy flow in associated ones of said M and N dipole elements in a first direction, and

a third switch arrangement connected between said source and each of said second and third wings to render each of said second and third diodes conductive to connect said second and third wings to said associated one of said first and second distribution networks to provide energy flow in associated ones of said M and N dipole elements in a second direction opposite to said first direction` said second and third switching arrangements of each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements being non-coincidently operated.

30. An antenna array according to clairn`29, wherein each of said first, second, third and fourth diodes is a PIN diode.

31. An antenna array according to claim 12, wherein each of said M and N dipole elements includes a first dipole wing printed with an associated one of said given and orthogonal orientation on one surface of an associated one of said first and second boards spaced from and extending outwardly in one direction from an end of one conductor of an associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a first normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said first wing and said one conductor,

` a second dipole wing printed with said associated one of said given and orthogonal orientation on said one surface of said associated one of said first and second boards spaced from and extending outwardly in a direction, opposite to said one direction from said end of said one conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a second normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said second wing and said one conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a third dipole wing printed on the other surface of said associated one of said first and second boards in a superimposed relation with said first wing,

a third normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said third wing and the other conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks,

a fourth dipole wing printed on said other surface of said associated one of said first and second boards in a superimposed relation with said second wing, and l y a fourth normally non-conducting switching diode interconnecting adjacent ends of said fourth wing and said other conductor of said associated one of said first and second distribution networks; and

each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements including a source of switching voltage` a first switching arrangement connected between said source and each of said first and fourth wings to render each of said first and fourth diodes conductive to connect said first and fourth wings to said associated one of said first and second distribution networks to provide energy flow in associated ones of said M and N dipole elcments in a first direction, and

a second switch arrangement connected between said first and second switching arrangements of each of said first and second phase shifting arrangements being non-coincidently operated.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification343/756, 342/365, 342/371, 343/814
International ClassificationH01Q21/06, H01Q21/24, H01Q3/30, H01Q3/38, H01Q25/00, H01Q21/00
Cooperative ClassificationH01Q25/001, H01Q3/38, H01Q21/0075, H01Q21/24, H01Q21/062
European ClassificationH01Q21/24, H01Q21/06B1, H01Q3/38, H01Q25/00D3, H01Q21/00D6
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 22, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: ITT CORPORATION
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:INTERNATIONAL TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:004389/0606
Effective date: 19831122