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Publication numberUS3855135 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 17, 1974
Filing dateApr 24, 1972
Priority dateMay 5, 1971
Publication numberUS 3855135 A, US 3855135A, US-A-3855135, US3855135 A, US3855135A
InventorsJ Amaroso, W Coppock, T Newingham, E Williams
Original AssigneeSun Oil Co Pennsylvania
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Mist lubricant
US 3855135 A
Mist lubricant comprising:
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [191 Newingham et a1.

[ 1 Dec. 17, 1974 1 1 MIST LUBRICANT [75] Inventors: Thomas D. Newingham, Broomall;

James R. Amaroso, Newton Square; Walter J. Coppock, Wallingford, all of Pa.; Edward S. Williams, Claymont, Del.

[73] Assignee: Sun Oil Company of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

[22] Filed: Apr. 24, 1972 121] App]. No.2 246,997

Related U.S. Application Data [63] Continuation-impart of Ser. Nos. 140,398, May 5, 1971, and Ser. N0. 178,193, Sept. 7, 1971.

[52] U.S. Cl. 252/15, 184/1 E, 184/6,

184/26, 252/56 R, 252/59 [51] Int. Cl..... ClOm 1/28, ClOm l/18, ClOm 9/00 [58] Field of Search 252/15, 56 R, 59; 184/1 E,

3,417,021 12/1968 Engelhart 252/15 3,252,949 5/1966 Fields et al.

2,211,306 8/1940 Whittier et a1 252/15 1,995,371 3/1935 Werder 252/15 3,607,749 9/1971 Forbes 252/59 FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 1,099,450 H1968 Great Britain 184/1 E Primary ExaminerDaniel E. Wyman Assistant Examinerl. Vaughn Attorney, Agent, or Firm-George L. Church; J. Edward Hess; Barry A. Bisson [5 7] ABSTRACT Mist lubricant comprising:

a. mineral oil base b. a polystyrene, or c. a polystyrene and a polyacrylate, or d. a polystyrene and a polybutene.



sum 1 of 2 STRAY FOG( S 6 TARGET) 200 400 600 800 I000 VISCOSITY AVERAGE MOLECULAR WT 1! IO I l B STRAY FOG 2 (56 TARGET) I! E .6- 1 4 0) E I n: I RECLASSIFIER (2L0 TARGET) g .4- I s E I E (I) .2- I r a O I I I I I l POLYMER, VOL.


MIST LUBRICANT CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS The present application is a continuation-in-part of our application Ser. No. 140,398, filed May 5, 1971 and claims any benefit which can be accorded thereto under 35 USC 120 with respect to Ser. No. 178,193, filed Sept. 7, 1971 of Robert P. Bryer, William W. Crouse, Jr., John Q. Griffith, 111, Thomas D. Newingham, William H, Reiland, Jr., Ronaold W. Reynolds, Sheldon L. Thompson and Edward S. Williams.

The following patents and applications are related to the disclosure of the present application in that they disclose additives and/or methods of obtaining oils which can be used in the mist lubrication process and composition of the present invention.

The disclosure of all the following applications and patents is hereby incorporated in the present application:

SERIAL FILING PATENT ISSUE NO. DATE NO. DATE TITLE SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION One aspect of our invention is a process of lubrication which comprises:

a. converting into an aerosol a mixture of a mineral lubricating oil having an SUS viscosity in the range of 100 to 3000 at 100 F. with an effective amount of a polymer additive selected from the group consisting of polyolefins, polystyrenes, polyacrylate terpolymers, polymethacrylate terpolymers, dispersant type polyacrylates, dispersant type polymethacrylates or mixtures of two or more such.

polymeric additives, said'polymeric additive having a viscosity average molecular weight in the range of 10,000 to two million and said effective amount being sufficient to cause the stray fog produced by said mineral lubricating oil when tested in a Norgren Microfog test apparatus at an oil'temperature of 100 F., to be no greater than. 1 0 (more pre- 873,008 10-31-69 now abandoned Oil and Process of Manufacture of Blended lvor W. Mills 8!. Glenn R. Dimeler Light Colored Hi y Aromatic Oil an Pro- Kirk Jr C. Process for Producing High UR Oil b Hydrogrgration of nateMerritt C.

Kirk, Jr.

duct of Solvent waxed Catalytic H drofinishing of Lu Oil Pro- Extraction of Petroleum Distillate-lvor W. Mills, Merritt C. Kirk, Jr. 8:

5-5-71 now abandoned Albert T. Olenzak Mist Lubricant Containing Polymeric Additive- James R. Amaroso, Walter J. Coppock, Thomas D. Newingham & Edward S. \Villiams Com ition Comprisigg Stabi ized Hydrocrack Lube and an Antioxidant- Robert P. Bryer, William W. Crouse, in, John Q. Griffith, 111, Thomas D. Newingham, William H. Reiland, .lr., Ronald W. Reynolds, Sheldon L. Thompson & Edward S. Williams Soap Thickened Hydraulic Oil Com sition-John Q. Grifiith, ll, Edward S. Williarm & William H. Reiland, Jr.

Hydrorefined Lube Oil and Process of Manufacture-Ivor W. Mills & G Glenn R. Dimeler Improved Textile Machinery Lubricant Composition-Walter .l. Copgock, James R. Amaroso John Q. Gn'fiith. lll

ferred 8) grams per hour and the reclassification to be no less than 0.6 (more preferred 0.8) ounces per hour per 100 bearing inches,

b. pneumatically conducting said aerosol to a zone where lubrication occurs, and

c. reclassifying said aerosol in said zone whereby the oil droplets of the aerosol are coalesced within said lubrication zone (preferably in greater amount than are coalesced in the absence of said additive).

Conventional mineral oil lubricants with nonpolymeric additives are unsatisfactory as mist lubricants in some types of lubrication systems, for example, bearings in some cold rolling machinery. A polymeric additive (polyolefins such as polybutenes, polystyrenes, polyacrylates, dispersant type polyacrylates, polymethacrylates and dispersant type polymethacrylates or mixtures thereof) can be used as additives in mist lubricants to provide the requisite balance of misting and reclassification properties. For a given polymer a very narrow molecular weight range and/or concentration range in the lubricant is required in order to obtain sufficient reclassification for proper lubrication and no visible stray fog. For example, for stray fog of 6 g./hr. or less in a Norgran Microfog test apparatus and reclassification of one ounce per hour per 100 bearing inches or greater, a 20% dispersion of a 150,000 viscosity average molecular weight polyisobutylene additive can be used at about 0.2 volume percent (about 0.04 weight percent polymer solids) concentration in a paraffinic or naphthenic lube oil base.

Suitable polystyrenes are the high molecular weight polymers of styrene, a-methylstyrene, b-methylstyrene, etc., including terpolymers and copolymers (e.g., Lubrizol 3702").

Suitable polyisobutenes are those marketed as Paratone N. Paratac and Paratac 108 (all products of Enjay Chemical Company). Generally concentrations of such olefin polymers should be no greater than 0.5 volume percent of 10 to 50 weight percent solids lubricant composition (preferably less than 0.1 weight percent solids).

Especially good results are obtained when polyisobutylene is used in combination with a polyacrylate (which can be of the dispersant type). Preferred polyacrylates (including polymethacrylates) are the terpolymer types, in contrast to copolymers. The polyisobutylenes are excellent additives for suppressing stray fog but they tend to decrease the total oil output to an unsatifactory level. In contrast, the polymethacrylates provide excellent oil output, but are relatively inefficient in reducing stray fog. A combination of these two classes of polymer provides a satisfactory lubricant with regard to both stray fog and total output. In general the polymethacrylate additive will have a viscosity average molecular weight in the range of 75,000 to 260,000 and can be used in concentrations of range of 0.05 to 4 volume percent (of materials containing 10 to 70 weight polymer in a diluent). The polyisobutylenes will have a viscosity average, molecular weight in the range of 10,000 to 2,000,000 and can be used at concentrations in the range of 0.05 to 2.0 volume percent, but preferably less than 0.5% (of materials containing 10 to 70 weight percent of polymer in a diluent). That is, on a 100% polymer basis, the lubricant can contain in the range of 0005-15 wt. polymer, more preferably in the range of 0.01-0.35% of polyisobutylene.

Preferred acrylates and methacrylates of the nondispersant type correspond to the structural formula:

V 1 Ju -0112 i=0 6 l t 11 where n is an integer such that the viscosity average molecular weight (VAMW) is in the range of 10,000 to 2,000,000, more preferred and within the range of 0.5-2 wt. solides in the final mist oil the preferred VAMW is the range of 200,000 to 400,000 and where R is H, for the acrylates and methyl for the methacrylates. 1n the copolymer type materials, R is a single alkyl radical (branched or normal) having a carbon number in the range of 6 to about 30, preferably eight to 24 (usually an even number). In the preferred terpolymer types of materials at least two different alkyl radicals (in the above carbon number ranges) are present in the polymer chain (e.g., normal octyl and normal decyl or each of the even numbered normal alcohols in the C C range). 1n the dispersant type materials the above-noted copolymers or terpolymers have been grafted with N-vinyl pyrrolidone. Descriptions of such polymers can be found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,091,627, issued Aug. 31, 1937 to Herman A; Bruson; 2,489,671, issued Nov. 29, 1949 to Anthony J. Revukas; 3,252,949, issued May 24, 1966 to J. E. Fields et al.; 3,417,021, issued Dec. 17, 1968 to John E. Engelhart and 3,510,425, issued May 5, 1970 to Timothy C. Wilson.

An especially preferred polymethacrylate is that sold by Rohm and Haas under the trade name PL 10190 (which has a molecular weight of about 100,000 and of the same chemical structure as the 700 Series"). Two operable polyisobutylenes are Paratone N" (which has a Staudinger molecular weight of about 20,000 and contains about 20% polymer and Paratac 108 (which has a Staudinger molecular weight of about 10,000 and contains about 35 wt. polymer in 150 SUS at 100 F mineral oil.

A mixture of 10 parts by weight of 300,000 VAMW methacrylate terpolymer, wherein two or more of the alkyl groups are in the C range and l to 4 parts by weight of a 150,000 VAMW polyisobutylene is especially useful as a polymeric additive in a mist lubricant. Also useful is the dispersant type polymethacrylate terpolymer sold as "Acryloid 9665." A useful acrylic is Acryloid 162.

The preferred lubricant base stocks are naphthenic and paraffinic lubes having a viscosity in the range of 100 to 3000 SUS at 100 F. The paraffinic lubes are generally solvent dewaxed (e.g., to a pour point of 0 F. or less) and solvent refined and have an ASTM viscosity index in the range of -130 and a viscositygravity constant less than 0.82. The paraffmic lube can be hydrorefined or hydrocracked or hydroisomerized. Blends of such paraffinic lubes with napthenic lubes of about the same viscosity range, or more preferred, with hydrorefined naphthenic lubes can also be used. In general the naphthenic component is preferred in the low viscosity oils (e.g., to 600 SUS at 100 F.) since a higher V.1. is generally preferred in higher viscosity base oils. The naphthenic oil can include those oils classified as relatively naphthenic and can have a viscosity-gravity constant in the range of 0820-0899, more preferred 0850-0899, and is preferably free of naphthenic acids. The preferred naphthenic oil is hydrorefined and has an ultraviolet absorptivity at 260 millimicrons (i.e., 260 UVA) that is at least 40% lower than the 260 UVA of the unhydrorefined oil (e.g., the charge to the hydrorefining step).

The hydrorefming (whether of paraffmic or napththenic oils) can be by such process as those described in US. Pat. Nos. 3,502,567, issued Mar. 24, 1970, of Mills and Dimeler; 3,619,414, issued Nov. 9, 1971, of Mills, Kirk and Olenzak and 3,653,127, issued Apr. 4, 1972, of Mills, Dimeler, Atkinson and Hoffman. The hydroisomerized paraffmic (or mildly naphthenic lubes) can be made by the processes described in United States Patent 3,658,689, issued Apr. 25, 1972 of Steinmetz and Barmby, and the hydrocracked paraffinic oil can be made by such processes as those described in US. Pat. Nos. 3,579,437, issued May 18, 1971, of Wentzheimer, Reynolds and Chalpin; 3,579,435, issued Nov. 19, 1970 to Olenzak and Thompson and 3,617,484 issued Nov. 2, 1971 to Thompson, Olenzak, Kraus and Steinmetz. Any of these oils (whether hydrocracked, hydrorefined or hydroisomerized) can be extracted with an aromatic selective solvent (such as furfural, phenol, etc.) either before or after the hydrocracking, hydrorefining or hydroisomerization step. The oils can be subjected to additional finishing as with an adsorbent (e.g., activated carbon,) attapulgite, acid-activated montmorillorite, bauxite, molecular sieve zeolites, spent cracking catalyst or mixtures thereof) and/or acid contacting (e.g., HF, H 80 HCl etc.) followed by neutralization.

An especially preferred mist lubricant composition comprises an effective amount of the polymeric additive to suppress stray fog and a hydrocracked paraffmic oil (preferably solvent extracted or hydrorefined to reduce or inhibit sludging on exposure to light) having a viscosity in the range of 80-3000 SUS at 100 F., and an oxidation inhibitor in amount effective to permit said composition to pass the ASTM D-943 oxidation test for a period of at least 200 hours, (more preferred 300 hours) said amount being less than would be required to permit the same D-943 test performance for a similar composition wherein the hydrocracked lube oil is replaced by an unhydrocracked solvent refined lube or the same viscosity, VGC and viscosity index. When the hydrocracked oil is stabilized by extraction or hydroefining, said D-943 life will be less than if an unstabilized hydrocracked lube is used; however, the composition containing the stabilized oil can typically have improved thermal stability and resistance to degradation on exposure to ultraviolet light.

The following table presents typical properties of stabilized hydrocracked oils which can be used in mist lubrication according to the present invention:

Properties of Hydrocracked Oils* The preferred antioxidants include the zinc organo thiophosphates (e.g., zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates), the substituted phenols and methylene bridged polyalkyl phenols (e.g., ditertiary-butyl paracresol; 2,6-

ditertiary butyl phenol; 4,4-methylenebis (2,6-ditertbutyl phenol, etc.). The amine types (e.g., phenylene diamine; 2,6-ditert-butyl-alphadimethylamino-pcresol; N,N '-di-sec-butyl-p-phenediamine N,N diisopropyl-p-phenylenediamine, etc.

ln mist lube composition containing a solvent refined paraffmic lube, the oxidation inhibitor concentration can be reduced when -l00% of the solvent refined lube is replaced by the stabilized hydrocracked oil.

Also in some mist lubricant formulations which contain a solvent refined paraffinic lube, the partial or whole substitution of a hydrocracked (preferably, a stabilized hydrocracked) lube permits the use of a lower concentration of the polymeric additive for a given degree of stray fog. This provides improved reclassification perforamance (for a given degree of stray fog) in the composition containing the hydrocracked lube. Alternatively, a lower molecular weight polymer can be used in the composition containing the hydrocracked lube.

Where the lubrication system in which the mist oil is to be used has rubber seals it is preferred that the base oil contain napthenic oils, such as a blend of paraffinic and napthenic oils (including hydrorefined oils and raw napthenic distillate") having an aniline point in the range of l50l70 F. in order to maintain the seals in properly swelled condition. With silicone rubber seals the preferred aniline poing is in the range of l2l5 F.

It is also preferred that the basic nitrogen content of the base lubricant be as low as possible, preferably less than 5 p.p.m. nitrogen, more preferred less than 1 p,p,m., since it has been discovered that basic nitrogen compounds in lubricating oils cause skin irritation.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In the attached drawing, FlG. 1 illustrates the relationship between the two major desired properties of a mist lubricant, expressed, in FIG. 1, as a function of the molecular weight of the polymeric additive and, in FIG. 2, as a function of the volume percent of the polymer dispersion. It can be seen that, at a given concentration of the methacrylic polymer, only a very narrow molecular weight range will produce a mist oil having the requisite stray fog and reclassification properties. In FIG. 1 it can be seen that a viscosity average molecular weight of about 300,000 was necessary in order to produce a satisfactory mist lubricant. In general, with acrylic polymers, particularly polymethacrylates, the viscosity average molecular weight (VAMW) is preferably in the range of 200,000 to 400,000; however, with the dispersant type terpolymer (e.g., Acryloid 9668) a VAMW as high as two million can be effective at concentrations no greater than 0.5 weight percent polymer.

ln P16. 2, the polymer additive was a commercially available polyisobutylene, Paratone N. The product contained about 20% solids; therefore the weight percent concentration of polymer on a solids basis in the lubricant is about one-fifth of the indicated volume percent. As can be seen in FIG. 2, only a very narrow concentration of the polyisobutylene additive produced the requisite combination of stray fog and reclassification properties. Note, however, that for some uses the requisites can be a stray fog of 8 grams per hour or less and/or reclassification of 0.6 ounces per hour, or greater, per 100 bearing inches, thus, permitting the use of a lower molecular weight polymer and/or a wider concentration range.

In the studies of FIGS. 1 and 2 the test conditions were: an oil temperature of 120 F., an air temperature of 100 F. in Norgren test apparatus. The study was conducted in a blend of solvent refined paraffinic base oils, the blend having a viscosity at 100 F. of 1500 SUS and a viscosity at 210F. of 111 SUS (97 V.1.). The polybutene had a viscosity average molecular weight (VAMW) of about 150,00. The acrylic polymers were of the terpolymer, nondispersant type (the Acryloid 700" series) and were tested at the 1% volume level (the solids content of the polymer dispersions varied between about and 60%; however, with these polymers the concentration variation within this range does not appreciably change the conclusion, shown in FIG. 1, that a terpolymer methacrylate polymer in the 200,000 to 400,000 molecular weight range will produce a mist oil with the desired properties. The tested terpolymer contained at least two different alkyl groups in the C -C range.

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES In the following examples all percentages are by weight unless otherwise specified.

EXAMPLE 1 A mist lubricant having a viscosity at 100 F. of 2030 SUS was formulated as follows (all percentages are volume percent): 22% of a solvent refined paraffinic lube containing 15.5 weight percent gel aromatics and having an SUS viscosity of 508 at 100 F. and 64.3 at 210 F.; 75.78% of a paraffinic bright stock containing 24% gel aromatics and having an SUS viscosity at 100 F. 2700 and 165 at 210F.; 1.72% of Vanlube 71 (a lead diamyl dithio carbamate); 0.02% of Acryloid 162 (an acrylic polymer, generally used as a pour de- Pressam); 01.5% isrr yl q29 51116 1 x s methacrylate terpolymer of the dispersant type and having an average molecular weight of about one million and being about 26 weight 7c polymer solids. The mist lubricant, upon use testing, had superior reclassification properties and the test indicated that the acrylic dispersant polymer was beneficial as an additive in a mist oil.

Similar results can be obtained when the Vanlube 71" is replaced by zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate or a chlorine-phosphorous additive, such as Lubrizol 75 or therfi ladditive.

In general such lubricants can be similarly formulated to have any desired viscosity in the range of about 70 to 3000 SUS at 100 F.. by suitable choice of the base oil. One good base oil combination is to blend SAE 20 and 30 motor oils.

EXAMPLE II and having an SUS viscosity at 100 F. of508 and 64.3

at 210 F.); 2.0% Paratac (a polyisobutylene dispersion containing about 20 percent polymer solids); and 0.4% Lubrizol 1360 (a conventional additive package of the zinc dithiophosphate type). The formulated mist oil had an SUS viscosity at 100 F. of 295 and 54.5 at 210 F. and as ASTM pour point of +5 F.

EXAMPLE 111 A mist oil was formulated'containing 31.8% Sunvis 11 (a solvent refined paraffinic lube containing 12% gel aromatics and having an SUS viscosity at 100 F. of 110 and 46.3 at 210 F.); 59.8% of Sunvis 21," 8.0% Paratone N (a polyisobutylene dispersion containing about 20% polymer) and 0.4% Lubrizol 1360. The formulated mist oil had an SUS viscosity at 100 F. of 513 and 59.2 at 210 F. and an ASTM pour point of 0 F.

EXAMPLE IV A mist oil was formulated containing 72.48% "Sunvis 11, 25.95% Sunvis 51," O. 1% ofAcry1oid 162" (an acrylic polymer, generally used as a pour point depressant), 0.3% zinc dithiophosphate, 1.0% Lubrizol 1734" (a motor oil additive package); 0.15% Vanderbilt BSN, a neutral barium petroleum sulfonate rust inhibitor and 0.02% Dow Corning defoamer. This mist oil gave satisfactory service when tested for use in Norgren Microfog Lubricators.

EXAMPLE V A mist oil was formulated containing 22% of Sunvis 21," 73% of the bright stock of Example I, 1% of a polymethacrylate terpolymer solution of the nondispersant type, containing 47.5% polymer and having a viscosity average molecular weight of 290,000 (number average molecular weight 80,000); 0.5% of Santalube 680 (a mixed phenolic phosphate-sulfonate) 0.1% of Ortholeum 535 (a mixture of alkyl ammonium mixed acid phosphates); 2.75% of a cosulfurized blend of lard oil and C a-olefins, 0.5% Ortholeum 162 (a fatty acid phosphate E.P. additive); and 0.02% of a 1% solution of Dow Corning Silicone Defoamer 200 (60,000 cs, at 100 F.).

This mist lubricant was tested for bearings in cold rolling machinery in a steel mill. It exhibited expecially good lubrication properties and satisfactory misting and reclassification properties. Similar lubricants can be formulated having SUS viscosities in the range of to 3000 by suitable choice of the base oil.

The mist oil of this example can be improved (e.g., as in oxidation stability) by substitution, in part or whole, ofa hydrocracked paraffinic oil (preferably stabilized) of about the same viscosity for the mixture of Sunvis 21 and bright stock. Hydrorefined paraffinic oils (e.g., the Sunvis H" Series) can also be substituted in whole or part for the solvent refined paraffinic oils of this and other examples.

EXAMPLE VI Parts by Volume Naphthenic distillate SUS at 100F.) 36.9

-Continued Parts by Volume Naphthemc distillate (2400 SUS at 100F.) 55.0 Tallow fatty acid 8.0

The way lubricant was unsatifactory in a mist lubrication system because of excess stray fog.

EXAMPLE VII Property ASTM Test Result Viscosity, SUS/100F. D2161 510 Viscosity, SUS/210F. D2161 52.0 Viscosity Index D2270 Viscosiy cST/100F. D445 110.0 Flash, OC, F. D92 355 Four, F. D97 -10 Gravity, AP1 D287 20.0 Total Acid No., In KOH/ D974 1.0 Cu Strip, class (3 r/2l2%) D130 1A Sulfur, D129 0.65 Timken, lbs. pass D2509 35 Stick-Slip Ratio 0.80

Such way lubricants, for use as mist oils, can comprise a mineral oil, a stick-slip additive in amount effective to produce a stick-slip ratio of 0.85 or less and a polymeric mist suppressant additive in an amount sufficient to suppress stray fog.

The preferred stick-slip additives include tallow fatty acids, sulfurized sperm oil, and synthetic sperm substitutes (e.g., Caravan 6106 of Cincinnati Milacron Chemicals, lnc.), a cosulfurized blend of lard oil and olefin, neutralized acid phosphates and acid phosphates (Ortholeum 162 or 535).

Especially useful stick-slip additives are the chemical reaction products which can be produced by the action of sulfur or sulfur monochloride on lard oil and olefins (or polyolefin oils). Such cosulfurized compositions are generally useful as a replacement for sulfurized sperm oil and can be obtained by sulfurizing a blend of 90 to 30 parts by weight of lard oil and 10 to 70 parts of an aliphatic olefin containing 6 to 128 carbon atoms (preferably 12-60 carbon atoms). The sulfurization is carried out using elemental sufur. Sulfur monochloride can be used for both sulfurizing and chlorinating simultaneously. The sulfurization can involve cooking at from 330 to 445F. for 20 minutes to 10 hours followed by blowing with a gas (preferably, at from 125 to 340F. for 30 minutes to 20 hours) to remove hydrogen sulfide. With sulfur monochloride, the preferred cooking temperature iss in the range of 150250 (under pressure if desired). The sulfurized oils can contain from to 25 weight percent sulfur as based on the blend of olefin and lard oil (i.e., 5 to 25 parts by weight of sulfur per parts by weight of olefin-lard oil blend).

For example, effective slip-stick ratio reduction. can be achieved by adding to a mineral oil from 0.1-10 wt. of a composition consisting esentially of a sulfurcontaining chemical reaction product of a blend of lard oil and polyisobutylene containing in the range of 12-60 carbon atoms.

One such cosulfurized blend is made as follows:

Twenty-two hundred and sixty ml. of winter strained lard oil were blended with 400 ml. of tetraisobutylene in a 5 L kettle equipped with a vibromixer. The mixture was heated to 250F. and the vibromixer operated at maximum speed. Sulfur (239 g) was added and the temperature of the mixture was raised to 375F. for 2 hours. The mixture was then cooled to 200F. and air was bubbled through the mixture by means of a glass tube at a moderate rate 9below that at which splashing and agitation take place) for 1 hour. The resulting sulfurized oil was analyzed and found to contain 8.23% sulfur. A 10 gram portion of the sulfurized oil was dissolved in 100 g. of a commercially available solvent refined paraffinic lube having a viscosity at 210F. of 40.45 SUS, an ASTM viscosity index of 104 and containing 12% aromatics (by ASTM D2007). The oil solution remained clear with no separation after being tested at 36F. overnight and for 1 week at room temperature.

In mist lubricants any mineral oil or blend of mineral oils having a viscosity in the range of 100-3000 SUS at 100F. can be used; however, the preferred mineral oils comprise solvent refined paraffinic distillate or bright stock, hydrorefined paraffinic distillate or bright stock, hydrocracked paraffinic distillate (which can be stabilized by solvent extraction or by hydrorefining), napthenic distillates (preferably of low napthenic acid content), solvent and/or acid refined naphthenic distillate, and hydrorefined naphthenic distillate and mixtures of two or more of these oils. Especially preferred where there is a possibility of inhalation or ingestion are hydorefined napthenic distillate, stabilized hydrocracked paraffinic distillate and hydrorefined paraffinic distillate (which can be solvent refined before or after the hydrorefining).

The term hydrocracked paraffinic oil as used herein is defined as a lube oil viscosity range product of hydrocracking a petroleum charge stock (which can be either paraffinic or napthenic by VGC classification), said hydrocracked product having a VGC below 0.820. That is, hydrocracking (like heavy solvent extraction) can produce oils having a lower VGC (therefore, which are more paraffinic) than the VGC of the charge. For example, a charge to a hydrocracker can be a distillate fraction of a Lagomedio crude having a viscosity at 100F. of 191 SUS, API gravity 27.5 and VGC of 0.837 (which would, thus, be classified as relatively napthenic). The hydrocracked oil can boil within about the same range as the charge and have a viscosity at 100F. of 93.5 SUS, API gravity 36.5, and VGC of 0.791 (or paraffinic by class). After dewaxing the ASTM-V1 of the product can be 120. Such a hydrocracked oil, having a paraffinic VGC is included within the term hydrocracked paraffinic oil.

TEST PROCEDURE The Norgren test apparatus, as referred to herein, is illustrated schematically in the accompanying FIG. 3.

It comprises a gas regulater 1, gas filter 2, air control valve (including a flow gauge) 3, timer 4, air heater 5, primary pressure gauge 5, thermometers 7, and 8, the C. A. Norgren mist generator (9), oil heater 10, sump l1, manifold pressure gauge 12, manifold assembly 13, reclassifier nozzles 14 and reclassifier collection cup 15.

The accompanying FIG. 4 illustrates the three main types of nozzle (mist, spray and condensing). In all of the work reported herein, the mist" nozzle was used.

The following is the test procedure used with the Norgren test apparatus.

1. Weigh all oil-containing or collecting components 2. Fill sump with test oil.

3. Weigh sump again to calculate oil weight.

4. Assemble sump and turn-on air to 23.0 p.s.i.g. (gauge 6). Flow rate should be approx. 5.35 SCFM air.

5. Run for about 1 hour, bringing oil and air to desired temperature.

6. Disassemble and weigh all components.

7. Repeat steps 3-6 as desired to obtain test dats (the first hour run results are usually discounted).

8. Calculations A. Output is oil weight taken from generator divided by total SCFM of air through, generally reported as (gm/

B Manifold losses are weight of oil collected in sump and manifold (generally expressed as of total output).

C. Reclassification is weight of oil collected in cup 15, expressed as of total output (or, by calculation, as oz/hr/lOO 8.1. or as drops per CF per minute (where a drop is 0.071 gram).

D. Stray fog is the oil taken from the generator minus manifold losses and reclassification, generally reported as stray fog 9100-B-C) or as grams/hour.

In this test procedure the important parameters are time, air pressure and flow rate, manifold pressure, air and oil temperatures, and type and number of reclassifiers (each) nozzle being called a reclassifier). 1n the testing referred to herein, l mist nozzles were used.

The two key characteristics of a mist lubricant are the amount of product getting to the bearing to satisfy the lubrication requirements, and the amount of stray fog going to the atmosphere. In general, no visible stray fog should be produced by the oil during use. 1n general, the performance of a misting lubricant can involve four factors (the first two being the more important in the Norgren tester):

l. Stray Fog is a portion of mist output which does not reclassify at lubrication point 2. Reclassification is the percent of oil output which recombines to become usable lubricant 3. Mist Output is the amount of mist taken from reservoir per cubic foot of air (this is principally a function of oil viscosity and temperature) 4. Manifold Loss is the percent of mist output that is lost in the systems plumbing. In the testing referred to herein, this loss should be less than 60%; however, in commercial operations this loss is less than 10%.

Since vicosity has an effect on misting, the following table compares properties of three viscosity grades of the mist lubricant of Example V (the differing viscosities being due to differing base oils).

The oil of Example V is especially useful as a mist lubricant since it possesses a good combination of misting characteristics and lubrication properties. The misting properties include low stray fog, high constant oiloutput (low change with temperature) and low manifold loss. the lubrication properties include good oxidation stability, foam resistance, good demulsibility, rust and corrosion resistance, good load carrying ability and, for waxy lubrication, low static coefficient of friction. Oxidation stability and foam resistance are of prime importance during the process of mist lubrication. Regarding oxidation resistance, the following test results show the excellent oxidation stability of the Example V oil in comparison with a commercially available mist oil. The test was a modified (no water) D943 oxidation test run for 1000 hours with copper and iron catalysts, and air at 203F.

Commercial Exam le Mist Oil B V O L Viscosity Increase, F., 7: 414 2.3 Total Acid Number, mgKOH/g, final 3.3 1.2 Pentane lnsolubles, 70 0.68 0.07 Visual Sludge Heavy Light Foam resistance and demulsibility are also important if the charge oil becomes contaminated with water. The Example V oil has excellent foam resistance and demulsibility both of which are quite poor for the commercial mist oil B, as shown by the following data:

Commercial Once the oil has reclassified at the point of lubrication, it must be a good lubricant and rust preventive. The ability of the Example V oil to lubricate and protect against rust in conventional tests is illustrated by the ASTM D665 B test, which the Example V oil passes and by the ASTM D corrosion test (3 hours/212F.) in which the Example V oil rates "No. l.

The lubricity of the Example V type oil under high unit loads for short time periods (E.P.) can be tested by the Timken Tester, and under normal loads for a long time (antiwear) by the 4-Ball Wear Tester.

The data for Example V oil are shown below in comparison with a commercial antiwear E.P. Mist oil. Both provided excellent performance.

Competitive Exam le Mist Oil V O L Timken Test, lbs/pass 60 60 4 Ball Wear Test, scar diameter/mm 20 Kg, 1800 RPM, BUT. 1 hour .40 .40 40 Kg, 1800 ROM, 130F, 1 hour .45 .45

Competitive Exam le Mist Oil B V 05 Stick-Slip Friction Test Coefficient of Static Friction (p.,) 0.108 0.103 Coefficient of Kinetic Friction 0.128 0.124 Ratio (us/11k) 0.85 0.83

Note that static friction is reduced below kinetic (moving) friction which eliminates stick-slip and provides smooth machine start up.

In mist lubrication systems, the oil output from the mist generator is transported in an air stream as mist to the lubrication point where it is reclassified or liquified.

Optimum mist droplets vary in particle size from 0.5 to 2.0 microns. These small droplets are required at low air velocities of approximately feet per second or less to maintain stable non-condensing mists. Any particles above 2.0 microns are knocked out by a baffle and are returned to the reservoir. Extremely small particles (below 0.5 micron) can be stable at high air velocities but condensation is difficult, and an objectionable fog can fill the atmosphere around the equipment.

Reclassified oil percent is the amount of oil output which recombines to become usable lubricant. Oil output is the grams of oil taken from the reservoir per cubic foot of air. The amount of mist generated and reclassified can be affected by pressure and temperature. The mist output increases with feed air pressure. However, a critical balance must be maintained because too high a feed air pressure to the generator can pick up too much oil and cause increased dropout (wet out) in the manifold line. Oil sump and air heaters can be used to facilitate misting of viscous products. The viscosity grade is usually determined by the lubrication requirements. If the grade is too heavy for optimum misting, temperature should be adjusted to thin it to the proper misting viscosity. Heating is recommended when an oil 500 SUS at 100F. or above is used, because it has been determined that to obtain satisfactory lubrication of one fluid ounce per hour for 100 bearing inches, the viscosity should preferably be below 900 seconds at application temperature.

When the customer uses mist oils of the Example V type (e.g., high VI, paraffinic base oil) he should follow the table below:

The portion of the oil output that is not reclassified at the lubrication points or lost as stray fog represents Wet out in the mist delivery plumbing and is called manifold loss. Stray fog is the portion of the oil output which does not reclassify at the lubrication point. It usually vents at the lubrication point into the room housing the machinery. The polymer level should be adjusted so there is no visible stray fog (e.g., less than 10 g/hr in Norgrentest).

Reclassifier nozzles are designed to provide turbulence which promotes reclassification. Three different types of reclassifying nozzles are shown in FIG. 4. They are:

a. Mist nozzle for operations such as high-speed ball and roller bearings where the nozzle simply directs the oil/air mixture to the bearing which is moving fast enough to reclassify the oil.

b. Spray nozzle has a more restricted orifice flow area and a longer passageway which results in a semi-wet spray. This nozzle is used when lubricating moderate-speed gears, chains, and antifriction bearings.

c. Condensing nozzle tiny droplets are formed when the mist hits a baffle in the nozzle and drop into or onto the mechanism to be lubricated. This nozzle is used for low-speed bearings, ways, and slides.

Various combinations of these nozzles can be used with a single mist system. It should be understood that none ofthem is efficient and some quantity of oil escapes to the atmosphere as stray fog.

Mist lubricators are very sensitive and require precise adjustment. Based on the type of system involved, some or all of the following adjustments may have to be considered for optimum operation:

1. Feed-air pressure increasing the air pressure increases the amount of oil mist generated.

2. Feed-air temperature increasing this also will increase the amount of oil mist generated.

3. Oil-sump temperature can be used to control the oil viscosity to optimize misting.

4. Oil suction tube control the amount of oil atomized at a given temperature, pressure, and oil viscosity is controlled by the size of the suction tube.

These controls affect the mist output in a predictable fashion and should be set to minimize manifold wet-out and stray fog. Selection of oil viscosity should be based on the lubrication requirement, and adjusted for optimum misting by changing temperatures and, if necessary, pressure.

GLOSSARY OF TERMS Bearing lnch: ls a unit of measurement used for selecting the appropriate capacity misting unit. The shaft diameter measurement in inches represents bearing inch rating for a single row antifriction bearing.


Cubic feet per minute of air or mist.

Fluid Ounce (Fl. 02.):

One fluid ounce (Fl. 02.); 1.805 cu. in.


Mist distribution piping.

Manifold Pressure:

Gauge pressure of mist in manifold.


Oil-mist is an aerosol dispersion of air and oil particles ranging in size from one-half micron diameter to approximately 8 micron diameter.

Mist Fitting:

An application fitting that meters oil-mist with minimum coversion to oil spray or droplets,

Mist Velocity:

Feet per second (FPS); maximum recommended mist velocity is 24 FPS. Prelubrication Since oil-mist is a system which continuously supplies make-up oil, all machine elements must be pre-oiled before initial machine operation Regulated Air Pressure:

Controlled gauge pressure applied to the oil-mist mist lubricants of the Example V type (the polymer can either be acrylic or a mixture of acrylic polyolefin).

. TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF MIST of a polymeric additive selected from a polystyrene and a polystyrene in admixture with a member of the group consisting of polyacrylates and polybutenes, said polymeric additive having a viscosity average molecular weight in the range of 10,000 to 2,000,000 and said effective amoung being in the range of 0.01 to 2 weight percent as based on said mineral lubricating oil and sufficient to reduce the stray fogging and permit adequate reclassification of said mineral lubricating oil,

b. pneumatically conducting said aerosol to a zone where lubrication occurs, and

c. reclassifying said aerosol in said zone whereby the oil droplets of the aerosol are coalesced within said lubrication zone.

2. A process as in claim 1 wherein said polymeric additive is a mixture of a polystyrene and a depersant type polymethacrylate terpolymer which has been grafted with N-vinyl pyrrolidone.

3. A process as in claim 1 wherein the polystyrene polymeric additive is selected from polymers of styrene, a-methylsytrene and B-methylstyrene.

4. A process according to claim 1 wherein said polymeric additive has a viscosity average molecular weight in the range of 200,000-400,000.

5. A process according to claim 1 wherein said lubrication zone includes the bearings of cold rolling machinery for steel.

6. A process according to claim 1 wherein said polymeric additive comprises a polystyrene and at least one Viscosity, SKIS/100? D2161 97.0

Viscosity, SUS/210F D2161 41.6

Viscosity Index D2270 174 Viscosity, cSt/l00F D445 19.8

Viscosity, est/210? D445 0.66

Flash, coc, '2' B92 355 Fire, CCC, "1'' D92 3B5 Pour, F D97 "2 Color D1500 4.5

Gravity, API 'D287 Pounds per Gallon D1250 Specific Gravity D1250 0-858 Total Acid 1%., mgKOll/g D664 Copper Strip, class (3 tar/212?) D130 1A Foam, Tend/Stab D892 Sequencc I, ml 5/0 Sequence II, in]. 20/0 Sequence III, m1 2 Resting, Syn. Sca Hater D6651 t Timlcen, 1b Fed. 6505 J5 Stick-slip Ratio Demulsibility, 180? D271].

3 Free Water, m1 centrifuged Water, ml Cuff, ml.

Oxidation Stability D943 Mod. W

irvts Inc 422mm, 7.

Total Acid No. Inc., mgROH/g Pencane Iasolubles, 7. .VLsual Sludge LUBRICANTS" 205 301 509 1031 1520 2065 2550 49.8 57.5 68.4 97.0 119 141 162 137 ,138 116 109 -104 102 102 44.0 64.8 109.8 222.9 328.3 445.9 551.1 7.20 9.50 12.54 19.64 24.7 29.8 34.2 395 410 420 440 460 470 500 420 435 450 470 490 500 525 -40 -40 25 -15 -15 -10 -10 5.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 6.5 31.7 30.1 29.3 28.5 27.5 26.9 27.2 7.63 7.24 7.30 7.37 7.39 7.42 7.42 0.916 0.869 0.877 0.886 0.888 0.890 0.892 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 10/0 5/0 10/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 5/0 10/0 10/0 5/0 5/0 s/o 5/0 5/0 10/0 5/0 Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass Pass 60 60 60 60 60 60 0.80 0.82 0.82

-- V.Light:

901%, 1000 hrs., 3 liters oxygen/hr, 300 m1 011., iron and copper catalysts As in Example V, but; with base 0 11s of differing viscosity The invention claimed is:

l. A process of lubrication which comprises:

a. converting into an aerosol a mixture of a mineral lubricating oil having an SUS viscosity in the range of to 3000 at 100F. with an effective amount dispersant type polymethacrylate copolymer which has been grafted witih N-vinyl pyrrolidone.

7. A process according to claim 6 wherein said acrylic polymer contains at least one alkyl group in the 6 to 30 carbon number range.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4601840 *Jun 21, 1985Jul 22, 1986National Distillers And Chemical Corp.Mist lubrication process
US4663220 *Jul 30, 1985May 5, 1987Kimberly-Clark CorporationPolyolefin-containing extrudable compositions and methods for their formation into elastomeric products including microfibers
US4767556 *Aug 25, 1986Aug 30, 1988Henkel CorporationLow-sling fiber lubricant comprising shear-reduced, high molecular weight polyisobutylene
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US5371130 *Oct 7, 1993Dec 6, 1994The Lubrizol CorporationPolymer compositions of improved compatibility in oil
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CN102212410BMay 17, 2011Jan 23, 2013石家庄新泰特种油有限公司Anti-coking oil mist lubricating oil composition
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U.S. Classification508/297, 184/6.26, 508/591, 585/5, 585/12, 585/11, 585/4, 184/109, 585/3, 585/13
International ClassificationC10M169/04, C10M177/00, C10M171/00
Cooperative ClassificationC10N2210/01, C10N2240/02, C10M2229/046, C10M2219/024, C10M2229/041, C10M2225/02, C10M2219/06, C10M2207/1265, C10M2203/1065, C10M2211/02, C10N2220/02, C10M2203/102, C10M2207/2835, C10M2207/027, C10M2209/084, C10N2210/03, C10N2240/046, C10M2215/226, C10M2217/06, C10M177/00, C10M2205/22, C10N2210/05, C10M2219/085, C10N2250/04, C10M2203/06, C10M2227/09, C10M2207/282, C10M2203/1085, C10N2240/04, C10M2207/286, C10M2215/068, C10M2223/045, C10M2229/044, C10M2203/106, C10M2205/026, C10M2207/186, C10M2203/10, C10M2207/1225, C10M2203/108, C10M2223/041, C10M2211/06, C10M169/048, C10M2215/066, C10M2207/166, C10M2229/042, C10M2205/02, C10M2215/042, C10M2219/044, C10M2215/221, C10M2207/246, C10M2211/08, C10M2223/065, C10M2225/00, C10N2240/62, C10M2207/283, C10M2207/2815, C10M2205/00, C10M2223/042, C10M2209/08, C10M2211/022, C10M2219/02, C10M2205/028, C10M171/005, C10M2229/043, C10M2207/18, C10M2207/129, C10M2207/206, C10M2207/023, C10M2229/04, C10M2207/09, C10M2205/20, C10M2203/1045, C10M2223/043, C10N2240/044, C10M2219/046, C10M2229/02, C10M2205/024, C10M2223/06, C10M2219/022, C10N2210/04, C10M2229/05, C10M2215/225, C10M2215/065, C10M2207/122, C10M2207/40, C10M2229/045, C10M2215/06, C10M2215/067, C10M2207/281, C10N2240/042, C10M2219/062, C10M2207/125, C10M2215/30, C10M2227/083, C10M2203/1006, C10M2221/041, C10N2240/14, C10M2203/104, C10M2207/404, C10M2207/026, C10M2215/22, C10M2207/2845, C10M2217/028, C10M2211/024, C10M2223/061, C10M2215/064, C10M2215/102, C10N2210/02, C10M2223/04, C10M2205/04, C10N2240/08, C10M2203/1025, C10M2205/0206
European ClassificationC10M177/00, C10M171/00E, C10M169/04L