US 3855752 A
A masonry building block capable of being used in prefabricated structural panels is provided and includes cores therethrough to receive reinforcing rods in the height of the prefabricated panel.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
mted States Patent 1191 Aylon Dec. 24, 1974 [541 MASONRY BLOCK AND BUILDING 3,099,110 7/1963 Spaight 52/396 PANELS FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS  Inventor: Norman N. Aylon, Willowdale, 465,097 8/1951 Italy 52/606 Ontario, Canada 483,070 7/1953 Italy 52/98  Assignee: General Concrete Ltd., Hamilton, Z1322 Ontaflo, Canada 987,253 4 1951 France 52/607 148,349 9/1952 Australia... 52/259  plied 1972 1,039,079 5/1953 France 1 52/259  App]. No.: 295,896 1,195,214 6/1965 Germany 52/438 OTHER PUBLICATIONS  US. Cl 52/605, 52/259, 52/437, Architectural Forum, 7-1952, pages 162, 163.
52/439, 52/606  Int. Cl. E04c 2/04, E04c 1/08 Primary E Alf d C Perham  Field of Search 52/436, 437, 438, 606, Attorney, m, Fi $i & McBurney 52/607, 259, 227-229, 503, 504, 505, 605, 439 R f C1 d  ABSTRACT e erences l e A masonry buIIdIng block capable of bemg used In UNITED STATES PATENTS prefabricated structural panels is provided and in- 945,859 12/1973 Neuberger 52/503 X l d cores therethrough to receive reinforcing rods Forbes X in of panel 1,406,354 2/1922 Dochnal 52/606 2,105,613 1/1938 Poston 52/436 3 Clalms, 9 Drawing Figures PMEmwnmmsn SHEET 3 BF 3 MASONRY BLOCK AND BUILDING PANELS This invention relates to a novel masonry block and to novel building panels.
In the construction of buildings, generally a plurality of individual building blocks is juxtaposed and joined one to another at the building site to provide the required structure, for example, a wall. Many differing types of masonry block have been suggested, and a number of prefabricated panels also have been suggested.
However, such prefabricated panels generally either lack structural strength in flexure or buckling resistance or are bulky and unwieldy. In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel masonry block from which may be constructed prefabricated panels having the desired structural strength in flexure and buckling resistance while at the same time are not bulky and unwieldy.
The invention is described by way of illustration with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of one form of masonry block of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of a second form of masonry block of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a plan view of a third form of masonry block of the invention;
FIG. 4 is a sectional plan view of the first and alternate courses of a building structure utilizing the blocks of FIGS. 1 to 3;
FIG. 5 is a sectional plan view of the second and alternate courses of a building structure utilizingg the blocks of FIGS. 1 to 3; 7
FIG. 6 is an elevational view taken on line 66 of FIGS. 4 and 5;
FIG. 7 is an elevational view taken on line 77 of FIGS. 4 and 5;
FIG. 8 illustrates the supposition of the courses of FIGS. 4 and 5 at a corner joint;
FIG. 9 is a section of a unit accommodating horizontal steel reinforcement; and
FIGS. 10A and 10B illustrate a plan view of courses of a prefabricated panel in accordance with a further embodiment of the invention.
In the drawings, referring first to FIG. 1, there is illustrated a masonry block 10, manufactured of concrete or any convenient material and having any desired dimensions. Standard building industry practice utilizes blocks which have a nominal modular size of 16 X 8 X 8 inches and the block 10 may be so dimensioned. Adhesive-bonded blocks have dimensions slightly smaller than the modular size to allow for the thickness of adhesive, bonding the blocks together.
The end faces of the block 10 each have recesses 12 which may be of any convenient shape and generally extend the dimension of the end face between the top and bottom surfaces. Preferably, the recesses 12 in plan each are defined by a part circular surface 14 which terminates at each end in lips 16 which project in wardly of the recess 12 towards each other. The lips 16 are formed so that, by use of, for example, a builders trowel, the portion of the block between an extremity of a surface 14 and the adjacent side wall of the block may be removed as indicated by a typical fracture line 17. Blocks 10 are utilized with one or more of the lips 16 removed in this manner in certain embodiments of building structures formed from these blocks as described in more detail below with reference to FIGS. 4 to 7.
The lips 16 perform as keys providing mechanical bond with the concrete grouting positioned in the recess 12, which serves in the provision of a stable interlocking structural joint between separate prefabricated panels, as well as a stable interlock beteen blocks within the panel itself, wherever concrete grouting is emloyed internally.
A central core 18 is formed through the block 10 and extends continuously between the top face and the bottom face. The core 18 has any convenient shape and iss substantially perpendicular to the top and bottom faces. Preferably, the core 18 has a cross-sectional shape including two opposed part circular surfaces 20 and 22, the adjacent extremities of which are joined by parallel straight line surfaces 24 and 26. The straight line surfaces 24 and 26 are substantially parallel to the side walls of the block 10.
The central core 18 and the recesses preferably are dimensioned so that the surfaces 20 and 22 of partcircular cross-sectional shape have substantially the radius of curvature of the surfaces 14 of the recesses 12. Additionally, the length of the straight line surfaces 24 and 26 preferably is substantially twice the straight line distance between the extremities of the surfaces 14 and the external face of the end surfaces of the block 10. The reason for this preferred dimensioning will become apparent hereinafter when prefabricated structures are discussed.
One preferred form of the central core 18 and the recesses 12 is illustrated. As will become more apparent hereinafter, these features may have any desired crosssectional shape and preferably each recess 12 has a cross-sectional shape which is substantially half the cross-sectional shape of the central core 18, so that if two blocks 10 are placed in abutting end-to-end relationship, the combined cross-sectional shape of the adjacent recesses 12 is substantially that of the central core 18. Dimensioning in this manner is preferred for the reasons set forth in detail below.
Four satellite core 28 are provided extending continuously through the block 10 from the top face to the bottom face, substantially perpendicular thereto. The satellite cores 28 are arranged in two pairs 30 and 32. Each pair is located between the central core 18 and a recess 12.
In the embodiment illustrated, there are four individual satellite cores. This number is preferred to accommodate structural reinforcing steel and other practical considerations. It is possible to employ other numbers of such satellite cores, although the number generally is even and at least two satellite cores are required.
The satellite cores 28 are positioned regularly spaced from the recesses 12 and the central core 18. Where numbers of such cores 28 other than four is employed, it is necessary to ensure that they are adequately positioned with reference to the central core 18 and the recesses 12 so that upon positioning of the blocks 10 upon one another in a building structure with the vertically adjacent blocks 10 being offset from a central block, the satellite cores 28 are aligned throughout the vertical height of the building structure. This relationship is discussed in more detail below with reference to FIGS. 4 to 8.
Each of the satellite cores 28 may be of any convenient shape and preferably each of the satellite cores 28 is of substantially the same cross-sectional shape. In FIG. 1 a preferred form of the satellite cores 28 is illustrated and the cores 28 each have a cross-sectional shape including a semi-circular portion 34 and a straight line portion 36. Each pair 30 and 32 of satellite cores 28 includes complementarily cross-sectionalshaped cores.
The straight line portion 36 of each satellite core 28 preferably extends substantially parallel to the side faces of the block and the semi-circular portion 34 extends inwardly of the side faces of the block.
While the satellite cores 28 are illustrated in FIG. 1 as having a particular cross-sectional shape, this shape may be varied as desired. Generally, however, the cores 28 each have substantially the same cross-sectional shape. The choice of cross-sectional shape to some degree is dictated by the chosen cross-sectional shape of the central core 18, as will become more apparent hereinafter during discussion of wall constructions utilizing the blocks 10.
The satellite openings 28 are positioned inwardly of the side walls of the block a predetermined distance and the minimum distance is determined by the building regulations for the jurisdiction in which the building to be erected using the blocks 10 is located. In the preferred embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1, the straight line portions 36 of the longitudinally aligned satellite cores 28 of each pair 30 and 32 are in a straight line with each other and additionally with the appropriate straight line surface 24 and 26 of the central core 18.
The purpose of the satellite cores 28 will become apparent hereinafter during discussion of building structures formed from the blocks 10.
The block 10 represents a basic building block from which a variety of structures may be formed. These structures may be prefabricated or constructed on-site, as described in more detail below. The versatility of the blocks 10 in being able to provide both an on-site built structure and also satisfactory prefabricated building panels for later erection on-site represents a considerable advance in the art of building materials.
While the building block illustrated in FIG. 1 may be utilized in a variety of building structures as the basic unit, in order to provide smooth flat ends and corners in typical prefabricated and on-site built structures, other specialized end-blocks are provided by this invention employing basically the same concepts as are embodied in the block 10 of FIG. 1.
FIGS. 2 and 3 illustrate typical modifications of the structure of block 10 to provide end-blocks for various uses. Thus, in FIG. 2, a block 40 includes a central core 42, satellite cores 44 and a recess 46 in one end face only of the block. The form and shape of the central core 42 are substantially the same as those of the central core 18 of FIG. 1, the form and shape of satellite cores 44 are substantially the same as those of the satellite cores 28 in FIG. 1, and the form and shape of the recess 46 are substantially the same as those of the recessess 12 of FIG. 1. In common with recesses 12 of FIG. 1, the recess 46 has lips 48 at the end face. Reference is made to the above discussion of the equivalent items in FIG. 1 and the comments made therein with reference thereto apply equally here. A further form of end-block is shown in FIG. 3. An end-block 50 is approximately half the longitudinal size of blocks 10 and 40 and has a single recesss 52 formed in one end. A single pair of satellite cores 54 also is provided. The halfblock 50, as compared with block 10, lacks a central core of the type 18 and has only a single pair of satellite cores 54. The form and shape of recess 52 and of satellite cores 54 are substantially those of recesses 12 and satellite cores 28 of block 10. The discussions above with reference to these items apply to the equivalent items in block 50.
The blocks shown in FIGS. 1 to 3 represent the blocks necessary to provide prefabricated wall panels or structural walls constructed on-site having a plurality of differing manners of interconnection one with another, as described in detail below with reference to FIGS. 4 to 8. Using blocks 10 and 40 of the nominal dimension 16 X 8 X 8 inches, and blocks 50 of the nominal dimension 8 X 8 X 8 inches, it is possible to provide prefabricated or on-site building structures which are based upon an 8 inch module.
Prefabricated wall structures of any desired dimension may be provided utilizing the blocks of FIGS. 1 to 3. The prefabricated wall structures or panels may be structured so that the finished structural item may include rectangular openings at any desired location for windows or the like, consistent with the basic 8 inch module.
In addition to use in the prefabrication and onsite building of wall panels, the building blocks illustrated in FIGS. 1 to 3 may be used to provide piers, columns, spandrels, girders, beams and lintels by applying the constructional principles discussed below with reference to FIGS. 4 to 8.
A typical building structure formed from prefabricated wall units is illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 8. A number of differing manner of joining the prefabricated panels is illustrated.
A typical prefabricated panel includes a plurality of individual courses 112 in which blocks 114 are provided. The courses 112 are arranged so that alternate ones are identical but adjacent ones vary from each other. The blocks 114 in each course abut each other in end-to-end relation and the line of abutment of the blocks 114 in one course is located at approximately the mid-point of the length of the vertically adjacent blocks 114. The blocks 114 in adjacent courses therefore are offset from each other. In this way, there are provided continuous passages throughout the height of the panel defined by the central cores in the blocks of one set of alternate courses and the adjacent end recesses of blocks in the other set of alternate courses.
Additionally, the satellite cores in vertically adjacent blocks of the courses are aligned throughout the height of the wall l 10 and hence continuous passages defined thereby also are provided.
In the panel 110, the first course 116 and each alternate course in the height of the panel typically consists of a plurality of end-to-end aligned blocks 114, each of such blocks 114 being of the type illustrated in FIG. 1. The second course 118, and each alternate course in the height of the panel includes two differing forms of blocks 114. The bulk of these courses 118 is provided by a plurality of blocks 114 of the type illustrated in FIG. 1, arranged so that the point of end-to-end contact with an adjacent block is located at the approximate mid-point in the length of the blocks 114 in the courses 116.
At each end of the courses 118 is provided a block of the type illustrated in FIG. 3, in each instance with its recess 52 projecting outwardly for joining of the wall 110 to an adjacent wall panel. Thus, throughout the height of the panel 110 at each side edge is a continuous vertical channel defined by the recesses 12 and 52 of the blocks adjacent the edges. Such a channel is an essential feature in the joining of the wall panel to adjacent panels. Other edge channel configurations are possible as will become apparent in the further discussion below of FIGS. 4 to 8. The satellite cores 54 in the end blocks align with the end pair or 32 of satellite cores in the vertically adjacent blocks of courses 116.
.mence with a course of the type 1 18 and terminate with a course of the type 116.
Each block 114 in each course 112 is joined to the adjacent one by any convenient adhesive. There is a number of commercially available construction material adhesives and any of such adhesives may be utilized. Also, the vertically adjacent blocks are adhesively bonded together by any convenient adhesive. The continuous passages defined by the central cores and end recesses are filled in whole or in part with grouting in accordance with any specific structural design or may be used for the ducting of utilities.
In order to provide the desired structural strength to the prefabricated panel 110, steel reinforcing rods of any desired size are positioned in a selected number of the continuous passages defined by the vertically aligned satellite cores and these passages are filled with grout or concrete. Prior art systemss do not provide continuous passages of small cross-sectional area to accommodate steel reinforcing, as provided by the present invention. Prior art systems also do not locate reinforcing passages near each face of the block structure, as provided in the present invention, but rather tend to locate any reinforcement centrally of the panel. Hence the present invention is a considerable improvement over the existing art in these respects.
By providing steel reinforcement passages throughout the height of the panel and close to its faces it is possible to provide a prefabricated wall panel having structural strength and flexural resistance and hence it may readily be transported and handled. The panel may readily be joined to other wall panels to provide the desired building structure. The steel reinforcement of the panel has the added advantage that the final building structure is structurally stronger than conventionally formed on-site built structures, and may support heavier loads. The provision of reinforcement close to the faces of the panel results in a structure which is stronger than conventional block walls with equivalent reinforcement in a central position.
The size of the reinforcing rods depends on a number of factors, for example, the size of the panel element to be prefabricated and the ultimate end use of the panel element. As mentioned above, the location of the satellite cores in the blocks 10, and is controlled to some degree by regulations. Most jurisdictions provide a certain minimum cover to reinforcement in reinforced structures and hence when steel reinforcing rods are utilized in the structure in accordance with this invention, then the location of the satellite cores must comply with the appropriate regulationss while at the same time retaining consistency with the principles of the present invention as discussed above.
In the case of large prefabricated elements it may be desired to provide additional structural strength and this may be achieved by utilizing the item shown in FIG. 9. This is an elongated unit having lateral and vertical dimensions substantially those of the blocks 10. The unit 60 includes an elongated U-shaped channel 62 which extends the length of the unit. The unit is provided in a length which is the width of the prefabricated panel and is positioned usually at the bottom of the wall panel, although it may be positioned both at the top and bottom of the panel, if desired. A reinforcing rod may be positioned in the channel 62 and hence extend ing horizontally in the wall. Extensions of the vertical reinforcing rods in the continuous channels defined by the aligned satellite cores are hooked around the horizontal rod or rods and the channel 62 is normally filled with grout or concrete.
As indicated above, all wall panels in accordance with the present invention basically employ a plurality of blocks of the type illustrated in FIG. 1. The form of the ends of the courses in the wall panels may be varied to provide a variety of different joints with other panels.
A typical building structure including a plurality of prefabricated wall panels is illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 8. The construction illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 8 is intended to depict the many variations of the form of joint which are posible. In the desired construction, the choice of the type of joint between adjacent panels, and hence the choice of the construction of the panels, depends on the individual requirements. Thus, the building structured from prefabricated panels, constructed in accordance with this invention, may include one or more of the joint forms illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 8.
As illustrated in FIGS. 4 to 8, a building structure includes a plurality of prefabricated wall panels or units 110, 122, 124, 126, 128, 130, 132 and 134 which are joined together to form the building structure. As noted earlier in each prefabricated wall panel or element, the bulk of the building blocks are of the form shown in FIG. 1, and hence in the plan views of FIGS. 4 and 5, generally the sections of the panels between the edge termination for each panel, have not been shown in detail.
In FIGS. 4 and 5, there are illustrated respectively the first and each alternate course and the second and each alternate course. Usually the panel or wall element will commence and terminate in its vertical height with the course shown in FIG. 4. As noted earlier in discussion of panel 1 10, this may be varied as desired. It is possible to vary the construction of the courses, so that there is a random selection of courses throughout the height of the panel. However, for ease of construction, it is preferred that each alternate course in the height of the panel is identical.
Since each alternate course throughout the height of each panel or wall element is identical, description of one of each type of course in the height of the panel only is required. The following description, therefore, in describing one course is intended to refer additionally to each alternate course and should be interpreted as such.
The panel 122 is of substantially the same form as wall panel 1 10 described above and no further description is required. Wall panels 110 and 122 each have an open channel running the height of the ends thereof. Upon abutting the terminal blocks 136 and 138 of panel 110 with terminal blocks 140 and 142 of panel 122 and upon adhesive securement therebetween, grouting may be positioned in the closed keyway 144 defined therebetween.
The wall panel 124 is similar to panel 1 10 but has important differences relating to its connections with other panels. As seen in FIG. 4, in one course, at the approximate mid-point of its length the abutting ends of blocks 146 and 148 have been modified. Thus, on each of the abutting ends of blocks 146 and 148, the lips 16 (FIG. 1) adjacent to each other and nearest to the wall panel 132 have been removed, so that there is a vertical opening 150 in the course shown in FIG. 4, providing access to the interior of the core 152 defined by the juxtaposed recesses 12 (FIG. 1) of blocks 146 and 148. The provision of the opening 150 serves in the joining of the panel 124 to panel 132 by means of grouting. While this arrangement is illustrated at the mid-point of the width of the panel 124, clearly the arrangement may be provided at any convenient location across the width of the panel 124, depending on the desired location of the panel 132.
In contrast, as seen in FIG. 5, in the courses adjacent to those illustrated in FIG. 4, at the location equivalent to the position of the channel 150, the block 154 is unmodified, and retains the form shown in FIG. I.
The keyway joints at the ends of panel 124 are of different configurations. As seen in FIG. 4, the alternate courses terminate at each end in block 156 and 158 which is of the basic type shown in FIG. 1. However, in the courses of FIG. 5, end blocks 160 and 162, each of the type illustrated in FIG. 3, are utilized. The end block 160 is arranged so that its recess 52 opens toward the panel 134 to serve in the joining of the panel 134 to the panel 124. At the right hand end, as seen in FIG. 5, the block 162 is arranged in the same manner as in panel 110 with its recess 52 opening towards the panel 130.
Therefore, at the right hand vertical end of the wall panel 124 there is a continuous open channel, provided by the vertically aligned recesses 12 of the blocks 158 and recesses 52 of the blocks 162. At the left hand vertical end, there is alternately a recess 12 of blocks 156 and the flat face of blocks 160, resulting in a castellated keyway.
With the exception of the end blocks 160, the courses in the wall panel 124 are superimposed to provide continuous grouting cores and continuous reinforcing and grouting channels, as discussed above in connection with panel 110. At the end blocks 160, the satellite cores 54 of the end blocks 160 coincide, one with the recess 12 and one with the central core 18 of the block 156. The recess 52 of the block 160 coincides with one of the satellite cores 28 of the blocks 156. Thus, grouting and reinforcing rods may readily be utilized at this end of the wall panel 124.
The wall panel 130 includes in one course (FIG. 4) a plurality of blocks of the type illustrated in FIG. 1. The end block 164 adjacent the join with wall panel 124 is of the type illustrated in FIG. 2. In the other course (FIG. 5), the wall panel also includes a plurality of blocks of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 and an end block 166 of the type illustrated in FIG. 3. The end block 166 is positioned with its recess facing the recess of end block 162 of panel 124. The facing recesses in end blocks 162 and 166 define a keyway 168 therebetween.
At the side of the wall panel 130 adjacent the wall panel 126, there are provided in adjacent courses blocks 170 (FIG. 4) of the type shown in FIG. 1 and end blocks 172 (FIG. 5) of the type shown in FIG. 3. The end block 172 is positioned with its recess 52 facing the wall panel 126. Since the recesses 12 of blocks 170 align with the recesses 52 of the end blocks 172, there is provided a continuous channel in this side of the wall panel 130.
One of the satellite cores 54 of blocks 166 coincide with the central core 42 of the vertically adjacent blocks 164. Additionally, one of the satellite cores 42 of the block 164 coincides with the recess 52 of the block 166. Therefore, there are provided grouting and reinforcement channels. The overlap of the blocks 164 and 166 and the relative locations of the satellite cores 42 and 54, the central core 42 and the recess 52 are illustrated in FIG. 8. As seen in FIG. 8, satellite core 54a of block 166 is located wholly within central core 42 of block 164. Similarly, satellite core 440 of block 164 is located wholly within recess 52 of the end block 166. Thus, the combination of satellite cores and central core and recess provide a plurality of channels to receive reinforcing rods 174.
With the provision of blocks 164 and 166 in the wall panel 130, the corner joint between panels 124 and 130 has smooth flat internal and external surfaces.
The wall panel 132 is constructed of alternate courses which contain a plurality of blocks of the type illustrated in FIG. 1. In one course (FIG. 4), the end adjacent the wall panel 124 has an end block 176 of the type illustrated in FIG. 3 and having its recess 52 opening towards the vertical opening 150. At the end remote from the end block 176 is a block 178 of the type illustrated in FIG. 1. In the other course (FIG. 5), the arrangement of blocks is reversed. In this case, end block 180 of the type illustrated in FIG. 3 is arranged with its recess 52 opening towards the wall panels 126 and 128. At the end adjacent the wall panel 124, a terminal block 182 of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 is provided.
Wall panel 126 is connected to panels 130 and 132. As seen in FIG. 4, in one course there is provided a plurality of blocks of the type illustrated in FIG. 1, together with two end blocks. End block 184 adjacent the wall panel 132 is of the type illustrated in FIG. 3 with one of the lips of the recess 52 removed. End block 186 is of the type illustrated in FIG. 2. In the other course (FIG. 5) there again is a plurality of blocks of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 and in this case the end block 188 located adjacent the wall panel 132 is of the same type as block 146. The lip 16 adjacent the end block 180 is removed. The other end block 190 of this course is of the type illustrated in FIG. 3 with its recess 52 opening towards the recess 52 in end block 172 of the panel 130. The recesses 52 of the end blocks 172 and 190 define a grouting keyway 192 therebetween. One of the satellite cores 54 of the end block 190 coincides with the central core 18 of the end block 186, in similar manner to the relative location of blocks 164 and 166.
By providing end blocks 186 and 190 on wall panel 126, the corner join of wall panels 130 and 126 is smooth internally and externally.
The wall panel 128 is provided with ends adjacent the panel 132 similar to those on panel 126 adjacent the panel 132. Thuss, in one course (FIG. 4) a block 194 of the same type as block 188 is used and in the other course (FIG. a block 196 of the same type as block 184 is used. The abutting ends of the wall panels 126 and 128 by reason of the removed lips, define a continuous vertical opening l98 extending through the height thereof. The continuous vertical opening 198 communicates with the channel defined by the recesses 52 and 12 in the panel 132 to provide a grouting keyway.
The other end of the panel 128 interleaves with the adjacent end of panels 134. This is achieved by providing for one course (FIG. 4) a block 200 of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 located a distance equal to approximately the width of a block from the ultimate side extremity of the wall. For the other course (FIG. 5), an end block 202 of the type illustrated in FIG. 2 is provided extending a distance equal to approximately the width of a block beyond the extremity of the block 200. In this way, an end block 204 of the panel 134 (FIG. 4) overlaps the end block 202 of the panel 128 and simultaneously abuts against the block 200 of panel 128. Similarly, the block 206 (FIG. 5) of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 of unit 134 abuts against the end block 202 of panel 128. Hence, the ends of the panels 128 and 134 are interleaved to provide a corner structure having smooth internal and external surfaces. Usually, where interconnection is provided, biplanar panels are prefabricated with interleaved interconnections at the corners. This structure is described further below.
In the overlapping of the end blocks 202 and 204, one of the satellite cores 44 of the end block 202 coincides with the central core 42 of end block 204, while one of the satellite cores 44 of the end block 204 coincides with the central core 42 of end block 202, in analogous manner to the overlap illustrated in FIG. 8. In this way, grouting and reinforcing passages through the eheight of the corner joint are provided.
The wall panel 134 has an end structure adjacent the wall panel 124 which is similar to that of panel 130 adjacent wall panel 126. As may be seeen in FIG. 4, the terminal block 208 is of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 and abuts the external surface of the block 156 of panel 124, while in FIG. 5, the end block 210 is of the type illustrated in FIG. 3 and has its recess 52 opening to wards the recess 52 in end block 160 of panel 124.
The satellite cores have been indicated as providing passageways for reinforcing rods and grouting. However, certain of the passageways may be utilized to receive handling loops for the prefabricated panels.
It wiil be seen, therefore, that the present invention is able to provide a plurality of differing forms of prefabricated panels, which may be erected and located in any desired location with reference to one another by uing basically a building block of the type shown in FIG. 1 and appropriate use of the blocks of FIGS. 2 and 3 as end blocks for particular purposes.
As will be observed from the above description of the embodiments of FIGS. 4 to 7 that at each corner and joint, there are smooth internal and external surfaces.
There are many forms of joints between prefabricated panels which are possible, as described above, and the particular one utilized will be a matter of choice and convenience for the particular building operation. The types of joint possible may be summarized as follows: (a) a butt joint, such as between panels and 122 for the joining of panels in the same plane. The abutting ends are sealed by means of gaskets and the continuous closed keyway 144 is filled with grouting to complete the structural connection between the panels; (b) a corner joint, such as beteen panels 124 and 130, or panels 126 and 130; (c) an interleaved corner joint, such as between panels 128 and 134; (d) an offset T- joint, such as between panels 124, 110 and 134; (e) an intersecting T-joint, such as between panels 132 and 124; and (f) a centric T-joint, such as between panels 126, 128 and 132.
The interleaved corner joint between panels 128 and 134 usually is used to provide a biplanar prefabricated panel which may be erected in an upright position before joining with other panels without the use of shores or other auxiliary hardware.
The two courses of a typical panel formed in this manner are illustrated in FIGS. 10A and 108. The course illustrated in FIG. 10A represents the bottom and top courses and each alternate course therebetween, while the course illustrated in FIG. 10B repressents the other alternate courses in the panel.
As shown in FIGS. 10A and 103, the panel 250 includes a first wall portion 252 which extends in a first plane and is of substantial width. Any desired width may be used. Second wall portions 254 each is located in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the first wall portion 252 and extends only a short distance from the first wall portion 252. At the corner joints of the first and second wall portions 252 and 254, the blocks are interleaved as illustrated above in connection with the joint between panels 128 and 134, to provide a prefabricated panel with corner joints having smooth inner and outer faces.
In the course illustrated in FIG. 10A, the end blocks 256 each is of the type illustrated in FIG. 2 with the flat end face providing the outer extremity of each end of the first wall portion 252. In this course, the remainder of the blocks are shown in FIG. 1. The second wall portions 254 in this course each is provided by a single block 258, which may be of the type shown in FIG. 1 or of the type shown in FIG. 2 with the flat end wall thereof being remote from the first wall portion 252.
In the course illustrated in FIG. 108, the end blocks 260 of the first wall portion 252 each are of the type illustrated in FIG. 1 and hence the same as the remainder of the blocks in the course. Each of the end blocks, 260 terminates one half-block distance from lateral extremities of the first wall portion 252 of the course shown in FIG. 10A.
The second wall portions 254 of this course each includes a block 262 of the type shown in FIG. 2 with its flat end face being located adjacent the end block 260. At the end of the blocks 262 remote from the flat end is located a half block 264 of the type illustrated in FIG. 3, the recesses of the blocks 262 and 264 cooperating to form a channel 266 to receive grouting. The satellite cores are provided with reinforcement as discussed above.
It will be seen, therefore, that in accordance with this embodiment of the invention, there may be provided a prefabricated panel which possesses improved structural strength in flexure and buckling resistance and also is self-standing.
As mentioned above, the principles involved in constructing the wall elements described above may be utilized to form other structural elements, such as piers, columns, spandrels, girders, beams and lintels.
The constructional elements described above are the structural load bearing wall panels for the particular building structure. Any desired architectural functions may be superimposed on the faces of the panels where apropriate by patterning, texturing or the like.
Modifications are possible within the scope of the invention; 7 '7 I claim:
1. A masonry block capable of cooperating with other like blocks to provide a structural panel, said block having a rectangular parallelepiped shape and including substantially parallel and smooth top and bottom faces and two end faces,
said block having an axial plane extending perpendicularly of said top and bottom faces and extending longitudinally of said block subdividing the width of said block into two areas of substantially equal dimension,
a central core extending between and substantially perpendicularly to the top and bottom faces and cross-sectionally shaped so that the portion thereof on one side of said plane is the mirror image of and has the same cross-sectional area as the portion thereof on the other side of said plane,
a recess formed in each end face and extending between said top and bottom faces, each of said recesses having the same cross-sectional dimension and having a combined cross-sectional shape and area substantially the same as those of the central core, and
four satellite cores positioned with a first two between the central core and the recess in one end face of the block an a second two between the central core and the recess in the other end face of the block,
each satellite core having substantially the same cross-sectional area and extending between and substantially perpendicularly to said top and bottom faces, the satellite cores being separated from each other, the central core and the recess within the block by material of construction of the block,
being positioned on the other side of said axial plane and each having the same cross-sectional shape which is the mirror image of the crosssectional shape of said one member,
the central core having a cross-sectional shape consisting of two part-circular portions the ends of which are joined by straight line portions, the two part-circular portions of the central core having the same centre and radius of curvature, the centre of curvature of the two part-circular portions being located in said axial plane, the straight line portions of said central core being parallel to the longitudinal edges of the block,
each of the satellite cores having a cross-sectional shape which includes a semicircular portion and a diametrical portion joining the ends of the semicircular portion, the diametrical portions of said satellite cores being parallel to the longitudinal edges of the block,
the one members of said first and second two satellite cores having their diametrical portions in the same straight line and in straight line alignment with one of the straight line portions of the central core, the other members of said first and second two satellite cores having their diametrical portions in the same straight line and in straight line alignment with the other straight portion of the central core,
each recess having a crosss-sectional shape including a part-circular portion of substantially the same radius of curvature and circumferential length as the part-circular portions of said central core and having its centre of curvature located at the bisection of the plane of the respective end face and said axial plane,
the semicircular portions of the satellite cores projecting inwardly of the longitudinal areas of the block and the radius of curvature thereof being such that the furthest distance between the adjacent longitudinal edge of the block perpendicularly thereto and the semicircular portion is substantially equal to the radius of curvature of the part-circular portions of the central core and the part-circular portion of the recesses,
the total cross-sectional area of said satellite cores being less than the cross-sectional area of said central core,
the ends of said diametrical portions of said first two satellite cores closer to their adjacent recess lying in a plane which extends perpendicularly to the longitudinal edges of the block,
the ends of said diametrical portions of said second two satellite cores closer to their adjacent recess lying in a plane which extends perpendicularly to the longitudinal edges of the block,
the centres of curvature of the semicircular portion of said first two satellite cores being located substantially one-quarter of the length of the block from their adjacent end face,
the centres of curvature of the semicircular portions of said second two satellite cores being located substantially one-quarter of the length of the block from their adjacent end face.
2. The block of claim 1 wherein each of said recesses includes lips which extend inwardly of the mouth of the recess towards each other.
3. The block of claim 1, constructed of concrete and wherein said satellite cores are adapted to receive structural panel reinforcing rods in stable position therein and are spaced from said axial plane the maximum distance which still allows surface-toreinforcement cover conforming to the building code to be maintained.