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Publication numberUS3856387 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 24, 1974
Filing dateJun 28, 1973
Priority dateJun 28, 1973
Publication numberUS 3856387 A, US 3856387A, US-A-3856387, US3856387 A, US3856387A
InventorsStella J, Wray W
Original AssigneePolaroid Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sound editor for sound motion picture projector
US 3856387 A
A sound motion picture production and sound editing system in which film, packaged in a cassette containing a supply of processing composition can be automatically processed, projected and rewound, and with which a sound track on the film can be reproduced, recorded and edited by the user.
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United. States Patent 1191 3,531,575 9 1970 Kobler ..274/4 0 Wray et al. Dec. 24, 1974 e SOUND EDITOR FOR SOUND MOTION 3,554,465 1/1971 Merukawa, 274/4 1) URE PRQJECTOR' 3 3,609,844 10/1971 Ichikawa..." 274/4C 3,641,282 1' 2/1972 Martin 274/4 D v Inventors: W1ll1am .R- Wray, B k J p 3,662,121 5/1972 Cruger 274/4cx A. Stella, Peabody, both of Mass. Y H 1 1 v {73] Assig'nee: Polaroid Corporation, Cambridge, primary 'i i io QH Mags. Att0r r z'ey, Ager1t, or' Firm-+J0h1'1 W. Ericson' [22] Filed: June 28,1973

[21 Appl. No.: 374,700 I r ABSTRACT 52 US. Cl ..'3s2/'s, 352/5, 360/105 A Sound motibn Pictur Production vand sound editing 51 1m. 01. 0030 31/00 System in which film, packaged. in a cassette o [58] Field of Search 352/5, 129; 274/4 c, 4 1); a up of P i composition can be t 360/80, 5 matlcally processed, pro ected' and rewound, and w1th. I 1 v which a sound track on the film can be reproduced, 5 R f Cited I recorded and edited by the user.

- UNITEDISTATES PATENTS- 11 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures FILM REEL owe MOTOR CONTROL cmcun' [7a POWER SUPPLY I 1 cAPsTaN MOTO 1 CONTROL 0 c1 RCUIT SHEET 02 0F 10 v wt vi km Wm m um. mv ME G mm FATENTEUBEBWW sum ounr 1o mtDUEQ 401F200 mohuwhmo 202.02


PATENTEU 152241974 SHEU D5 0F 10 kmN Pmmznmzmn i saw near 10 PATENTEIJUEBZMQH sum mar 10 wE mmnmmmmm PATENTEU W 3.856.387

SWEU UBBF 10 AUDIO SYSTEM POWER SUPPLY /'333 PAWL AND 1H T; SHUTTER I 330 332 Il= 3 v335 V32 CAM I v 3 REPLAY JL REPEAT I 08 F/GI /4 3 -tion and editing system.

' PROJECTOR This invention relates :to sound cinematography, and

particularly to a-novel sound motion picture produc- A self-processing motion picture film drive and pro- "jection system is disclosed in copending US. applica- ,tion for Letters Pat. Ser. No. 227,080, filed on Feb. 17, 1972 by Edwin H. Land for Photographic System for Processing and Projecting Transparencies, and assignedto theassignee of this application. The objects of this invention is to expand the capabilities of that system by the provision for. the addition'of-a sound track to the film, together with apparatus for recording; erasin reproducing and editing a sound track on the film at the will of the user, l

Home movies have become a commonplace part of the conventional scene, particularly since itheadvent of v the relatively economical 8 mm format. With the developrnent of the system described in the above-cited copending U.'S. application Ser. No. 227,080;- the convenience of producing and-displaying motion pictures by i the amateur is greatly enhanced by the addition of the self-processing facility. Thus, with the aid of the system -,.described in that application, motion pictures can be projected substantially as soon as they havebeen ex posed in the camera. v 1

L'Apparatus for the amateur production of sound m'o tion pictures. hasalso been available for a long time, but

. has not reached widespreadu'se. Aside from the com-- plexity and the cost of the apparatus, one major detriment is the extreme difficulty of composing and producing a satisfactory audiovisual sequence. However,

an amateur motion picture could be greatly enhanced by the addition of a simple running commentary, a recorded musical background, or both. A particular object o'f the invention is to facilitate the addition of such a sound track to a motion picture producedby the appa'ratus described, in the above-cited copending U.S.

" 'application se .N '227,Q80 without requiring great skill andft'alent on the part of the user.

i The-cassette is adapted to be inserted in a-camera, for exposure of the film. After exposure, it isinserted into the motion picture production and sound editing system of the invention. This system includes, in the console referred to, areceptacle shaped to receive the cassette, and cyclicdrive apparatus for manipulating the film in the cassette. The film is manipulated in a sequence determined by a signal provided-by the cassette that indicates cessed. In response to the insertion of the-cassette containing unprocessed film, the control apparatus provided in the console manipulates the film in the cassette in'a light-' tight environment. That movement of the film activates the processor, developing the film to produce a series of fixed, visible, projectable images. Thereafter, the apthe motion picture followingits photographic processing, the film is rewound for storage and subsequent reuse. The cassette is then ejected. In response-to the in'-- sertionof a cassette containing processed film, the sysj Av particular feature of the invention is that soundv addedto a film sequence can bev readily reviewed, and

I edited to correct itfor synchronization or content. More. particularly, the correction of recorded sound for volume, should'the recording microphone be too close to the source, or too far from it, for proper recording,

is facilitated. Because sound once erased from a magnetic recording cannot'be recovered, it isa particular object of the invention to avoid-the inadvertent erasure of sound when editing is'n'ot desired.

Briefly, the aboveand other objects of the invention are attained by the construction'of ajnovel sound motion picture production and editing system comprising a console having a viewing screen and a loudspeaker,

. and provided with an external operator's control unit for. directing editing, reviewing the motion picture pro-, duction'.operations..A key element in the system is a re-- placeable film cassette. The cassette contains a strip of film on which a sound recording strip'of magnetic re-, cording material is formed. a supply of processing com-,

position for producing'projection transparencies from latent optical images 'on the film, andan internally programmed processor responsive to manipulation of the. film in the cassette for applying the processing composition to thefilm after its exposure.

tem projects images on the film while reproducing sound recorded on the film, and then rewinds the film and ejects the cassette. I j The operators control. unit comprises a portable accessory connected tothe console by a cable that per mits the user to operate the control unit while viewing the images projected on the screen and listeningto the sound recorded on the film. The control unit comprises two interlocked control buttons. One of the controlbuttonsdirects the replay of a film during projectionfo'r a fixed minimum interval, or for.

any longerinterval selected by the operator, so that portions of the film'jand the sound recorded thereon can bereviewed. This reviewoperation facilitates editing, under the controlof the second button.

o The second button has a first position, 'inwhich sound recorded on the film is reproduced by a loud speaker in the console, and a second position, in which sound is recorded on' the film while anything previously recorded on the film is simultaneously erased. The interlocking feature prevents the operator from leaving the apparatus in the record'and erase mode while the instant replay button isfoperated, which might cause the inadvertent erasure of previously recorded sound from the film. At the same time, therecord mode may be selected whilethe-operator is listening tothe sound recorded on the film and viewing the film, so that the film-may be edited;='beginni ng at any selected point, by s the substitution of a new sound track for that previously recorded. r

The manner in which the apparatus of the invention is constructed, andits mode of operation, will best be an exemplary embodiment thereof.

:In thedrawings.

'FlG. l is a schematic perspective sketch of an audio-- ing systemin accordance; with the-invention;

whether or-not the film has been prounderstood in the light of the following detailed description, together with the accompanying drawings-of plate liftingmechanism in FIG. '2 is a schematic elevational view, with parts I shown in cross section and parts broken away, of the tially along the lines 22 of FIG. 1;

' FIG. 3 is a schematic fragmentary perspective sketch of a portion of a cassette receiving receptacle in the producing and editing system of FIG. 1, taken substan producing and editing system of FIG. 1, taken substantially along the lines'3- 3 in FIG. 1;

I FIG. 4 is-a schematic plan sketch, with parts omitted, parts shown in-cross section, and parts broken away, of

a film cassette in accordance with the invention, shown in conjunction with a sound array forming a part of the I producing and editing system of FIGS; 1, 2 and3;

I apparatus of- FIG. .1, shown in conjunction with a portion of a cassetteIcooperatingtherewith;

FIG. 7isa-schematic fragmentary plan view, with parts shown in cross section, parts omitted, and parts broken away, illustrating a portion of the producing and editing system of FIG. 1; I I I FIG. 8 is a fragmentary schematic view of portions of the cassette andsound array of FIG. 4, showing elements. of ,the sound array engaged with the film in the cassette;'. I

FIG'. 9 is a fragmentary schematic planview, with partsomitted, parts shown in cross section, and parts broken away, of a-blinder mechanism forming a part of the apparatus of FIGS. 2 and 7, in one position assumed during its operation;

FIG. 1 is a fragmentary schematic perspective sketch of alocating pin latching mechanism forming a part of the apparatus of FIG. 7; FIG. 11 is afragmentary schematic plan sketch, with parts omitted, parts shown in cross section, and parts broken away, of a locator pin and its actuating mechanism forminga part of the apparatusof FIG. 7;

FIG 12 is a schematic cross-sectional elevation of a along the line 12-12 in FIG. 7 and showing a pressure its cooperative relationship with a cassette; I FIG. 13 is a schematic block and wiring diagram of a cam shaft and associated parts forming part of the apparatus of FIG. '7;

FIG. 14 is a schematic block and wiring diagram of control circuits forming a part of the apparatus of FIGS. 1 and 7';

FIG. 15 is a schematic elevational view of a recording, replay andediting controlforming a part of the system of FIGQl; I

FIG. 16 is a fragmentary schematic view of a portion of the apparatus of FIG. 15, with parts omitted and parts shown in cross section;

FIG.. 17 is a schematic fragmentary cross-sectional view ofa portion of the apparatus of FIGS. 15 and 16,

taken essentially along the lines l7--l7 in FIG. 16

FIG. I8 is a schematic fragmentary view of another portion of the apparatus of FIG. 15, taken essentially along the lines 18-18 in FIG. .15; and I FIG. 19 is a schematic wiring diagram of sound recording, erasing .and reproducing apparatus forming a part ofthe producing and editing system of FIG. 1.

FIG. 1 shows the external cooperative-aspects of an audiovisual system embodying the invention. The basic I elements of thissystem are a cassette 1, adapted to be inserted in a pocket 2 formed in the'outer housing 3 of a sound motion picture producing system generally designated 4. A translucent viewing screen 5, on which projected images at times appear, is mounted at the front of the housing 3. v I

As best shown .in FIG. 2, the pocket 2 has a floor 6 on which an aperture plate '7 is. mounted. The aperture plate 7 is adapted to extend into the cas'settesuch as l and there register withthe film in the cassette. Light, supplied in a manner to'be'described, passes through the film, and thence over a path traversing a suitable framing aperture in the aperture plate 7, a cooperating recess. in the floor 6, a blinder housing 8, to be described, and a conventional shutter 9, ma lens 10. The lens focuses an image of the portion of the film selected by the framing aperture on a mirror 11, whence it is reflected to the screen-5. I I

A speaker 12 is mounted'in the housing f the sys-' tem 4 at the front and below the screen '5 as indicated schematically in. FIG. 2. The speaker 12 is at times energized to produce sound recorded on the film in the cassette 1 ma manner to be described. For that purpose, a sound array generally designated 13 is; mounted in the'housing 3' just behind the'pocket 2, and commuportion of the apparatus of FIG. 7 taken substantially nicates with a cassette in the pocket 2 through an aperture 14, FIG. 3, formed in anend wall 15 of the pocket 2. The sound array l3 generaIly' comprises a combined recording, playbackand erasing head 16, and a film drive capstan 17, mounted ona suitable support gener-' ally designated. 18, and to be described in more detail below, so that it can be moved into and out of engage ment withfilm in the cassette 1. a

As shown in FIG. 1,an editing control unit generally designated 19 is removably mounted on a stand 20 having a base 21. The control unit 19 comprises a micro- I phone 22 mounted in a suitable housing 23 adapted to be grasped in the hands of the user, and providedwith a replay push button IPB and a two-position recordlisten push button RPB, constructed and arranged in a manner to be described in detail below. The unit 19 is electrically connected to the base-21. of the apparatus by means of 'a flexible'cable 24, which may be continuously connected to a cable 25 that electrically connects the remote assembly to the housing 3. A volume control 26 mounted on the exterior of the housing 3 enables the user to select the volume produced by the speaker 12 in a manner to be described.

I As shown in FIG. 1, the cassette 1 is provided-with a number of light-baffled openings, 30, 31, 32, 33 and, 34. These openings expose parts adapted to cooperate with corresponding. parts of the film drive and projection system to perform various functions in thecassette. Thus, a drive sprocket formed on the takeup reel is accessible through the opening 30.- A similar drive sprocket formed on the supply reel is accessible through the opening 31. Projection light is at times admitted to thecassette through the opening 32. A stop can enter, to brake a snubber roll forming a part of the cassette, through the opening '33. The opening 34 servesto admit a locating pin, forming a part of the motion picture producing and sound editing system to latch the cassette in position for manipulation, and to energize the producing and editing apparatus in a manner to be described.

through an opening 41.

I ducing and editing system of FIG/l.

A flange-35 is-tormed on the upper end of the casgsette 1. This flange aids in graspingthe,cassette'while inserting it in,,or removing it from, the pocket 2. lt also helps to fix thecassette in position in the producing and editing system, by

pocket 2 engagement with'the rimof the 1 Referring to FIG. 3, parts adapted to enter the openings in the.cassette 1 just'described at times enter the pocket -2 through'corresponding openings in the side wall 36 of the pocket. Drive sprockets for the supply and tak eup reels are adapted to enter through openings 37 and 38, respectively. 'A light beam for projection enters through an opening'39. The locating-pin enters through an opening 40. The snubber roll stop enters In addition to the aperture plat'e 7 described above, the actuating arm'of a'normally open switch S1 is movably mounted on the floor plate 6. This switch is adapted to be closed when a cassette is inserted in'the pocket 2,-for purposes to appear.

A foot pedal 42 is movably mounted in the pocket 2- to be depressed by the insertion of -acassette. The'foot pedal is connected to anactuating arm extending through the floor plate 6, as will be described below.-

' FIG. 4'shows, in part fragmentarily and in part schematically, the pertinent elements of an internally programmed cassette 1 adapted foruse in the system of the invention. Except as modified in a manner to be describedfthe cassette may be constructed in the manner described indetail in theabove-cited US. application Ser. No. 227,080; I I

. Th'e cassette comprises a housing formed of any suitable opaqueinater'ial such as mtalgplastic, or the like, and preferably manufactured in two cooperating parts.

The housing parts comprisea base plate 43 formed integral with sidelw'alls 44, 45, 46 and 47 The base plate 48extends' across the'base of the side walls, and comprises one side of the housing, The walls 44, 45, 46

and'47 extend at least in part about the periphery of'the base plate 43, and cooperate with interfitted walls,

shown'and described in the above-cited ULS. application.Ser1' No. 227,080, formed-integrally with a cover generallyfdesignated[50. The cover plate50 completes the upper side of the housingas seen in FIG. 4.

When the cover"50'is placed in position; it maybe formedinteg'raljwith the base plate and side walls by heat sealing, or by a suitable adhesive, or the like. If of metal, the inter-fitting parts may be interlocked with cooperating detents formed therein, in a manner conventional and well known to thoseskilled in the art.

'. The base and cover parts form, when assembled, the end flange 35 that serves to support and locate the cassette'l in either a camera, or in the motion Rotatably disposed-within the cassette housing is a picture pro-- 53 reenters the housing through a second light-baffled 6 ventional annular flanges, such as 55, formed .on' the upper surface of the flange 52 (FIG. 4), and cooperating with corresponding coaxial'flanges, not shown, on"

the inner side of the plate 50. The lower flange of the reel 51 may be formed in a conventional manner with a cylindrical axial opening to receive a cooperating -axle, not shown, formed integral with the base plate 43.

Initially, the film 53 is in its unexposed state and coiled primarily about the supply reel 51. It is shown in FIG. 4 in the position assumed as it nears the end of its movement away from the. supply reel, as toward the hausted from the .reel 51. v

In its path from the supply'reel 51, the film 53 first encounters a bobulator roll 56. The film engages a portion of the periphery of the bobulator roll, as shown, and passes therefrom into a suitably light baffled sound 'end of exposure in a camera, in which itis nearly exrecording and reproducing station generally designated I 57. The sound station terminates with the passage of the film 53 over a backuproller 58. The film'is'. at times n a t e sem n. 17m s sysh the against the rolIer 58,whereupon the filmis driven smoothly through the soundstation, as will appear. I

t The roller 58 is journalled'for rotation in the cassette housing. From the roller 58, the film 53 passes through film processing means, to be-described below. In addi-. f

- Beyond its path throughthe. film processing means,

the film 53 extends through a conventional lightbaffled aperture schematically indicated at 61- and forming a portion'of a film gate in the housing. Thefilm aperture generally designated 62 and comprising a second portion of the film gate.

- The film 26 next passes over a conventional snubber roll, generally designated63, and finally passesto a takeup reel generallydesignated 64, comprising aspool portion to which the takeupreel endof the film is con- 1 nected, and in FIG. 4. In addition to parts corresponding to those parts deaboutwhich the film is wound as suggested scribed in connection with the supplyreel- 51, the takeup reel 64 comprises an external upper flange 65 protruding beyond the maximum radius of the film 53 when substantially stored on the takeup reel. On the supply reelgenerally-designated 51. Thereel 51 is pro- 'vided with an upper flange 52.'and' acorresponding lower flange, not shown, to guide a film strip 53 as it is wound about the spool portion of :the reel 51, not

shown,.to which one end of the film strip 53 is attached.

A sprocket schematicallyindicated at 54 may be formed .inte'gralwith the reel 51 to adapt the 'reelto be driven about its axis of rotation. Access to the sprocket 54 may be provided through the aperture 31 in the cover plate 50(FIG. l), light-baffled by suitable conflange is'formed a suitable drive sprocket 66, by

means of which the film can be selectively advanced in i a manner to be described. I v

' The-bobulator may be of any conventional construction suitable for-the performance of the known function of isolating the film drive pawl associated with thecamera from the inertia of the supply reel 51'. However, I

it is preferably of theform shown, in which the bobulator roll 56 is film.

The pin is formed integral .Witha support 71 of plastic .or the like. The support7l is journalledto thebase" plate 43 by means of a pin 72'formed integral with the base plate, and biased by a spring73- formed integral with the support 71. The spring 73 acts against a post 74 formed integral with the base plate 43. The

joumalled on a pin 70 for rotation by the i bobulator roll can thus and move backwards and forwards in the directions of .the double arrow,jshown in FIG. 4.

both rotate about the pin 70,

a The bobulator rollresponds to increases or decreases in. the tension of the film 53 by temporarily'shortening orlengthening the film path, respectively.- Such changes in film tension are produced by the actuation of the'film drive-pawl in the camera, and are determined by the inertial forcesexerted by the supply reel 51, together witha-larger or smaller supply of film that may be on its at any given time. Bythat arrangement,

as the film'is advanced incrementally by the pawl asso ciated with the camera, it can rapidly move the bobulator roll against the spring 73 withoutimmediately af-- 'fecting the supply reel, which can then more or less I gradually allow the bobulator roll to relax while supplying the segment. of film takenby the pawl. As menposure or projection purposes. The cooperation be-.

tween the'snubber roll 63 and the takeup reel .64 is conventional, but will be briefly described.

The drive sprockets 54 and 66 of. the supply and takeup reels 51, and 64, respectively, are adapted to be engaged by corresponding drive sprockets comprising apart of a camera, or of the producing and editing apparatu's to be described. In the producing and editing apparatus, both supply and takeup reels are adapted to be driven through slip clutches. In the camera, only a drive for the takeup reel need be provided. This drive comprises a slip clutch connected to a sprocket driving the takeup reel drive sprocket 65, in cooperation with a drive pawl for sequentially engaging a series of the t'ionedabove, thefilm is driven smoothly through the sound stationby the ca'pstan 7, so that the bobulator functions only as an'idler in the motion picture producing and sound editing systemof the invention.

A lightti ght shield around the film gate formed by the apertures 61 and 62 is formed by a wall portion 75 formed integral with .the basesplate 43 and made inte- 'gralwith the cover plate 50after assembly of the parts in the manner described above. An exposed chamber behind the film 53 is thus formed for the'purpose of ad- -mitting projection light;

The apparatus forthis purpose is conventional, and will only briefly be described. In short, it comprises a prism ge-nerally desi'gnated 76 and comprising a mirror, not shown, but disposed at 45 to the plane of FIG. 4. As schematically indicated, the prism'76 is mounted between extensions 77 formed on the wall 75.

Light enters the cassette through the port 32 formed in the cover plate 50in directions-normal to the plane of F 16. 4. The mirror in the prism 76 directs this light downwardly through the film 53 in the film gate for the projection of (H0. 2); i

"Also disposed in the chamber bounded by the wall imageson the film through'thelens 10 member 75 and the filmpassing through the film gate is a conventional pressure plate 78, located between the prism-and thej film, and biased bya'spring'79 into engagement with the film. The spring 79 is supported and retained by suitably shaped extensions of the support wall 75, as shown.

" The pressure plate serves in the conventional manner to cooperate with a camera, by'locating the focalplane of the film during exposure. An aperture, not shown, is provided in the pressure plate 78, to pass light entering through the prism assembly 76 through a selected The snubber roll 63 may also be of entirely conventional construction. As illustrated, it is provided with a ihub portion schematically indicated at 82 that is adapted to protrude through the suitably light-baffled) aperture 33 in the cover panel 50 for engagement by a stop member, comprising a part of either the camera or of the motion picture producing and editing system. The stop member engages the snubber roll when the film is to be incrementally advanced by a pawl for exengagement with the stationary snubber roll 62 and sprocket holes, 38 formed in the film 26, along a portion of the edge of thefilm in the film gate between the. aperatures 60 and 61.

When the snubber roll '62 is stopped'by engagement of the hub 82 as described above, operation of either the camera or of the production and editing system to incrementally. advance the film towards the takeup reel, by engagement ofa pawl with the sprocket holes in the film 26, will momentarily loosen the film fromallow the slip-clutch driving the takeup reel 63 to takeupthat. increment of '-the film advanced by'the I pawl; Between engagements of the pawl, the slip clutch prevents the takeup reel from advancing the film. v

" In the production and editing system to be described,

the snubber roll 63 is engaged only while the film is to be incrementally advanced onto the takeup reel. When the film is rewound onto the supplygreel, the snubber roll 63 is disengaged and acts as an idler. As will appear, that may occur either during the processing of the film while rewinding, or during subsequent rewinding of the processed film after projection. I

The film processing means may be as described in the above-cited U.S. application Ser. No; 227,080, except as modified in a manner to be'des cribed. As shown in FIG. 4, the apparatus generallycomprises wall means comprising portions of, or formed integral with, the base plate 43' and the cover plate 50, which serve to guide, support and house the various elements of the processing apparatus to be described. These walls form an.outer film composition containing housing generally designated 83,'defining a chamber in which there is I film 53.

Principally located below, but in part surrounding,

mounted an initially sealed container of processing composition as fully described in the above-cited U.S.

application Ser. No. 227,080. The container 83 com-v municates with a coating nozzle generally designated the plane of the 85. These elements are mounted above the film 53 is a pressure pad generally designated 86.

The pressure pad is acted on by a spring, generallydesigna'ted 87, as fully described in the above-cited U.S.

application Ser. -No. '22 7,080.

- -The basic elements of the processing station further comprise a combined metallic pressure pad deflection can and nozzle'clo sure valve assembly generally designated 88, and the pair of electrical terminals 59 and 60 mentioned above. The terminals 59 and.60 are bridged by the valve assembly 88 before the film is processed to provide a lowimpedance electrical signal. The valve assembly 88 is moved after the film is processed to open the circuit path between the terminals 59 and 60 to produce a high impedance between the terminals 12 ally designated 92. 1

. thereafte a fully descr',U.S.application Se N- 27,080. I i L A pod 0f, processing composition within the -con-- tainer83 is initially sealed by one end of .a tear-tab generally designated 89. The tear-tab 89 extends from sealing engagement with the plastic pod of processing composition inthe container 83, out through a suitable slot in the container 83, and over a roller 90 in the cassette housing to an end 91 connected to a release arm gener- Therelease arm 92 may be adapted to engage one of a set of teeth 94 formed on i the flange 52, and corresponding teeth formed on the lower flange of the supply reel 51. The arm 92 is secured at one end to a pin 95 that is adapted to slide in curved guide slots such as 96-, one formed inthe base plate 43, and'the .other, not shown, in the cover plate 50. A hook 97 on the release arm92 extends through a suitable aperture intheftear-tab 91. When the supply reelzis' rotated counterclockwise as seen in FIG.4, as

} ,during exposure ofthe film in the camera, the hook 93 .formed on the arm 92 is not engaged by the teeth 94,

but. is simply. brushed up into engagement with a fixed I support 98 secured to the base plate 43. Onthe other hand,,-when the supply -reel 51 is first rotated clockwise formed of thin sheet spring metal, bent over at one end 93 to form a hook as seen in 11 10.4, as to rewind the filmonthe supply reel, one of the teeth'94 catches the hook 93 and drives the arm 92 downward under the guidance of the slots 9. Pulling the tear-tab89 partly out of thecontainer 83a'nd releasing the processing composition in the manner fully described in the above cited copending 4 US. applicationiser. No. 227,080. The arm92 will carry the tear-tab downuntil it is moved out of engagement with the supply reel 51 as the slot 96 diverges from the path of the teeth 94. This arrangement rethe fact that once the'film is exposed, it willl not be rewound on, the supply. reel; until'it is desired to process ified bythe provision of a first aperture-99, adapted to,

receive the sound head 16, and asecond aperture100, adapted to admit the capstan'l7 and to permit the escape of a small loop of'film in a manner to bedescribed. A container 83 and walls such as 75 in the lower side of the cassette housingser've as light shields for the openings 99 and '1 00 over that region of the eassette. Additional light baffles suggested as ribs 101 and a wall 102 defining the upper end of the sound station 57 serve to provide light. baffles for film beyond that station in the upper directions.

A backup spring generally designated 102 is mounted behind the film in the sound station 57. The spring is formed with one end bent overas indicated at 103 and there secured to the base plate 43. An extending arm 1040f the spring carries a pair of raised film engaging portions 105 and 106 that serve to receive and support the film 53 as the head 16 is movedinto engagement with it in a manner to' be described. Spacing of the raised portions 105 and 106 causes a desirable partial wrapping of the film 53 aroundthe sound head 16.

As in the photographic-system described-in U.S. ap-

. plication Ser. No. 227,080, the system of the invention makes use of a photofinishing process in which the strip places themore'complex mechanism described inthe .cited US. application Ser. No. 227,080, and relies on As indicated, the end wall 44 of the cassette 1 is mod- 1 tacted with aisingle processing compositionto form a finished transparency from the latent image or images formed on the film during its exposure. .In order to pro vide sound recording'and reproducingcapabilities, a magnetic sound track is provided along one or'both edges of the-film, as will next be described with reference to FIG. 5. a

As shown in FIG. 5, the film strip 53 comprises a I leader 110 terminating at an end formed with an aperture: such as 111'. The aperture '14 servestoconnect that end of the film to the takeup reel 64.-

Behind the leader, which may be in the neighborhood of 18 inches'inlength, there is a strip 112 of photographically useful film, upon which projectable images may be formed. The strip 112 may be, for example, ap-

proximately feetin length for 8 mm film.

Following the photographically useful portion of the film is a trailer region generally designated 113. The trailerll3 terminates at another end-formed with an aperture 114 by means of which that end of the film is adapted to'be connected to the supply reel 51.

. The film 53 may comprisea base of any suitable transparent material of the kind conventionally. used for film bases. Onthis base is applied, at least over the central portion of the photographically usable length of the film 112, an emulsioncomprising a photosensitive coating, whereon a series of latent images illustrated by a series extending from a first frame 115 to a last frame 116 maybe formed with a camera. The photosensitive coating is preferably ofone of the forms, next to be described, which can subsequently be processe'd'to form I -taming its developed negative'image This highly desirable feature is madepossible by a developed negative image having low'covering power. g

In typical silver transfer reversal processes for the projection of black and white images, a silver halide deof film 53, following exposure inthe camera, is conveloper-anda silver halide-solvent are-applied in an 9 aqueous alkaline solution to a photoexposed silver halide emulsion stratum, where they develop exposed silver halide to silver, and react with unreduced silver halide to form a soluble silver complex. This complex, in

order to form a positive print, is transferred and rewhich the silver halide stratum'has been superposed In one practice, in the completion of this process, the silver-receptive and silver halide strata have been sepaduced to silver on a silver-receptive stratum upon rated in order to render the positive print visible. l-lowever, as indicated'above, the positive print maybe rendered visible without separation of the silver halide and the silverreceptive' strata. For. example, the.-silver-,

receptive stratum may be so constructed as to provide an unusuallyvigorous silver precipitating environment which causes the silver deposited upon it, in comparison with silver developed in the silver halide stratum, to possess very high covering power, 'i.e., opacity fora given mass of reduced sil simplification of ver, If the silver halide is in such a concentration as to give rise only when-fully developed to a predetermined low maximum density, and if the silver complex is reduced to silver in a vigorous silver precipitating environment,-the resulting negative and positive prints in superposition provide a composite print thatpresents a good image for projection purposes so long asthey are contained on atransparent support. Since the silver halide stratum and the silverreceptive stratum need notbe separated, an overall the silver transfer reversal process is achieved; 2

,A composite "film assembly of this type, as well as processing compositions for producing a fully developed black'andwhite image without the necessity of removing the developed negative image after processing, areshown'in U.S. PatiNo. 2,861,885 toEdwin H. Land, which issued on Nov. 25, 1958, for Photographic Processes and Products. Other composite film assemblies capable of producing developed full color images 7 without the necessity of removing-the developed emulsion are shown in U.S. Pat. Nos. of Edwin H. Land,

2,726,154,.issued Dec. 6, 1955, for Photographic Prodnot, and 2,944,-894,issued'.luly'12,1960, for Photographic Processes Utilizing Screen Members. ..It should be noted that the invention is not directed to. the chemistry by. which images are developed in a photosensitive emulsion and transferred to an image .receiving stratum. However, in the practiceof the invention, whether the film employed is black and white to Pro; 4, the film s3 is formed along different soun ro e 12- when the that his cassette should be replace The film drive system for projection purposes is provided with a double pawl, comprising two integral pawls spaced 'apart by one frame length, each pawl being of the same shape as the single pawl in the camera. When the first elongated aperture 118 is encountered, the leading pawl of the pair serves to engage the leading edge of the aperture 11810 cause the film to be advanced without interruption. For normally spaced sprocket holes-117, both of the pawls engage the film in sequential sprocket holes. However, when the second elongated sprocket hole 119 is encountered, the pawls'will pass through it without film engagement,.and thereby terminate film advance in the samemanner as did the single pawl upon engagement" of the double ter'vals, adapted to coopera'te with adrive pawl, in a manner-to'bedescribed, in either camera or projector,

for incremental advancement of the film. The series of sprocket holes 1l-7Ja'djac'ent the trailing end of the film may be interrupted by a first elongated sprocket hole 118. This elongated hole 118 may span, for example,

. two of the sprocket holes 117.

' Further along the film in the direction of the supply reel'end, the series 'of sprocket holes 117 is again inter- I rupted by a second elongated sprocket hole 119, longerthan the sprocket hole 118 and, for example, spanning three of the sprocket holes 117. As will appear, the first elongated sprocket hole 118 establishes an exposure end point in the'camera, whereas the second sprocket hole 119 determines a film takeup termination point in the producing and editing apparatus to be described. Basically, termination of film advance at the first elongated sprocket hole 118 is attained by the use of a singledrive pawl in the camera, which sequentially engages'the sprocket holes 117 to advance the film by one frame length in a conventional manner. Toward the end of each suchadvance stroke, as is conventional, the pawl iscammed'down out of engagement with the film. When the single pawl engages the elongated aperture 118, the camming down movementoccurs before the film engages the leading edge of the elongated hole.

The pawl may cycle repeatedly thereafter without further advance of the film. This serves to effect a termination of film advance for the purposes of exposure adjacent the end of the region of photographically useful length sprocket hole 118.

Formed on the trailing end 113 of the film 53, beyond the exposure advance termination portion just described in the direction of the supply reel end ofthe film 53, is a detent engaging element here shown as an aperture 120 formed in the film; adjacent which a projecting bump 121 is formed, as by pressure, heat'and pressure, or'the like. The edge-of the bump 121 forms a hook adapted to'engage a detent in the form of a process control actuating element,- tobe described, as the film is moved with respect to the detent in the direction of the takeup reel.

Formed on the leader end 110 of the film 53 is'an- I trudeslightly above the surface of the film 53, and

serve two basic purposes in thesystem of the invention. 'First, when the fluid'is processed as to be described, it is initially wet over the useful emulsion region as it is transferred from the processing' station to the-supply reel. The rails serve to keep the wet surfaces'of the emulsion from contacting the dry base surface of the film as it is wound on the reel. The use of the rail 123 as a recording surface also makes it possible to main- 7 tain contact between the sound track and the transducer head withoutexerting pressure on the emulsion side of the film.

A capstan wear pad. 125, of plastic or the like, is'preferably cemented to the trailing end 113 of the film behind the bump, on the, side where the rails 122 and 123 are located. This wear pad 125 prevents the capstan 17 a.

from wearing a hole through the film 53 under conditions to be described.

The manipulation of the filmin the cassette 1 to pro- I cess it after it has been exposed is fully described in the above-cited 'copending U.S. application Ser'. No. 227,080. However, in order to visualize this process in conjunction with the sound recording and reproducing emulsion, to alert the photographer, by the somewhat features of the system'of the invention, itwill next be briefly described with reference to FIGS.-1-5.

Referring to FIG. 4, it will be assumed that an initially unexposed strip of film 53 stored primarily on the supsprocket hole 118' in the film (FIG. The tear-tab 89 and 'its release mechanism ,will be in the positions shown in FIG. 4, withthe hook 93 against the stop Next, assume that operation is continued by further rotation of the takeup reel 64 counterclockwise, as seen in FIG. 4, to bring the film 53 farther onto the takeup reel. During this rotation, the supply reel 51 will move counterclockwise in FIG, 5, causing the teeth 94 to pass the hook 93 without effective engagement therewith. r

FIG. 4 shows-the parts of the coating station in' their initial position, which is maintainedduring exposure of -ply reel 51 has been exposed in a camera, so that it has i been advanced onto the takeup reel 64 to the exposure termination point determined by the first elongated the filmand during a portion of the first increment'of motion just described, from'the exposure termination point toward the second termination point in which the film'is substantially exhausted from the supply reel, and. in which the second elongated sprocket hole 119-in FIG. 5 will be encountered. During the interval of travel between those positions, and prior thereto, the

cam and nozzle closure plate assembly 88 is detachably held in place in the manner described in copending -U.S. application ser. No. 227,080, and a' film engaging hook, 142 formed on the assembly 88 is lightly engaging the base of the film 53;

' ,The pressure'pad 86 is initially held in placeby engagement of an integrally formed hook 143 with a detent formed on the end of the spring 87. In that posi-' tiori', the'end of the-pressure 'pad86 lightly engages the base of the fi-lm 53a'n'd earsl44 formed on thepreSsure pad are in engagement with a ledge formed on a wall segment 145 formed integrally with the wall 75."

I The parts of the coating-station will remain in the position shown in FIG. 4' until, during the further advance of the film 53 towards the takeup' reel, the-film engaging bump '121 approaches and engages the end of the pressure'pad' 86. When that occurs, near the second termination point established by the second elongated hole 119 in the film (FIG. 5), the bump 121 willmove the pressure pad to the left in FIG. 4', to a position in which the ears 144 have movedout of engagement with the ledge on the'wall 145', and upwardly under the influence of the spring 87. The pressure pad 86 will swing up into engagement with the film 26 and carry the emulsion side of the film into coating engagement with the nozzle 85, as described in the above-cited copending US. application Ser. No.'227,080.

Next, assume that the first rewind operation is begun,

. by rotating the supply reel 51 clockwise in FIG. 4, to I advance the teeth such as 94 towards the book 93 on the release arm 92. Further clockwise movement of the reel'SI will cause the teeth 94 to drive the release arm 92 downwardly and to the left in FIG. 4, pulling the teartab 89 to release processing composition to the coating nozzle 85 The composition will then be uniformly coated on the emulsion side of the film 53.

sition is substantially exhausted, and the film is stored substantially all on the supply reel 51. Toward the end of that operatioii, the aperture 124 (FIG. 5) will approach and engage the hook finger 142 formed on the valve and cam assembly 88.

As the film 53 continues to move onto the supply v reel,'engagement of the. aperture 124 in the film with the spring arm 142 will carry the cam and valve member 88 to the right of the position shown in FIG. 4, bringing cams formed on the member 88 into contact with the pressure pad-86 in the region of the ears 144, with'the cam assembly 88 being guided by the ears 144, as the assembly 88moves to the nozzle closing position.

Movement in this direction will continue to move the assembly 88 to the right, as it goes to a position in which the end of the valve assembly 88 closes the nozzle 85. The cam assembly. 88and pressure pad 86 are then latched in a finalposition as described in U.S. ap-. plication Ser. No. 227,080. I r

During its movement from the position shown in FIG.

4 to the final position just described, the cam-and valve assembly 88 disengages the contacts 59 and 60,. and thus providesa signal indicating that the film has been processed. I FIG. 6 schematically illustrates the film advance pawl mechanism in operative relation to the film 53 in a cassette I inserted in the pocket 2 of the producing-and editing system (FIG. 3), with the film gate in registry ert ure 133 formed in the floor plate 6 and thence through a slot 134 in the aperture plate7 into engagement with the film. An end 135 formed onthelever 129 rides on a pin 136 secured to the floor plate -6. Thus, as the crank 129 rotates, the pawls 1 27 and 128 drivethe film 53 to the left in FIG. 6 until they are brought downout of engagement with the film in responseto rotation of thecrank arm 129. Thereafter,

The coating operation will continue as the film is rewound onto the supply reel until theprocessing compothe pawls-are brought up beneath the plane of the film, as suggested by the dotted lines in FIG. 6, back to a position in which they can engage the next pair ofsprocket holes 117, and then undergo another advance Stroke. 1 i

v A projection 137 formed on an extension 138 of the hub of the crank arm 131 is adapted to releasably engage a detent 139 urged against the hub 138 by a spring 140 compressed between the detent 139 andafixed support 141. That causes the pawl to stop in the dotted line position, out of engagement with the film, when the drive for the shaft 132 is disengaged in a manner to be described.

As described above, when the pawls 127 and 128 engage an elongated sprocket hole such as 118 in FIG. 4,

the film will continue to be advanced. However, when a more elongated sprocket hole, such as 119 in FIG. 5,

is encountered, having a spacing equal to three of the sprocket holes 117, both pawls 127 and 128 will fail to engagethefilm, and film advance willcease, even though the shaft 132 continues to rotate.

Further details of the motion picture producing and sound editing system will next be described with reference first to FIG. 7. As there shown, the pocket 2 that is adapted to receive the cassette described above is, in

I the vlocator pin extends cassette in the'pocket.

part, formed in theho'using by two walls described above';*i-.e., the floor. plate 6 and the wall 36 normal thereto, through which certain cooperating parts of the system extend. The pocket 2 is further defined byian Y end wall 148 and a sidewall 149 opposite the wall 36.

As described above in connection with; FIG. 3, there is an end wall segment 15, not shown in FIG. 7, opposite the end wall 148. Along the wall 149 are mounted a 4 pair of suitably insulated contacts 150 and-15l that are adapted to engage the contact terminals 59 and 60 formed on the cassette.

The control. circuits-166m timess'upply energizing current for the clutch magnet CM over a lead 167.

Control inputs are provided to thecircuits 166 by switches and cams schematically indicated at 168, over leads generally designated 169. They control circuits 166 at times provide energizing current over a lead 173 toenergize a cassette ejector disabling solenoid SL1.

I Other circuits, schematically indicated at 174, affect The aperture plate 7 referred to above that is mounted on the floor plate 6 is shownin FIG. 7 to comprise a framing aperture 152 that defines-the margins of the portion of the film in the cassette tobe projected.

Besidethis. aperture 152' is the slot 134 through which the film drive pawl,desc"ribed above, is adapted to protrude for engagement with the film in a cassette in the pocket- 2. Another symmetrical pair of slots 153 and 154; are formed in the aperture plate 7. There slots are adapted to receive ;a pair of pressure plate raising arms,- to be described, which serve at times to disengage the pressure plate 78 of FIG. 4 from the film53, for purposes to appear. v A floor plate 155 is formed integral with the housing I 3, coplanar with the floor plate 6 and normal to the wall 36. On this plate 155 are mounted most of the operative parts of the system to be described.

Energy for the system is arranged to be supplied from a suitable source ofalternating current, such as a 60 I:lz,

120 volt source, connected to a pair 'of terminals 156 and 157. The terminal 157 is shown connected to a reference ground, for convenience, and the terminal 156 is connected over contacts of an on-off switchSZ to mechanical andjelectrical power supply elements here the operation of a film reel drive motorcontrol circuit generally designated 175.

The motor controlycircuit 175 is also influenced by a motor reversing switch MR that performs its control function over leads schematically indicated as a single lead 176. The output of the motorcontrol circuits 175,

illustrated at 177 and 17.8, is supplied to energize a conventional DC motQriDCMI to cause it to rotate in elther of two opposite directions, in a manner to appear.

shaft l64,'driven by the motor ACM when the clutch magnet'CM is energized, serves as the main pro-' gramming shaftfor directing theoperation of the film drive, projection and audio recording and reproduction system under the influence of mechanical and electrical signals supplied by the cassette. Auxiliary shafts schematically indicated at 179 are driven by the shaft 164 as will be described infurth'er detail below. A main cam shaft 180 is driven from'the shaft 164 bymeans synchronously-with the shaft 180, to control the sound shown schematically in FIG. 7 as a conventional DC power'supply 158, and'a conventional combined AC motor and transformer ACM. As will appear, the

- The outputshaft 160 of the motor ACM drives a fan I schematically indicated M161, and also drives the input side 162 of a conventional electromagnetic clutch 163 having an output shaft 164. The shaft 164 is adapted to be driven from the shaft 160 through the clutch 163 when a clutch magnet CM is energized in a manner to appear. Another electromagnetic clutch, to

be described below and not shown in FIG. 7, is driv ng by the shaft 160, for purposes to appear.

The fan 161 supplies air for cooling a projection lamp, to be described, and may also be used to supply air to the'cassette to aid in drying the film after it is coated with processing composition.

The power supply 158 provides DC voltages for energizingvarious other elements of the apparatus. as will appear. ln'particular, the power supply 158 is con- 'nected over leads schematically indicated at 165 to control circuits schematically shown at 166. r

schematically shown in FIG. 7 as a pair of bevel gears 181. An additionalshaft 182 is driven by the shaft 164 array in a manner to be described below.

The shaft is supported in bearings schematically indicated at 183 and 184,fixe d with respect to the plate 155. Carried onthe shaft 180 are a number of cams, several of which control switches, to be described. In particular, 'the'switches and cams 168 are driven by the shaft 180, and comprise a number of elements to be described. below in conjunction with FIG. 13. Only those parts are shown in FIG. 7 which are conveniently displayed in fragmentary and schematic form, to illustrate the functional relationship betweenthe elements of the system and indicate their relative location.

Two drive control cams 185 are symmetricallydisposed on theshaft 1'80 and affixed thereto. Theseflcams serve at times to drive a spindle plate 186 towards the wall 36.

The spindle plate 186 comprises a bar of metal or the I like, provided with. integral guide flanges 187 at its ends. The flanges 187 are slidable in ways, suggested at 188, formed integral with walls 189 and "19 The spindle plate 186 is normally urged to the position shown in FIG. '7 by a pair of compression springs 191 located between the wall 36 and the spindle plate 186. When so moved by the cams 185, the spindle plate moves toward the wall 36, where it may be latched at times by a stop l92,.as described in detail in the abovecited copending US. application Ser. No. 227,080.

Also carried on the shaft 180 is a program disc 193 formed with three slots 194 disposed 120 degrees apart on the disc. These slots serve to locate program stops,

as shaftfangles on the cam shaft 180, by engagement with a detent schematically shown at 195. The detent 195'comprises an element 196 adapted to engage the slots 194, and urged into engagement therewith by a spring 197. The spring 197 extends between the element 196 and a support 198 fixedto the plate 155.

' thereto.-

. A -blinder contro1'cam199 is disposedon the shaft;

180' and affixed'thereto'. It isgarranged to operate a blinder generally designated 200fthrough a cam follower 201 formed integral with the blinder 200 and V adapted to engage thecam 19 9. This blinder and its op- I 180 and serves to control the position of the motor reversing'swit'ch 'MRL That-relationship will be described below 'in more detail in connection with FIG. 14.

A snubber engaging cam 204 is fixed to the shaft 180. This cam at times drives a snubber stop 205 through the port-41 in the wall 36 for engagement with the snubber hub 82 in a cassette insertedin the pocket 2.

The snubber stop 205 is normally urged back into the -'port 41 by means-of asprin'g206 acting between the wall '36 and a collar 207 formedon the snubber stop.

A cam 208 for controlling the position of the sound array 13 is mounted on the shaft'l82 to be drive'nsynchrono'usly with the snubber control cam 204. The

cams 204v and 208 may be shaped-andorientated, in a manner to be described, so that the'sou'nd array and the snubber stop are engaged and disengaged simultaneously.

A drive sprocket 212 for the-supply reel of a cassette in'the pocket 2, and a-drive' sprocket 213 for the tak eup reel, are' mounted on the spindle plate'186. These drive sprockets are adapted to protrude through the ports. 37 and 38 in the wall 36 when the spindle plate 186 is driven toward'the wall 36 by the-cams 185. 7.

, The sprocket 212 is formedjintegralwith'a shaft 214. A. collar 215. is formed integral with the shaft 214. An other collar 216 is'detachabl'y secured to the shaft 214 by-means schematically'shown'as cooperating threads formed on the'part's. This collar 216 may be integral with a splined extension-217 that. engages correspondof a drive shaft219. i

The shaft 214 and the collars 215 ing splines 218 formed in a cylindrical bore in the end and 216 cooperate with bearings schematically, indicated at 220, mounted in the spindle'plate 186 to allow the shaft 214 to rotate in the spindle plate,-while preventing it from being translated along the axis of the shaft 214 with respect .to the plate 186. The splines ,2-18 and the splined extenmounted for rotation thereon. Y

. 18. translationally fixed relative to the plate 155, but

The shaft 219 is connected to one side of a conventional slip clutch 224, and the shaft 223 is similarly connected to one side of a conventional slip clutch-225.

Each of'the shafts 219 and 223 is at times driven through its'associated slip clutch, and at othertimes is driven from the associatedsprockets 212 and 213, as

' ,will appear,

-A vaned ferromagnetic element 226 is mounted on the shaft 223for rotation therewith, carrying its vanes past a conventional magnetic reed switch S5 such that the switch S5 is opened and closed a number of times during each revolution of the shaft 223. The switch S5 provides an input signal to'a motion detector, in a manner fully described in theabove-cited-US. application Ser.'No. 227,080.

.The slip clutches 224 and225 are arranged to be driven at times by the DC'motor DCMl through means next to be described As schematically, indicated, the motor DCMl is provided with an output shaft 227. The shaft 227 drives a bevel gear 228. The gear. 228 drives a pair of shafts 229 and230- in opposite directions through bevel gears 231 and 232, respectively. The

shaft -229is connected to one side of a conventional one-way clutch schematically indicated at 233, and the shaft'230 is connected to one side of a conventional one'-way clutch2 34.. v i When the shaft 229 is rotated in the direction .of the arrow in FIG. 7, the clutch 233 will be engaged and drive the slip clutch 225 through ashaft 235. When the shaft 229 is rotated in the' opposite direction, the clutch 233 will be disengaged. Similarly, when the shaft 230 is rotated in the direction of the arrow in FIG. 7, the clutch'234 will be disengaged. When the shaft 230'is rotated; in the opposite directiomthe clutch 234 will be engaged to drive the shaft 219 through the slip clutch 224 by means of an intennediate shaft 236.

The foot pedal 42 mounted adjacent the floor plate 6 the pocket 2 'will next be described in its relation to the locator pin 159, with reference to FIGS. 7 andv 10. As best shown in FIG. 10, the "foot plate 42 is provided with a downwardly depending arm 237 which exsion 217 cooperate to allow the shaft214 to be driven by the shaft 219, while allowing relative translational 1 motion between the shafts 214 and 219. Thus, the shaft 214 'may be fixed relative .to the base plate 155 against translational motion, while rotatable with respect The sprocket 213 may be rotatably-mounted against tends through a suitable aperture in the floorplate 6 to a transverse arm 238, formed integrally with the foot plate 42 and the arm 237-, and extending over beneath 7 the wall 36-to an upwardly extending arm 239.

The arm 239 extends up through a suitable aperture in the base plate 155 to an'end 240 formed integrally therewith. The end 240 is connected to a lever 241. The lever 241 is spaced at one end from the base plate 36 by means of a conventional spacer 242, and is pivoted to the wall 36 by a pin 243. At the opposite end,

the lever 241 is formed with upstanding yoke arms 244 that surround the port 40, through which thelocator' pin is adapted to protrude.

' The lever 241 is spaced from the adjacent the yoke'arms 244 We spacer 245 secured to comprising splines 221 affixed to the sprocket 213 and cooperating with splines 222 formed in a shaft 223, in

. the manner described above, to allow. the sprocket 213 to be drivably connected to the shaft 223 while free to I slide'axially with respect thereto. The shaft 223 is also the wall 36. When the foot pedal is depressed, the lever 241', isrotated to carry the yoke arms 244 out of the way of the recess 40, for purposes to appear. The [ever 241. and interconnected parts, includingthe footpedal 42, are urged into theposition' shown in FIG. '10 by a spring 246 secured to the base plate by means schematically indicated at 247.. a

Referring next to FIG. 11, the locator pin 159 is formed integral with a collar 250-that engages the yoke wall 36a the end

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4170407 *Oct 2, 1978Oct 9, 1979Polaroid CorporationSound film cassette employing separating web
US4229083 *Apr 24, 1979Oct 21, 1980Polaroid CorporationTwo speed loop control arrangement
US4271439 *Apr 24, 1979Jun 2, 1981Polaroid CorporationElectronic gain and noise control for recording of analog information
US4317142 *Oct 27, 1980Feb 23, 1982Polaroid CorporationElectronic gain and noise control for recording of analog information
US4342059 *Jul 29, 1981Jul 27, 1982Polaroid CorporationElectronic gain and noise control for recording of analog information
US4370035 *Sep 24, 1979Jan 25, 1983Polaroid CorporationDual web sound movie cassette with emulsion stripping web
US4956806 *Jul 12, 1988Sep 11, 1990International Business Machines CorporationMethod and apparatus for editing source files of differing data formats using an edit tracking file
US5072164 *Jan 11, 1991Dec 10, 1991P & P Industries, Inc.Electric motor control unit
US8177444 *Jan 8, 2008May 15, 2012Zih Corp.Printer and associated ejection assembly
US8814452Apr 16, 2012Aug 26, 2014Zih Corp.Printer and associated ejection assembly
US20090175671 *Jan 8, 2008Jul 9, 2009Zih Corp.Printer and associated ejection assembly
WO1980000752A1 *Sep 24, 1979Apr 17, 1980Polaroid CorpDual web sound movie cassette with emulsion stripping web
U.S. Classification352/5, 360/251.3, 528/373
International ClassificationG03B17/26
Cooperative ClassificationG03B17/265
European ClassificationG03B17/26B