|Publication number||US3856513 A|
|Publication date||Dec 24, 1974|
|Filing date||Dec 26, 1972|
|Priority date||Dec 26, 1972|
|Also published as||CA1012382A1, DE2364131A1, DE2364131C2, DE2366326C2, DE2366327C2|
|Publication number||US 3856513 A, US 3856513A, US-A-3856513, US3856513 A, US3856513A|
|Inventors||Chen H, Polk D|
|Original Assignee||Allied Chem|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (274), Classifications (60), Legal Events (1) |
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Novel amorphous metals and amorphous metal articles
US 3856513 A
Novel metal alloy compositions which are obtained in the amorphous state and are superior to such previously known alloys based on the same metals are provided; these new compositions are easily quenched to the amorphous state and possess desirable physical properties. Also disclosed is a novel article of manufacture in the form of wire of these novel amorphous metal alloys and of other compositions of the same type.
United States Patent [191 Chen et a1.
[ Dec. 24, 1974 NOVEL AMORPHOUS METALS AND AMORPHOUS METAL ARTICLES  Inventors: Ho-Sou Chen, Warren; Donald E.
Polk, Morristown, both of NJ.
 Assignee: Allied Chemical Corporation, New
 Filed: Dec. 26, 1972  Appl. No.: 318,146
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,403,996 10/1968 Hirota et al 75/124 X 3,406,057 10/1968 Hirota et a1 75/170 X 3,427,154 2/1969 Mader 3,433,630 3/1969 Hirota 3,461,943 8/1969 Schile r.
3,542,542 11/1970 Hirota 3,543,831 12/1970 Schile 3,658,979 4/1972 Dunn et al. 164/82 Primary Examiner-L. Dewayne Rutledge Assistant Examiner-Arthur J. Steiner Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Arthur J. Plantamura [5 7 ABSTRACT Novel metal alloy compositions which are obtained in the amorphous state and are superior to such previously known alloys based on the same metals are provided; these new compositions are easily quenched to the amorphous state and possess desirable physical properties. Also disclosed is a novel article of manufacture in the form of wire of these novel amorphous metal alloys and of other compositions of the same type.
8 Claims, N0 Drawings NOVEL AMORPHOUS METALS ANI) AMORPHOUS METAL ARTICLES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to novel amorphous metal compositions and to the preparation of wires of these and other amorphous metal alloys.
Heretofore, a limited number of amorphous, i.e., noncrystalline or glassy, metal alloys have been prepared. To obtain the amorphous state, a molten alloy of a suitable composition must be quenched rapidly, or alternatively, a deposition technique must be used: suitably employed vapor deposition, sputtering, electrodeposition, or chemical (electro-less) deposition can be used to produce the amorphous metal.
The production of amorphous metal by these known techniques, i.e., either through a rapid quench of the melt or by deposition, severely limits the form in which the amorphous metal can be obtained. For example, when the amorphous metal is obtained from the melt, the rapid quench has generally been achieved by spreading the molten alloy in a thin layer against a metal substrate such as Cu or Al held at or below room temperature. The molten metal is typically spread to a thickness of about 0.002 inch which, as discussed in detail by R. Predecki, A. W. Mullendore and N. J. Grant .in Trans. AIME 233, I581 (1965) and R. C. Ruhl in Mat. Sci. & Eng. 1,313 (1967), leads to a cooling rate of about l C/sec.
Various procedures have been proposed to provide rapid quenching by spreading the molten liquid in a thin layer against a metal substrate. Typical examples of such techniques are the gun technique of P. Duwez and R. H. Willens described in Trans. AIME 227, 362 (1963) in which a gaseous shock wave propels a drop of molten metal against a substrate made of a metal such as copper; the piston and anvil technique described by P. Pietrokowsky in Rev. Sci. Instr. 34, 445 (1963) in which two metal plates come together rapidly and flatten out and quench a drop of molten metal falling between them; the casting technique described by R. Pond, Jr. and R. Maddin in Trans. Met. Soc.
AIME 245, 2475 (1969) in which a molten metal stream impinges on the inner Surface of a rapidly rotating hollow cylinder open at one end; and the rotating double rolls technique described by H. S. Chen and C. E. Miller in Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, I237 (1970) in which the molten metal is squirted into the nip of a pair of rapidly rotating metal rollers. These techniques produce small foils or ribbon-shaped samples in which one dimension is much smaller than the other two so that their usefulness as a practical matter is severely limited. Because of the high cooling rates necessary to obtain the amorphous state from quenched liquid alloys, it is required that the amorphous metals be formed in a shape which does not preclude adequate quenching, i.e., they must have at least one dimension small enough to permit the sufficiently rapid removal of the heat from the sample.
Metal alloys which are most easily obtained in the amorphous state by rapid quenching or by deposition techniques are mixtures of transition metals with metalloids, i.e. semimetals. In each case, the alloy is approximately 80 atomic percent transition metal and atomic percent metalloid. Examples of alloys of this type reportedly made previously in the amorphous State are Pd34SI15, Pd79Sl2 pdn cugsl C080P20,
76.9 1a.Ss 9.4s tl1.4 lK.fi li0 lIl 7 l5 ll0 25 42.s 42.5 is t5 l0 75 l5 10v so mn and Ni B where the subscripts indicate atomic percent.
The cooling rate necessary to achieve the amorphous state, i.e., to avoid crystallization, and the stability of the amorphous state once it is obtained depends upon the composition of the alloy. Some of these alloys are better glass formers than others; these better" alloys can be obtainedin the amorphous state with a lower cooling rate, which in practice may be more readily obtainable, or can be obtained with a greater thickness when quenched from the melt with a given technique.
Generally, there is a small range of compositions surrounding each of the known amorphous compositions where the amorphous state can be obtained. However, apart from quenching the alloys, no practical guideline is known for predicting with certainty which of the multitude of different alloys will yield an amorphous metal with given processing conditions and hence which of the alloys are better" glass formers. v
The amorphous and the crystalline state are distinguished by the respective absence or presence of long range periodicity. Further, the compositional ordering in alloys maybe different for the two states. These differences are reflected in the differences in their x-ray diffraction behavior, and accordingly, x-ray diffraction measurements are most often used to distinguish a crystalline from an amorphous substance. Diffractometer traces of an amorphous substance reveal a slowly varying diffracted intensity, in many respects similar to a liquid, while crystalline materials produce a much more rapidly varying diffracted intensity. Also, the physical properties, which depend upon the atomic arrangement, are uniquely different for the crystalline and the amorphous state. The mechanical properties differ substantially for the two states; for example, a 0.002 inch thick strip of amorphous Pd si is relatively more ductile and stronger and will deform plasticallyupon sufficiently severe bending while a similar crystalline strip of the same composition is brittle and weak and will fracture upon identical bending. Further, the magnetic and electrical properties of the two states are different. In each case, the metastable amorphous state will convert to a crystalline form upon heating to a sufficiently high temperature with the evolution of a heat of crystallization.
It should be noted, moreover, that cooling a molten metal to a glass is distinctly different from cooling such a molten metal to the crystalline state. When a liquid is cooled to a glass, the liquid solidifies continuously over a range of temperature without a discontinuous evolution of a heat of fusion. In contrast, crystallization is a thermodynamic first order transition and thus is associated with a heat of fusion and a specific temperature.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the invention is to provide a novel amorphous metal compositions which are readily quenched to the amorphous state, have increased stability, and possess desirable physical properties.
A further object of the invention resides in the provision of articles of manufacture of these novel amorphous metals in a variety of forms, e.g., ribbons, sheets, wire, powder, etc.
Another object of the invention is to provide an arti ole of these and other amorphous metal compositions in the form of wire, i.e., a filament with a cross-section which is approximately circular, i.e., a rod-like filament, as contrasted with strands which are ribbon like.
Additional objects and advantages will become apparent from the description and examples provided.
The novel compositions of interest in this invention are composed primarily of Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, and V. Although certain compositions, i.e. Fe P C Fe P C Fe P B Co P B Fe B C and Ni P B have been previously described as being quenched from the melt to the amorphous state, we have discovered that certain novel, distinct and useful compositions may be obtained by the addition of small amounts, i.e., from 0.1 to 15 atomic percent but preferably from 0.5 to 6 atomic percent, of certain elements such as Al, Si, Sn, Sb, Ge, In, or Be, to such alloys. As a consequence of the introduction of these elements, these alloys become much better glass formers, i.e., the amorphous state is more readily obtained and moreover, is more thermally stable.
We have found that the inclusion of small amounts of certain elements of a group hereafter sometimes referred to by the symbol Z, and consisting of Al, Si, Sn, Ge, ln, Sb or Be, in amounts of from about 0.1 to about 15 atomic percent, to alloys of the type wherein M is a metal selected from one or more of the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Co, V and Cr; and Y represents elements from the group'consisting of P, B, and C; (k) and (p) are in atomic percent and are about 70 to 85 and about 30 to 15, respectively, provides superior glass forming alloys. Illustrative alloys, for example, are Fe P, C Si,Al Fe Ni P, B Al Ni P B Ab, and Cr, .-,Co Ni P, B Al and may have the general formula:
wherein M, Y, and Z are as defined above and a, b, and c are in atomic percent and range from about 60 to 90, about 10 to 30 and about 0.1 to 15, respectively, and a plus b plus c equals 100.
Additionally, we have discovered that the alloy Fe Ni P B and those alloysof similar compositions (e.g. Fe Nl35P13B7C FE40Ni P B Fe3oNl5 P B are SU- perior glass forming alloys.
Selected alloys of the kinds disclosed above may be relatively more consistently and more readily quenched to the amorphous state than previously thought possible with known Fe-Ni-Cobased alloys. Moreover, these alloys are more stable; upon heating, they show the thermal manifestation of the glass transition (a sudden increase in the specific heat) while previously known Fe-Ni-Cobased alloys do not. Typically, amorphous alloys which show this thermal manifestation of the glass transition are more readily obtained in the amorphous state than amorphous alloys which do not.
The compositions within the contemplation of the present invention can be obtained in the form of ribbons or strips using the apparatus described in the above-mentioned references, Pondand Maddin, or that of Chen and Miller, or other techniques which are similar in principle. Further, wider strips or sheets can be obtained with similar quench tenchiques when the molten metal is squirted as a sheet, for example, rather than with an approximately round cross section. Additionally, powders of-such amorphous metlas where theparticle size ranges from about 0.0004 to 0.010 inch can be made by atomizing the molten alloy to droplets of this size and then quenching these droplets in a liquid such as water, refrigerated brine, or liquid nitrogen.
The alloys discussed above in each case are made from the high purity elements. however, in the utilization of these alloys, it is anticipated that the alloys would be made from the less expensive commercially available material which would have small amounts of other elements in solution. Thus the alloys contemplated by the'invention may contain fractional amounts of other elements which are commonly found in commercially available Fe or Ni alloys, for example, either as a result of the source of the primary metal or through a later addition. Examples of such elements are Mo, Ti, Mn, W, Zr, Hf and Cu.
In addition to the novel amorphous compositions described herein, the invention contemplates a novel article of manufacture in the form of amorphous metal wires of these alloys and others of the transition metalmetalloid type. In providing the wire-form article, a stream of molten metal is formed by squirting the molten metal from a nozzle or otherwise forming a jet from a suitable die and appropriately quenching the alloy.
Suitable compositions from which such wires are made may be represented by the general formula wherein T is a transition metal or mixture of said transition metals and X is an element selected from the group consisting of phosphorus, boron, carbon, aluminum, silicon, tin, germanium, indium, beryllium and antimony and mixtures thereof and wherein i and j are atomic percent and range from about to 87 and from about 13 to 30, respectively. It will be understood that not every alloy encompassed within the formula T X will necessarily yield an amorphous product. For example, a given composition may form a crystalline wire with a particular quenching technique and diameter, while an amorphous wire may be formed with a different quenching technique which provides a higher cooling rate and/or with a smaller diameter. Addition ally, some specific ratios within the general formula T X,- cannot be quenched from the melt to a wire of diameter large enough to be useful.
While most metal wire is conventionally prepared by drawing the metal through successively smaller dies, such a technique is not appropriate in the production of wire of amorphous metals. Amorphous metals, because of the manner in which they must be obtained, are not available in the form and dimensions required ofthe starting materials which are to be drawn to wires.
The quenching of the molten jet to form an amorphous metal wire has been achieved by squirting the molten jet into stationary water or refrigerated brine. however, any process may be used to quench the molten jet to the amorphous state as long as the cooling rate is great enough to avoid crystallization and disruption of the molten jet from the wire form does not take place during cooling. The cooling rate experienced by the molten metal stream or jet during quenching is dependent upon both the technique used to cool the molten jet and the diameter of the jet; the cooling technique determines the rate at which heat is removed from the surface of the jet while the diameter determines the surface-to-volume ratio and hence the quantity of heat which must be removed per unit area to reduce the temperature a given amount. As noted heretofore, different compositions require different minimum cooling rates in order to obtain the amorphous state. Thus, in order to obtain an amorphous, as distinguished from crystalline, metal wire, the cooling technique, the jet diameter, and the alloy composition must be reconciled.
The amorphous metal wire contemplated by the invention may be derived from a range of compositions of the transition metalmetalloid type alloys including the novel compositions described above, previously inown amorphous compositions, from which wire form articles have not previously been prepared, as well as from other alloy compositions of the type T,-X,.
The production of amorphous metal wires yields a number of advantages because of their unique properties which are not possessed by crystalline metal wires produced by ordinary techniques. For example, glassy metal wires are less sensitive than crystalline wire to radiation damage and have a small or even negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. In preparing the novel amorphous alloy compositions of the invention, important processing economies are also available; the amorphous wire form of certain compositions may be less expensive for the sizes and strengths which can be obtained than the commonly used drawn wire. The amorphous metal strands, wires, sheets, etc., contemplated by the invention, find a variety of uses such as reinforcement use, e.g. as tire cord or as reinforcement in molded thermoplastic or thermosetting plastics; as filter media; biomedical reinforcement, e.g. sutures; as relay magnets; corrosion resistant chemical processing equipment; and the like.
Typically, in accordance with the invention, wires of about 0.005 inch diameter are formed, although the invention is not restricted to such diameter. Additionally, these alloys are ideally suited for the melt spinning of wire since they are generally of a near-eutectic composition and hence have a relatively low liquidus temperature, i.e. the lowest temperature at which the alloy is totally liquid in equilibrium. This simplifies the processing of the alloy and expands the list of materials which can be used to contain the molten alloy and as nozzles or dies to form the molten stream. For example,
Fe P QAh, which is 86.7 weight percent Fe, has a liquidus temperature of about 1020C while pure Fe melts at ,1535C..
Various processes can be used to achieve the necessary cooling to yield the amorphous alloys. As stated above, the stream of the molten jet may be squirted into stationery water or refrigerated brine and appropriately collected therefrom after it is quenched. Typical of other specific processes which may be adapted to produce amorphous metal wire in accordance with the invention include that process described by S. Kavesh in a copending U.S. Pat. application, Ser. No. 306,472, filed Nov. 14, 1972; those by R. D. Schile in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,461,943 and 3,543,831; and that described by S. A. Dunn, et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 3,658,979. While these same methods may be employed to yield either crystalline or amorphous metal, one skilled in the art would experience no difficulty in accordance with the teaching presented herein regarding the use of appropriate cooling rates, wire diameters and compositions so as to obtain an amorphous metal wire.
These amorphous alloys and wire form articles have very desirable physical properties. For example, high tensile strengths and a high elastic limit in the asquenched state can be achieved as well as good corrosion resistance and unique magnetic properties in various selected compositions. Also, a number of compositions are found to be remarkably ductile in the amorphous state. Some specimens, for example, can be bent over radii of curvature less than their thickness and can be cut with scissors. Also, with these ductile samples, tensile strengths of up to 350,000 psi have been obtained in the as-quenched condition. Thus, the heat treatments often given crystalline materials to obtain high strength are obviated with the amorphous metal alloys. Alloys such as Fe P, .-,C,B,Si,Al can be quenched directly from the melt to form inexpensive, high strength wire which can be employed directly as a commercial product.
The amorphous alloys provide strong, corrosionresistant material; selected compositions of these amorphous alloys are relatively unreactive with concentrated surfuric, hydrochloric, or nitric acid. For example, amorphous Feg Ni P B Al is found to be several orders of magnitude less reactive than stainless steels with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
Further, it has been found that various of the metal alloys of the same general formula T,X,- considered above also have the desirable properties of high strength and hardness, ductility and corrosion resis tance even when they are partially crystalline. The fraction of the sample that is crystalline can be estimated by suitably employed x-ray or electron diffraction, electron transmission microscopy, and thermal analysis. Hence, the invention thus also contemplates a metal wire which is partially crystalline but which is at least 50 percent amorphous. For example, such wires may be rendered partially crystalline because the quenching rate is lower than that required to obtain the totally amorphous state for the specific composition being quenched.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Typically, the preferred novel amorphous compositions of the invention are those characterized by the formula M Y Z wherein M is a metal selected from the group consisting of iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium and vanadium and mixtures thereof; Y is an element selected from the group consisting of phosphorus, boron and carbon, and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of aluminum, antimony, beryllium, germanium, indium, tin and silicon and mixtures thereof and wherein the relative proportions in atomic percentages range from about to 80, b from about 19 to 22, and c from 1 to 3.
These metals offer a variety of characteristics which may make them suitable for a wide range of special applications. For example, amorphous alloys in which M is totally or primarily iron, e.g. Fe P C Si Al are of particular interest because of their low cost and relatively high strength. Amorphous alloys such as Ni Fe P B Al are of significance, for example, because of their special ease of formation in combination with high strength and corrosion resistance. Alloys which have a high chromium content, e.g. Cr P B Si are exceptional in their hardness and corrosion resistance.
The wire form amorphous metal alloy products of the invention include the amorphous alloys defined by the formula (I) hereinabove and contemplates also wire form products of other amorphous metals as well and may be defined as those alloys having the formula wherein T is a transition metal or mixture thereof and X is an element selected from the group consisting of aluminum, antimony, beryllium, boron, germanium, carbon, indium, phosphorus, silicon and tin and mixtures thereof and wherein the proportion in atomic percentages as represented by i andj are respectively from about 70 to about 87 and from about 13 to about 30 with the proviso that i plusj equals 100. The transition metals T are those of group 18, 111B, IVB, VB, VIB, V118 and VIII of the Periodic Chart of the Elements and include the following: scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, actinium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, ruthenium,osmium, cobalt, rhodium, iridium, nickel, palladium, platinum, copper, silver, and gold; preferably Fe, Ni, Co, V, Cr, Pd, Pt and Ti.
The amorphous metal wires of composition T,-X are typically from 0.001 to 0.020 inch in diameter, with diameters of 0.004 to 0.008 inch being preferred. Any suitable technique which cools the molten jet sufficiently fast to avoid crystallization or jet breakup can be used to quench the jet. The simplest such method is to squirt the molten metal stream into a'suitably chosen liquid such as water or iced brine. An advantageous technique is that described in the copending application of S. Kavesh, Ser. No. 306,472, filed Nov. 14, 1972, in which the molten jet is quenched in. a concurrently flowing stream of liquid. The novel compositions and article of the invention are not limited by this process, however, since various other processes which provide appropriate quenching conditions may be utilized, such as the processes described by R. D. Schile in US. Pat. Nos. 3,461,943 and 3,543,831, in which the cooling of the molten jet through corona discharge, gas jets, and/or the deposition on the stream of a colder substance are used.
The invention will be further described by the following specific examples. It will be understood, however, that although these examples may describe in detail certain preferred operating variables and proportions within the contemplation of the invention, they are provided primarily for purposes of illustration and the invention in its broader aspects is not limited thereto. Parts stated unless otherwise expressed are atomic percent.
EXAMPLE 1 Elemental Fe, P, C, Si and A1 are weighed so that the product mixture yields the following alloy: Fe P, C Al Si,. The Fe, P and C were sintered for 1 day in an evacuated sealed fused silica tube at 450C, then melted in vacuum at 1050C. This alloy is remelted in vacuum at 1100C with the Si and Al to give the final alloy. This alloy was placed in a fused silica tube with a 0.012 inch diameter hole in the bottomand melted at 1,100C. A gas pressure of8 psi is applied to the tube to force the molten metal through the hole, and the stream of molten alloy is directed into the nip of the rotating double rolls, held at room temperature, described by Chen and Miller in Rev. Sci. lnstrum. 41, 1237 (1970). The rolls are two inches in diameter and were rotating at 1500 rpm. The quenched metal was entirely amorphous as determined by x-ray diffraction measurements, was ductile to bending and exhibited tensile strengths to 350,000 psi. Alloys containing only Fe-P-C, such as Fe P C Fe P, C and Fe P C similarly quenched, are brittle and partially crystalline, as determined by x-ray diffraction. Further, the amorphous Fe P C Al Si, alloy exhibits the thermal manifestation of the glass transition, i.e. rapid increase in the specific heat, while amorphous Fe-P-C alloys do not.
EXAMPLE 2 An alloy of composition Ni Fe P B Al is melted at 1,020C and quenched to an amorphous metal in the manner of and following the procedure of Example 1. An alloy with improved thermal stability and high bending ductility, strength, and corrosion resistance is obtained. X-ray diffraction measurements are used to confirm its amorphous structure.
EXAMPLE 3 The molten alloy of Example 2 is quenched to the amorphous state using the Pond and Maddin teaching wherein the molten stream is directed through a 0.020 inch hole onto the surface of a copper hollow cylinder which is open at one end, has an inner diameter of six inches, is at room temperature and is rotating at 2500 rpm. An amorphous metal ribbon having the properties of that obtained in Example 2 was obtained,
EXAMPLES 4 17 Following the procedures of Example 1, the amorphous alloys set forth in Table l were obtained.
The alloy of composition Ni P B Si was obtained in the amorphous state by flash evaporation as follows: A fine powder, ,u. particles, of crystalline Ni P B- Si was slowly sprinkled onto a hot tungsten filament (-1,600C) in a vacuum of about 10 mm Hg. The vaporized alloy was condensed onto a nearby copper substrate kept at room temperature so that the amorphous state of the same composition was achieved.
EXAMPLES l9 24 Following the procedure of Example 18, the amorphous alloys set forth in Table II were obtained by flash EXAMPLE 25 A Pd Cu Si, alloy was melted in a fused silica tube which had been drawn to a point with a 0.008 inch hole at the tip and containing an argon atomosphere within a furnace held at 870C. The melt was held in the tube by its surface tension. The silica tube was rapidly lowered through the furnace so that the tip of the tube was held 0.1 inch above the surface of water contained in a vessel at room temperature and the melt was ejected into the water upon applying 6 psi of gas pressure to the tube. A continuous, smooth amorphous wire of round cross-section with a diameter of about 0.008 inch was obtained. The glassy (amorphous) nature of the wire product was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. The wire has an elastic limit of about 160,000 psi and a tensile strength of about 230,000 psi which is about one-fiftieth of the Youngs modulus for this glass, a value which approaches the theoretical strength of this material.
EXAMPLE 26 Pd-, Cu Si was melt spun to a wire of uniform cross section using the process and apparatus described by Kavesh in the above-noted US. application, Ser. No. 306,472, with an orifice diameter of 0.005 inch and C water as the quench medium to yield an amorphous product.
EXAMPLE 27 Following the procedure of Example 25, a Ni Feg P B ShAl alloy was melted at l000C and ejected from a 0.005 inch hole into brine held at C to produce a glassy wire whose amorphous character is confirmed by xray diffraction.
EXAMPLE 28 Following the procedure of Example 26, a
10 Fe P, C B,Si Al alloy was spun to a glassy wire using a 0.005 inch hole and -20C brine as the quench medium. The amorphous character of the wire is confirmed by x-ray diffraction.
EXAMPLE 29 Following the procedure of Example 26, a Ni40Pd4oP2n alloy was melted at 700C and melt spun through a 0.005 inch orifice into iced brine at 20C to give a glassy wire. the amorphous characterization is confirmed by x-ray diffraction.
1. A metal alloy of the formula M,,Y,,Z which is at least 50 percent amorphous and wherein M is a metal selected from the group consisting essentially of iron, nickel, chromium, cobalt, or vanadium or a mixture thereof, Y is a metalloid selected from the-group consisting of phosphorus, carbon and boron or a mixture thereof, and Z isan element selected from the group consisting of aluminum, silicon, tin, antimony, germa' nium, indium, and beryllium and mixtures thereof, 19" and 0" are atomic percentages ranging from about 60 to 90, 10 to 30 and 0.1 to 15 respectively with the proviso that a plus b plus c equals. 100.
2. The amorphous metal alloy of claim 1 wherein a, b" and 0 range from 69 to 84.5, 15 to 25, and 0.5 to 6, respectively.
3. The amorphous metal alloy of claim 1 wherein up to about one-fourth of the metal M is replaced by elements commonly alloyed with iron or nickel.
4. As an article of manufacture, sheets,ribbons and powders of the amorphous metals having the compositions of claim 1.
5. As an article of manufacture, sheets, ribbons and powders of the amorphous metals having the compositions of claim 3.
6. As an article of manufacture, a metal wire comprising an alloy which is at least 50 percent amorphous and having a composition of the formula T X, wherein T is a transition metal or mixture of said transition met als and X is an element selected from the group consisting of aluminum, antimony, beryllium, boron, germanium, carbon, indium, phosphorus, silicon, tin, and mixtures thereof and wherein i andj are in atomic percentages and range from about 70 to about 87 and from about 13 to about 30 respectively.
7. The article of claim 6 wherein i ranges from about 74 to about 84 andj ranges from about 16 to about 26.
8. Amorphous metal wire of claim 6 wherein iron comprises at least 60 atomic percent of T.
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|US4126449 *||Aug 9, 1977||Nov 21, 1978||Allied Chemical Corporation||Zirconium-titanium alloys containing transition metal elements|
|US4126494 *||Oct 19, 1976||Nov 21, 1978||Kokusai Denshin Denwa Kabushiki Kaisha||Magnetic transfer record film|
|US4133679 *||Jan 3, 1978||Jan 9, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Iron-refractory metal-boron glassy alloys|
|US4133681 *||Jan 3, 1978||Jan 9, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Molybdenum, tungsten|
|US4133682 *||Jan 3, 1978||Jan 9, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Molybdenum, tungsten|
|US4135924 *||Aug 9, 1977||Jan 23, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Filaments of zirconium-copper glassy alloys containing transition metal elements|
|US4137075 *||May 25, 1977||Jan 30, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Heat resistance|
|US4140525 *||Jan 3, 1978||Feb 20, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Ultra-high strength glassy alloys|
|US4148669 *||Apr 3, 1978||Apr 10, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Zirconium-titanium alloys containing transition metal elements|
|US4148973 *||Jun 5, 1978||Apr 10, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Homogeneous, ductile brazing foils|
|US4150981 *||Aug 15, 1977||Apr 24, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||And boron|
|US4152144 *||Dec 29, 1976||May 1, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Metallic glasses having a combination of high permeability, low magnetostriction, low ac core loss and high thermal stability|
|US4152146 *||Dec 29, 1976||May 1, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Molybdenum, boron, iron and impurities|
|US4152147 *||Apr 10, 1978||May 1, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Improved thermal stability|
|US4152486 *||Mar 10, 1977||May 1, 1979||Kokusai Denshin Denwa Kabushiki Kaisha||Curie temperature, alloy of dysprosium and iron|
|US4169744 *||Jun 28, 1978||Oct 2, 1979||Western Gold And Platinum Company||Nickel-chromium-silicon alloy brazing foil|
|US4171992 *||Apr 3, 1978||Oct 23, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Preparation of zirconium alloys containing transition metal elements|
|US4172718 *||May 1, 1978||Oct 30, 1979||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Tantalum and cobalt or nitrogen|
|US4174419 *||Nov 8, 1978||Nov 13, 1979||Allied Chemical Corporation||Stabilized magnetic shields|
|US4186245 *||Sep 28, 1978||Jan 29, 1980||Allied Chemical Corporation||Energy storage flywheel|
|US4188211 *||Feb 9, 1978||Feb 12, 1980||Tdk Electronics Company, Limited||Thermally stable amorphous magnetic alloy|
|US4189618 *||Jul 31, 1978||Feb 19, 1980||Allied Chemical Corporation||Electromagnetic shielding envelopes from wound glassy metal filaments|
|US4190438 *||Sep 7, 1978||Feb 26, 1980||Sony Corporation||Ruthenium alloy having high permeability|
|US4197146 *||Oct 24, 1978||Apr 8, 1980||General Electric Company||Molded amorphous metal electrical magnetic components|
|US4201601 *||Mar 8, 1979||May 6, 1980||Gte Sylvania Incorporated||Copper brazing alloy foils containing germanium|
|US4201837 *||Nov 16, 1978||May 6, 1980||General Electric Company||Thin polymer-coated metal ribbons|
|US4202022 *||Aug 14, 1978||May 6, 1980||Kokusai Denshin Denwa Kabushiki Kaisha||Magnetic transfer record film and apparatus for magneto-optically reading magnetic record patterns using the same|
|US4202089 *||Jun 2, 1978||May 13, 1980||The Singer Company||Splat-cooled instrument flexure and method to fabricate same|
|US4210443 *||Feb 27, 1978||Jul 1, 1980||Allied Chemical Corporation||Molybdenum and/or tungsten|
|US4217135 *||Nov 29, 1978||Aug 12, 1980||General Electric Company||Iron-boron-silicon ternary amorphous alloys|
|US4219355 *||May 25, 1979||Aug 26, 1980||Allied Chemical Corporation||Iron-metalloid amorphous alloys for electromagnetic devices|
|US4221587 *||Mar 23, 1979||Sep 9, 1980||Allied Chemical Corporation||Method for making metallic glass powder|
|US4221592 *||Sep 2, 1977||Sep 9, 1980||Allied Chemical Corporation||Glassy alloys which include iron group elements and boron|
|US4225339 *||Dec 15, 1978||Sep 30, 1980||Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Amorphous alloy of high magnetic permeability|
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|US4229389 *||Mar 16, 1979||Oct 21, 1980||Thompson Marine Corporation||Gas diffuser, aerator, or sparger apparatus|
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|US4258756 *||Aug 27, 1979||Mar 31, 1981||Allied Chemical Corporation||Composite shell|
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| || |
|U.S. Classification||148/403, 420/445, 420/435, 164/423, 420/441, 252/519.1, 374/176, 420/588, 164/480, 252/519.14, 164/463, 420/424, 164/462, 420/28, 420/14, 420/580|
|International Classification||C22C30/00, C22C5/04, C22C45/00, C22C1/00, C22C5/06, C22C28/00, H01F1/12, C22C27/00, H01F1/147, C22C9/00, C22C27/04, C22C16/00, C22C14/00, H05K9/00, C22C19/00, H01C3/00, C22C45/04, H01F1/153, C22C5/02, C22C1/02, C22C27/06, C22C45/02, B22D11/00, C22C27/02, C22C5/00, C22C22/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H05K9/009, H01C3/005, C22C45/00, C22C19/00, C22C27/025, C22C27/06, C22C45/02, H01F1/15391, B22D11/005|
|European Classification||C22C27/06, C22C27/02B, B22D11/00B, C22C45/00, C22C19/00, C22C45/02, H01C3/00B, H05K9/00M4F, H01F1/153T|
|Dec 9, 1986||RF||Reissue application filed|
Effective date: 19861023