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Publication numberUS3857213 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 31, 1974
Filing dateDec 12, 1972
Priority dateOct 31, 1969
Also published asDE2053412A1, US3708944
Publication numberUS 3857213 A, US 3857213A, US-A-3857213, US3857213 A, US3857213A
InventorsMiyake M
Original AssigneeMiyake M
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Simplified construction
US 3857213 A
Abstract
A stressed arch fabricated from a plurality of prefabricated structural frame members assembled over a flexible strand which is tensioned for causing the frame members to coact and assume an arch configuration and a method of making same are disclosed. Joint members may be added between each of the frame members. A plurality of connected or intersecting arch configurations may be covered by siding and roofing materials and erected simultaneously to provide a complete building suitable for permanent use or for easily disassembled portable use.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Miyake Dec. 31, 1974 SIMPLIFIED CONSTRUCTION [76] Inventor: Minoru Miyake, 194 of l Shimoshakujii, Nerima-ku, Tokyo, Japan 221 Filed: Dec. 12, 1972 [2]] Appl. No.: 314,326 [3 0] Foreign ApplicationPriority Data Oct. 31. 1969 Japan 44-87390. Related US. Application Data [63] Continuationin-part of Ser. No. 13,003, Feb. 20,

1970, Pat. No. 3,708,944.

[52] US. Cl 52/86, 52/227, 52/303 [51] Int. Cl E04!) 1/32 [58] Field of Search 52/81, 86, 302, 227

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,976,188 10/1934 Nozawa 52/81 2,874,812

2/1959 Clevett 52/86 Primary Examiner-John E. Murtagh Attorney, Agent, or FirmFidelman, Wolffe, Leitner & Hiney [57] ABSTRACT A stressed arch fabricated from a plurality of prefabricated structural frame members assembled over a flexible strand which is tensioned for causing the frame members to coact and assume an arch configuration and a method of making same are disclosed. Joint members may be added between each of the frame members. A plurality of connected or intersecting arch configurations may be covered by siding and roofing materials and erected simultaneously to provide a complete building suitable for permanent use or for easily disassembled portable use.

8 Claims, 32 Drawing Figures PATENTEDBEBB'I 1 3,857. 213

SHEET t UF 8 B- 1 lo 227239 PATENTEDBEB31 1914 3.857. 21 a SHEET 5 0F 8 PATENTEDIJEB31 I914 3.857. 213

SHEET 6 OF 8 l SIMPLIFIED CONSTRUCTION FIELD OF THE INVENTION This application is a continuation-in-part of U. S. patent application Ser. No. 13,003 filed Feb. 20, 1970 by applicant now U.S. Pat. No. 3,708,944.

The present invention relates generally to permanent or temporary structural constructions and methods for assembly and erection of the same. More particularly, .the present invention relates to prefabrication, assembly and erection of structural components comprising, when erected, a tension arch structure suitable for use as a temporary or permanent framing for supporting a dwelling or other suitable buildingjln practice, a plurality of substantially rigid hollowstructural components are slidably, serially provided over a flexible wire, strand, cable-or rope. Upon application of a tension force to the rope, the structural components are forced into abutting relationship. The tension force on the rope causes the structural components to coact and exert mutual pressure and stress upon adjacent abutting structural components. Such coaction results in a stressed tension arch comprised of the coacting structural components. The resulting tension arch may then be erected in single operation which is greatly simplified since the arch is prefabricated and assembled prior to erection.

BACKGROUND OF THE PRIOR ART Conventional building structural components have been standardized to enable assembly and disassembly thereof with a saving of time and effort. Such components, however, must be precisely designed and manufactured to operate successfully when assembled. Additionally, workmen must be trained to recognize the in terfitting and connection techniques employed for assembly of such components. Additionally, assembly of conventional structural components require erection of auxiliary equipment such as scaffolding and hoisting equipment. Furthermore, conventional structural components, when prefabricated, are bulky and are relatively fragile causing difficulty in transportation thereof to the construction site and in precisely locating such components for erection at the site,

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION The present invention includes structural components which may be standardized as to shape and dimensions, and which may be assembly together with conventional fastening techniques. Assembly and subsequent disassembly of the components may be accomplished quickly and on the ground at the construction site, thereby permitting adjustment or changes in the profile or height of the resultant structural configuration. Further, the arch may be subsequently erected without a need for laboriously assembling the same directly upon its final erection site. Such advantage eliminates the need for auxiliary equipment, such as scaffolds, and hoisting apparatus for positioning each component as the construction is formed.

Transportationof the components to the construction site is simplified, since assembly is accomplished at the site. Additionally, adjustment and positioning of components for assembly are easily accomplished before erection to a final structural configuration.

The present invention provides a light, strong, and economical structural construction which is readily adapted for meeting the structural static and dynamic considerations required of permanent installations for general use, such as aircraft hangars, warehouses and factory buildings. Such a construction according to the invention departs from the pastconcept of movable structures since the invention is suitable for disassembly into easily transportable structural components while satisfying commercial requirements of permanent general use type buildings when erected.

In practice, a plurality of prefabricated, elongated hollow frame members of standardized construction are serially and slidably assembled over a strand of flexible wire, cable or rope with intervening joint forming members between adjacent frame members being also provided slidably over'the strand.

Spaced anchors are providedat the construction site. One end of the strand is secured fixedly to one anchor, and the strand of the-other end is passed through an apertured portion of another anchor. A suitable force applying machine, such as a winch, applied tension forces to the .strand forcing the frame members to assume a stressed arch configuration, hereafter also referred to as a unit member, which configuration is especially determined by properly positioning frame members of selected shapes and dimensions in the assembly. The frame members, if desired, may be joined to the joint members by conventional fastening techniques subsequent to erection of the stressed arch configuration resulting in a permanent installation. If joining is not desired for ease in disassembly, tension may be maintained on the strand after erection of the resulting arch.

I pensed with. In this case, the frame members and spanning members maybe connected directly to one another, again by suitable conventional fastening techniques. Additionally, the adjacent arch configurations may be intersected without a need for the spanning members.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION An object of the present invention is to provide a simplified erectable structural construction fabricated from a plurality of standardized components adapted for assembly prior to erection of the resultant structural construction and a method of making the same.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a simplified construction of readily assembled and disassembled structural components resulting in a permanent or temporary structural construction.

Still another object of the present invention is to provide a plurality of structural components serially over a flexible strand such that upon application of tension forces to the strand, the components coact to form a tension arch.

A further object of the invention is to provide a plurality of structural components which are light, strong and easily transported, adapted for assembly and disassembly with conventional fastening techniques and which result in an erectable stressed arch configuration subsequent to assembly.

Other objects and attendant advantages of the present invention will become apparent when the following detailed description of the preferred embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a side elevation of a preferred embodiment of the invention illustrating a plurality of structural components in an initially assembled condition and also in an erected unit member or stressed arch configuration subsequent to assembly;

FIG. 2 is a schematic view showing exemplary intermediate positions attained by the embodiment shown in FIG. 1 during erection thereof;

FIG. 3 is a side elevation similar to FIG. 1 of another preferred embodiment of the present invention utilizing a movable anchor and shown in an assembled condition illustrated and in an erected condition;

FIG. 4 is a schematic illustration similar to FIG. 2 of exemplary intermediate positions assumed by the embodiment shown in- FIG. 3 during the erection thereof;

FIG. 5 is a side elevation illustrating another pre ferred embodiment of the present invention shown in any two of any number of erected configurations;

FIG. 6 is a side elevation of a unit member, formed with a plurality of frame members without any joint members and with parts shown partially in section to illustrate particular details of construction and further showing a mode of operation in the practice of the invention;

FIG. 7 is a side elevation of a unit member fabricated from frame members and intervening joint members illustrating a mode of operation in the practice of the invention; I

FIG. 8 is an enlarged fragmentary view illustrating in detail, and with parts shown in section and partially broken away, exemplary frame members utilized on the embodiment shown in FIG. 6;

FIG. 9 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation with parts partially'in section to illustrate in detail an exemplary frame member of the embodiments illustrated in FIGS. 1-5 and 7;

FIG. 10 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation with parts partially in section to illustrate in detail another exemplary frame member;

FIG. 11 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation of an exemplary joint member utilized, for example in the preferred embodiments shown in FIGS. l-5 and 7;

FIGS. 12 and 13 are enlarged fragmentary elevations of modified exemplary joint members of the one shown in FIG. 11;

FIG. 14 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation of an anchor showing the articular details and operation thereof; WWTFT'MT" FIG. 15 is a side elevation, with parts partially broken away, to illustrate a completed structural installation fabricated with a plurality of joined unit members such as those shown in FIGS. 1-4, 6 and 7;

FIGS. 16, Hand 18 are side elevations with parts partially broken away to illustrate the modifications of the completed structural installation as shown in FIG. 15;

FIGS. 19-24 illustrate various embodiments of joint members as applied in the embodiments shown in FIGS. 15-19;

FIG. 25 is a schematic drawing of a semicircular arch; I j v FIG. 25a is a cross-section of an arch member along line M-N;

FIG. 25b is a break-away view in perspective of a portion of the arch;

FIG. 25c is a longitudinal section through the middle of arch section t;

FIG. 26 is a schematic diagram showing the various forces acting on a unit member of the arch structure;

FIG. 27 is a perspective drawing of a modification of the bearing members of the arch elements;

FIG. 28 is a cross-section taken generally along line C-C of FIG. 27;

FIG. '29 is a side elevation of a portion of a modified form of the arch structure in which arch members of different lengths are employed.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS With reference to FIG. 1 of the drawings, the basic operation principles of the present invention are illustrated. A pair of spaced anchors or base members R (having a pedestal 35 thereon) are fixedly secured at points X to the ground or to any suitable planar base surface or foundation A at a construction site. A plurality of straight elongated hollow prefabricated frame members 22 or 23 are serially assembled over a flexible strand 1 (FIGS. 1, 5-8) with joint members 31 interposed between adjacent frame members. With the strand I initially secured to the anchors R and under no tension forces, the assembled frame members 22(23) and joint members 31 comprise structural elements which assume a random'relaxed configuration such as the one particularly shown in I(FIGS. 1,2). However, when tension forces are applied on the strand 1 by utilizing a machine (not shown in FIG], but shown as R in FIG. 14) such as a winch, the assembled components coact to form a stressed arch as shown at III (FIGS. 1,2). The particular arch configuration arises from a proper selection of the lengths of frame members 22(23) and joint members 31 utilized and the spacing chosen for the fixed anchors R.

FIG; 2shows in schematic the exemplary progressive positions of the frame members 22(23) and joint members 31 as tension forces are progressively applied to the strand 1. Thus, when relatively little tension is on the strand 1, the assembled components may assume the initial position I (FIGS. 1 and 2). As additional tension forces are applied on the strand 1 by a winch (not shown), for example, the frame members 22(23) and joint members 31 will be forced into abutting contact with one another, coacting and exerting mutual pressure and stress upon adjacent abutting structural components 22(23) and 31. Accordingly, the effective length of strand 1 over which the components 22(23) and 31 are assembled progressively decreases, forcing the components 22(23) and 31 to arrange themselves in an intermediate, partially erected arch configuration as shown in II (FIG. 2). Tension is further progressively applied to the strand 1 until the assembled components 22(23) and 31 assume a fully erected arch configuration as shown schematically at III (FIG. 2).

FIG. 3 illustrates a modification of the preferred embodiment of FIG. 1 wherein one of the anchors R is movably mounted for varying the shape of the finally erected arch configuration or for a modified technique in erecting the arch configuration.

Accordingly, the Figure shows a fixed base member or anchor R provided with a force applying machine such as a winch (not shown) and fixed at point X to a foundation A. Another base member'R is movably mounted to the foundation A at point X. A strand 1 secured to the anchor X extends to thefixed anchor R at point X'and is operatively connected to the winch (not shown). Structural components, including frame elements 22 or 23 and joint elements 31, are shown serially assembled over the strand Lln operation, the winch (not shown) applies a desired degree of tension to the strand 1 causing the assembled components 22(23) and 31 to conact as heretofore explained and assume a relatively fiat arch configuration as indicated at H in FIG. 3. With the tension maintained on the strand 1, the movably mounted anchor R is moved from left harid point X to the right hand point X causing increased tension in the strand 1 and forcing the coacting components 22(23) and 31 to assume an arch configuration, shown at IV (FIG. 3), which totally differs from that shown at IIin FIG. 3. Accordingly, the movable base member R may be utilized to select the shape of the finally erected'arch configuration or as an alternate technique for erecting the structural components 22(23) and 31 to a desired arch configuration.

To more particularly illustrate the erection technique, reference 'will'be made to FIG. 4 wherein the movable anchor at X is provided with unstressed structural components 22(23) and 31 which assume a random configuration such as the one indicated at I. Tension forcesare applied to the strand 1 until a desired level of tension is attained, causing the structural components 22(23) and 31 to coact, as described hereinbefore, and form a relatively flat arch configuration indicated at II (FIG. 4). As the movable anchor X is moved progressively toward an adjacent relationship to the fixed anchor X, the arch configuration changes height and shape as indicated at III and IV (FIG. 4). Thus, the movable anchor technique is used advantageously to erect or to adjust the final shape of the desired arch configuration. v I

FIG. 5 further emphasizes the change in shape of the arch configuration upon moving the movable anchor R. In the Figure, left hand X indicates the initial position of the movable anchor R with the initially stressed structural components 22(23) and 31 assuming an arch configuration shown at I (FIG. 5). Upon moving the anchor R to a right hand position in adjacent relationship to the other fixed anchor R, the arch configuration may be caused to vary from relatively flat to circular.

With reference now being made to FIG. 6, there is shown in detail section a strand 1 denoting a rope, wire or cable made of a strong, flexible and durable material such as synthetic fiber, iron, steel or other highstrength material. The particular material selected may vary with the considerations of planned arch configuration use and environment, structural strength requirements or conditions under which the configuration is used. The strand 1 is particularly utilized in the embodiments of the invention heretofore described in regard to FIGS. 1-5. I

An important structural component utilized in practice of the preferred embodiments included elongated hollow frame members 22(23) adapted to be serially slidably assembled over the strand 1 as shown in FIG.

6. The frame members 22(23) are preferably of metal, synthetic resin, bamboo or similar materials which are rigid, resistant to crushing under pressure and/orrelatively high strength. Although a tubular cross-section is most commonly used in practice, it should be understood that other hollow cross-sectional shapes may be utilized. The particular'material selected for the frame member 22(23) is based upon considerations of structural strength and conditions under which the members 22(23) are subjected during use.

The frame member 22(23) is more particularly shown in FIG. 8 with certain prefabricated features. Each frame member 22(23) is provided at each end with a beveled end surface 61 such that. when assembled frame members 22(23) coact as described to form an arch configuration, the ends 61 of adjacent frame members 61 will abut (as shown in FIG. 6) in complementary engaging relationship without stress concentrations due to irregular engaging surfaces. Such a construction is further advantageous since no intervening coupling members 31 between adjacent frame members 22(23) are required. A roof B is shown applied to the arch in FIGS. 6, 8.

FIG. 25 and FIGS. 25a-25c show a semi-circular arch structure and the forces acting thereon. Arch segments u, corresponding in function to frame members 22(23) and 22(23) in FIGS. 1-7, have a central opening 0', through which wire rope 1 passes. Wire rope is under tension T and is fastened tobase member R at point X on the ground or foundation. The radius of the arch is r and the angle subtended by arch segment is a. As described more fully below, each arch segment is under an outwardly directed force P, due to tension 1. Such outward movement is prevented by the structure of the arch segment However, if (instead of a hole bored through an arch member) a slot were present as shown in u of FIG. 25b, that arch member would spring out impelled by force P much like a watermelon seed squeezed between the fingers.

As shown in FIG. 29 particularly, the frame or arch members may have varying lengths. Frame members 22a and 22b have abutting flange members 62a and centrally located tensional wire rope l. Member 22a therein is longer than members 22b. In the arch structure, the lengths of the individual members may be varied and thus its overall shape may be modified. This will not effect the production of a stable structure since this results from the coaction of the various forces as set forth above.

In FIG. 26, the various forces acting on an arch member are shown. In this Figure, the arch member shown generally as element MMNN of trapezoidal shape (in longitudinal cross-section) and MM and NN represent the planes of contact with the adjacent arch members. In actual use as shown inthe specification, the shapes may be different but the analysis will not be altered thereby. The midpoints of MM and NN are M and N respectively. The radius of curvature r of the arch segment at the contact planes is OM,, and ON,,, 0 being the center. 2S is the distance between N, and M,,, a is the angle MON and 0 a/2.

P the forces acting on the adjacent arch members;

P, the vertical or radial force on the arch member;

I the tension on the wire rope;

F the frictional force on M-M and N-N of the arch member;

B the coefficient of friction;

It can be shown by analysis that:

P,,= 2P sin 0, or 2! sin a, or 4: sin cos 6 or 2P (S;/r)

The effect of friction is very important in the arch design according to this invention. Inorder to have an outwardly directed force P, which can support a load W, the sum of the vertical components of frictional force must be less than P i.e., 2F cos 0 P,,. For small values of 0, cos 0 approximates I, so that 2F P,,. Referring to FIG. A, it can be seen that F= p. P. Since P, 2P sin 0, p. sin 0. In other words,'the limiting value of the coefficient of friction of the contact faces of the arch members is equal to the sin 0.

In practice, p. should be as small as possible. Plastic contact surfaces may be employed havinga p, as low as 0.01. Another method for achieving a low p. is to have the contact surfaces smooth and to lubricate them if desired.

As shown in FIGS. 9-14 and 19-24, additional frame members, modifications of the frame members 22, are

' mounted a tension applying machine such as a pulley illustrated as at 22', 23', and 24, respectively. Each end of each frame member 22 (FIGS. 9, 11-13, 15-17, 19-22), 23' (FIGS. 10, 11-) or 24 (FIGS. 18, 24) is provided with flanges 62. Each flange 62 may be formed integrally with the respective frame member 22', 23',24 or, as more particularly shown in the drawings, provided on one end of a separate relatively short tube 6' matingly engaging the respective frame member 22', 23' or 24. Each flange 62 is preferably perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of its respective frame member 22', 23', 24, although other orientations or each flange-62 may vary as desired. Each flange 62 may be provided with reinforcing ribs 6a (FIG. 9) and a central opening (FIGS. 9, l0) aligned with the hollow crosssection of its respective frame member 22 or 23' to permit passage of the strand 1 entirely through the flanged frame member 22' or 23'. Instead of both end or bearing surfaces being planar, one surface may have smoothly curved raised portions as shown in FIGS. 25 and 26. Flange 63 bears against member 33 having surfaces 73 including raised portions 73a, as shown in particular in FIG. 28. The bearing areas are thus those portions of 63 which contact 73a. Instead of both faces of member 33 having raised portions 73a, only one face may be so modified, the other being planar.

A modified prefabricated frame member is shown in FIGS. and 14 and includes a pair of parallel, elongated, spaced and hollow cross-section tubes 4, 4a provided at each end with a common flange 62, each flange 62 being fixedly secured to either a single or, alternatively, a pair of parallel short length tubes 6. The tubes 6 matingly engage respective frame members 4 and 4a (FIGS. 10, 14). Each flange 62 isprovided with apertures 5 which communicate with the hollow interiors of the tubes 4, 4a to permit passage of a strand 1 therethrough. In operation, as shown in FIG. 14, each tube 4, 4a is provided with a separate strand 1 therethrough. The embodiment frame member 23' particularly shown in FIG. 14 includes a flange 62 provided with a single, rather than pair of tubes 6. The flange 62 seats on an inclined surface of generally trapezoidal interposer or adapter pedestal 35 of hollow interior construction. The interposer 35 (FIG. 14) rests on one leg of a generally U'-shaped base or anchor R, the other leg of which is fixed to the construction site ground or foundation A or other suitable surface. On the base of and between the legs of the U-shaped member R is or winch R The two strands I extend through the adapter pedestal 35 (FIG. 14) and through one leg and base of the U-shaped member R to operatively engage the winch R Upon operation of the winch R,,., the strands 1 are placed in tension so that a plurality of frame members, similar to the double frame member 23' shown in FIG. 14, to coact to produce a stressed arch configuration as heretofore described.

The particular frame member embodiments utilized are prefabricated and are thus able to be selected upon a consideration of the planned mode of construction, structural strength requirements and conditions subjected to during use. Any of the frame member embodiments are compatible for use with the pedestal 35 shown in FIG. 14.

With reference to FIGS. 1 1 through 13, one embodiment of a prefabricated joint member 31 is shown, As heretofore explained, a joint member 31 is selectively interposed between adjacent frame members 22, 23, 22', 23' or 24 in the stressed arch configuration. With reference to FIGS. 11-13, a joint member 31 is shown interposed between adjacent frame members 22 or 23'. Each joint member 31 may or may not be selected of the same material as the frame members 22, 23, 22, 23, 24 and are conveniently utilized for attaching the spanning frame members 8 (FIGS. 15, 19) between adjacent arch configurations. Each joint member 31 is generally of hollow-interior trapezoidal configuration with vertically inclined side wall surfaces 71 (FIGS. 11-13), each of which wall surfaces 31 is appropriately apertured as shown at 51 (FIG. 12) to permit passage therethrough of a strand 1 for a purpose heretofore described. The pitch of the inclined wall surfaces 71 may be selected for controlling the radius of curvature desired in the final arch configuration formed when the frame members 22' or 23' and the interposed joint members 31 coact in abutting relationship. Thus, the wall surfaces 71 provide bearing surfaces of adjustable pitches for the abutting frame members 22'23' as shown in FIG. 11, thereby controlling the inclination of the frame members 22'23' in the arch configuration and thus the radius of curvature of the arch configuratron.

Further details of the joint member 31 are shown in FIG. 19. With reference thereto, the hollow interior of the joint member 31 is shown at 41 provided for accommodating a spanning frame member 8 in the form of a rigid bar of rectangular cross-section. The spanning frame member 8 may be secured to the joint member 31 by a threadably driven fastener 81 engaged in the spanning member 8 to securely lock the spanning member 8 and the joint member 31 together.

As heretofore described, the invention may be practiced without using interposing joint members 31. Accordingly, with reference to FIG. 6, a plurality of spanning members 8 may be secured by conventional fastening' techniques directly to the frame members 22(23) either at the midpoints 82 of member 22(23) (as shown) or to other portions as desired.

With reference to FIGS. 20 and 21, a modified prefabricated joint member 31 is shown with four inclined wall surfaces 71 arranged in a generally rectangular configuration about a hollow interior portion 41. The joint member 31' is thus used for connecting four frame members 22 or 23' converging from different directions and included in arch configurations which intersect at the joint member 31'.

As shown in FIG. 20, the strand 1 is passed through holes 51 in opposite sidewalls 71, whereas in FIG. 21, the strands are passed throughholes 51 in adjacent sidewalls 71 to result in an arch configuration which is not planar but segmented and multiplanar with the different segment planes thereof intersecting at the frame member 31.

FIGS. 16 and 17 particularly illustrate practical applications for the joint member 31' (FIGS. 20, 21) wherein building panels or similar building structural wall and roof surfaces B are supported by a plurality of arch configurations which intersect, with joint members 31' being provided at the intersections thereof.

FIG. 22 illustrates another modified prefabricated joint member, indicated at 31", and including a plurality of flat bearing sidewalls 71 mutually arranged in a hollow interior 41 polygonal configuration. Each sidewall 71 is abutting by a frame member 22- and is provided with an aperture 51 to permitpassage therethrough of a strand 1, for a purpose heretofore described. It is noted that two of the shown abutting frame members 22' are not directly opposite other frame members 22. Such frame members 22' are thus included in segmented stressed arch configurations which terminate at the joint member 31". Accordingly, in the formation of such segmented configurations, the strands 1 associated therewith are secured, by any well known technique, to the joint member 31" rather than to an anchor R as heretofore described with regard to non-segmented configurations. The remaining end (not shown) of the segmented configuration is associated with an anchor R and a tension applying means (FIG. 14) R,,, as described, to result in the arch configuration, segmented because of its attachment to the joint member 31". Alternatively, the segmented configuration may be fabricated with a single strand 1 as described for the segmented arch shown in FIG. 21.

FIG. 16 shows a practical application of the joint member 31" wherein a plurality of arch configuration intersect in a lattice building structure including a plurality of segmented arch configurations intersecting and'terminating at a joint member 31".

FIGS. 18, 23 and 24 illustrate a modified prefabricated joint member 31" interposed between adjacent frame members 24 and provided with a plurality of bearing sidewalls 71 (FIG. 24) arranged mutually in a hollow interior polygonal configuration. In a manner similarly described, the sidewalls 71 are abutted by frame members 24 for a heretofore explained purpose. The hollow interior of the joint member 31" encloses and carries a building roof accessory, not shown, such as a peak enclosure cap or a cowling vent 34a (FIGS. 18, 23). FIG. 18 further illustrates the joint member 31" in a completed building structural installation.

The featured advantages of the present invention include the base on anchor R, which requires less foundation preparation than is required for prior art structural configurations. Merely selecting the distances between fixed bases R, or the arch terminating frame member 33, to be less than the total effective length of the assembled frame members 22, 23, 22', 23, 24, and joint members 31, 31', 31", 31", if any are used, will result in an arch configuration upon applying and maintaining tension forces to a strand 1 over which the members 22, 23, 22, 23', 24 and 31, 31', 31", 31" are assembled. The distance between intersections and the shape and height of the configuration may be adjusted as desired by selection of the anchor spacing effective length of the strand 1, effective lengths of each and the total effective combined frame members 22, 23, 22', 23. 24 and joint members 31, 31', 31", 31" used. Further adjustments are provided by the type of joint member 31, 31', 31", 31" used, the pitch selected in the joint member sidewalls 71 and the inclination of the end walls 61 (FIG. 8) of abutting frame members 22(23).

Tension forces applied to the strand 1 are evenly distributed and transferred to all of the frame members 22, 23, 22', 23, 24 and joint members 31, 31, 31", 31" throughout the progressive arch erection as shown in FIGS. l-5. Since the members 22, 23, 22', 23', 24 are rigid and are immovably seated at the arch termination points X, the effective length of the arch configuration becomes a minimum upon reaching a corresponding tension level in the associated strand 1. Accordingly, any increase in tension forces applied to the strand 1, such as by wind loads, will not change the effective length or shape of the-arch configuration.

All embodiments of the frame members 22, 23, 22', 23', 24, the joint members 31, 31', 31", 31" and the spanning members 8 are prefabricated with the structural features and standardized dimensions as described. Accordingly, the required structural component may be selected for incorporation in a specific arch configuration desired.

All of the intersecting or spanning member 8 (FIG. 15) connected arch configurations which are combined to form a building structural installation may be assembled as described, covered with suitable building or sheeting or other siding and roofing material B (FIGS. 7, 16-18, 15) and subsequently simultaneously erected according to the techniques described to result in a completed building 'such as those shown in FIGS. 15-18. Other techniques may be employed during erection. For example, the arch configuration may be employed during erection. For example, the arch configuration midpoints may be temporarily supported by removable upright support poles which are subsequently discarded upon erection of of the final configuration toa final position.

Other embodiments and modifications of the present invention are within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined in the appended claims.

What is claimed:

1. In combination:

a. a foundation,

b. a first anchor and a second anchor in spaced relation in said foundation,

0. a flexible strand anchored at one end to one anchor of said first anchor and said second anchor, 1. said flexible strand having its other end passing through the other anchor of said first anchor and said second anchor,

d. tension means adjacent said other anchor and connected to said other end of said flexible strand,

e. a plurality of hollow frame members serially slidably disposed on said flexible strand and provided with a planar surface on each end of each frame member,

f. joint members on said flexible strand between adjacent frame members and having a joint planar sur face adjacent each adjacent planar surface on each adjacent end of said adjacent frame member,

g. said tension means being operable to force each of said joint planar surfaces into engagement with the adjacent planar surface on said adjacent frame members,

h. said tension means being operable to concentrate tension upon said strand to cause said frame members to assume an erected arch configuration with said planar surfaces in contacting engagement,

. said tension means being then operable to maintain a minimum level of tension forces on said strand sufficient to maintain said configuration,

j. said planar surfaces having a relatively low coefficient of friction, and

k. said joint member is provided with a spanning frame member aperture and a spanning frame member extends through said spanning frame member aperture.

2. The combination recited in claim 1 wherein a fastener secures said spanning frame member to said joint member.

3. In combination:

a. a foundation,

b. a first anchor and a second anchor-in spaced relation in said foundation,

c. a flexible strand anchored at one end to one anchorof said first anchor and said second anchor, 1. said flexible strand having its other end passing through the other anchor of said first anchor and said second anchor,

d. tension means adjacent said other anchor and connected to said other end of said flexible strand,

e. a plurality of hollow frame members serially slidably disposed on said flexible strand and provided with a planar surface on each end of each frame member,

f. joint members on said flexible strand between adjacent frame members and havinga joint planar surface adjacent planar surface on each adjacent end of said adjacent frame member,

g. said tension means being operable to force each of said joint planar surfaces into engagement with the adjacent planar surface on said adjacent frame members, w

h. said tension means being operable to concentrate tension upon said strand to cause said frame members to assume an erected arch configuration with said planar surfaces in contacting engagement,

i. said tension means being then operable to maintain a minimum level of tension forces on said strand sufficient to maintain said configuration,

j. said planar surfaces having a relatively low coefficient of friction, and

k. vent means are disposed on one of said joint members.

4. In combination:

a; a foundation,

b. A first anchor and a second anchor in spaced relawith a planar surface on each end of each frame member,

f. joint members on said flexible strans between adjacent frame 'members and having a joint planar surface adjacent each adjacent planar surface on each adjacent end of said adjacent frame member.

g. one of said joint members has four joint planar surfaces adjacent to and joining four frame members, two of said frame members being on a first strand and separated by said joint member; and the other two frame members being on a second strand and separated by said joint member, and

h. said tension means being operable to concentrate tension upon said strand to cause said frame members and said joint members to assume and maintain an erected arch configuration with said planar surfaces in contacting engagement and to cause said frame members to experience a substantial radial outward force.

5. The combination as recited in claim 4 wherein said first strand enters said joint member at a first planar surface and exits an opposiing second planar surface and said second strand enters said joint member at a third planar surface and exits on opposing fourth planar surface.

6. The combination recited in claim 4 wherein said first strand enters said joint member at a first planar surface and exits on adjacent second planar surface and said second strand enters said joint member at a third planar surface and exits on adjacent fourth planar surface.

7. In combination:

a. a foundation,

b. a first anchor and a second anchor in spaced relation in said foundation,

c. a flexible strand anchored at one end to one anchor of said first anchor and said second anchor, 1. said flexible strand having its other end passing through the other anchor of said first anchor and said second anchor,

d. tension means adjacent said other anchor and connected to said other end of said flexible strand,

e. a plurality of hollow frame members serially slidably disposed on said flexible strand and provided with a planar surface on each end of each frame member,

f. joint members on said flexible strand between adjacent frame members and having a joint planar surface adjacent each adjacent planar surface on each adjacent end of said adjacent frame member,

g. one of said joint members has eight joint planar surfaces adjacent to and joining eight frame members, and

h. said tension means being operable to concentrate tension upon said strand to cause said frame members and said joint members to assumeand maintain an erected arch configuration with said planar surfaces in contacting engagement and to cause said frame members to experience a substantial radial outward force.

8. In combination:

a. a foundation,

b. a first anchor and a second anchor in spaced relation in said foundation,

c. a flexible strand anchored at one end to one anchor of said first anchor and said second anchor,

1. said flexible strand having its other end passing through the other anchor of said first anchor and said second anchor,

d. tension means adjacent said other anchor and connected to said other end of said flexible strand,

e. a plurality of hollow frame members serially slidably disposed on said flexible strand and provided with a planar surface on each end of each frame member,

f. joint members on said flexible strand between adjacent frame members and having a joint planar surface adjacent planar surface on each adjacent end of said adjacent frame member, tension means being operable to force each of said joint planar surfaces into engagement with the adjacent planar surface on said adjacent frame members.

g. one of said joint members has five joint planar surfaces adjacent to and joining four frame members, two of said frame members being on a first strand and separated by said joint member and the remaining two frame members being on a second and third strand, respectively, and f h. said tension means being operable to concentrate tension upon said strand to cause said frame members to assume and maintain an erected arch configuration with said planar surfaces in contacting engagmenet and to cause said frame members to experience a substantial radial outward force.

' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No; 3,857,213 Dated December 31, 1974 lnventofls) Minoru Miyake Q It is certified that error appeers in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

In column 7, line 10,- please change "FIG. A' to I 26 0 Signed and Scaled this .tw enty-fifzh Day Of November 1975 isEAL] 1 Arrest:

R-UTH CMASON OMARSHALL DANN Arresting Officer ('mnmissimu'r 01' Parents and Trademarks O T2 3 3 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3 857 213 Dated December 31, 1974 lnventoz-(s) Minoru Miyake It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

r- In column 6, line 67, please change the symbol "fi" to In column 7, line 2, please change "S;/ r" to --S/r-;

Signed and sealed this 6th day of May 1975.

(SEAL) Att St e C MARSHALL DANN RUTH C. MASON Commissioner of Patents Attesting Officer and Trademarks

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Referenced by
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US4284094 *Jun 25, 1979Aug 18, 1981Rudiger BehrendTent structure with support arches
US4887397 *Oct 19, 1988Dec 19, 1989Teledyne Industries, Inc.Fast, erectable, easily transportable structures
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US7634874 *Apr 18, 2006Dec 22, 2009Luco-Ed Enterprises LlcCollapsible structural members
US8479473 *Apr 30, 2010Jul 9, 2013The European Union, Represented By The European CommissionSupporting arch structure construction method
US8863447 *Apr 18, 2012Oct 21, 2014Gregory G. BischoffHybrid geodesic structure
US20120096804 *Apr 30, 2010Apr 26, 2012The Euuropean Union, represented by the European CommissionSupporting arch structure construction method
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US20150020859 *Jul 9, 2014Jan 22, 2015Glass House Balloon Co., Inc.System for Creating Decorative Arches and Columns
DE2747913A1 *Oct 26, 1977May 3, 1979Ruediger BehrendZeltbauwerk mit tragboegen
WO1990003282A1 *Sep 19, 1989Apr 5, 1990Speechbond LimitedControl arrangement
WO1990006409A1 *Dec 8, 1988Jun 14, 1990Al Khattat Ibrahim MadhiArches
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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/86, 52/223.9, 52/81.3, 403/172
International ClassificationE04H15/36, E04B1/32, E04H15/34
Cooperative ClassificationE04H15/36, E04B2001/3247, E04B2001/3252, E04B1/32
European ClassificationE04H15/36, E04B1/32