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Publication numberUS3857322 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 31, 1974
Filing dateDec 10, 1973
Priority dateDec 10, 1973
Publication numberUS 3857322 A, US 3857322A, US-A-3857322, US3857322 A, US3857322A
InventorsP Lichtman
Original AssigneeP Lichtman
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Firearm
US 3857322 A
Abstract
A pistol adapted to provide selective double action is described. The pistol comprises a slide mounted on a frame which houses the barrel and the firing mechanism. The firearm can be field-stripped quickly and the low position of the barrel reduces the effect of recoil on firing accuracy. The firing mechanism comprises a number of parts disposed in a multi-layered arrangement which reduces the overall size of the pistol.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [1 1 Lichtman [111 3,857,322 ]"Dec. 31, 1974 FIREARM Inventor: Philip R. Lichtman, 3 Valley Spring Rd., Newton, Mass. 02192 Filed: Dec. 10, 1973 Appl. No.: 423,477

89/147, 89/148, 89/196 Int. Cl F41c 17/08, F41c 19/14 [58] Field of Search 42/65, 69 B; 89/147 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 4/1928 1,664,788 Oberhammer 89/ 147 A pistol adapted to provide selective double action is U.S. Cl..'. 89/145, 42/15, 42/25,

Primary ExaminerStephen C. Bentley Attorney, Agent, or'Firm-,Schi11er & Pandiscio ABSTRACT described. The pistol comprises a slide mounted on a frame which houses the barrel and the firing mechanism. The firearm can be field-stripped quickly and the low position of the barrel reduces the effect of recoil on firing accuracy.'The firingmechanism co mprises a number of parts disposed in a multi-layered arrangement which reduces the overall size of the pistol.

20 Claims, 18 Drawing Figures PATENIEU m 3. 857. 322 sum 3 or 6 FIREAR The present invention relates to firearms and more particularly to a piston of improved structure.

I-Ieretofore a great variety of pistols featuring single and double acting firing mechanisms have been designed. In a single acting pistol the hammer must be cocked manually or by a recoiling slide or breech block. In a double acting pistol, the hammer is cocked and released for firing by one continuous pull of the trigger. The prior art also reveals that substantial effort has been expended in reducing overall pistol size without sacrificing accuracy. and utility. The prior art is exemplified by U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,153,246, 2,664,786, 2,846,925, 2,927,390, 3,152,418, 3,158,064, 1,320,578, 804,984, 936,369, 985,847, and other patents and publication cited in said patents and their fil wrappers.

One of the primary objects of this invention is to provide a pistol of extraordinary compactness. Another primary object is to provide a pistol which, notwithstanding its relatively small overall size, can accommodate a multi-round magazine, utilizes relatively large size cartridges, is comfortable to fire, and is characterized by high shooting accuracy and reliability. Still another primary object of this invention is to provide a novel firing mechanism for a pistol which is capable of selective double action.

A further object is to provide a novel selective firing mechanism which has a minimum of parts and is extremely reliablepstill another object is to provide a highly compact pistol in which the barrel is located below the recoil spring, whereby the recoil force produces a substantially straight back movement rather than a skyward rotation of the muzzle.

Another object is to provide for a given caliber cartridge the smallest size pistol which comprises magazine loading, selective double action, and high shooting accuracy and reliability.

A more specific object is to provide a magazine loading .380 caliber pistol which is smaller than other pistols of the same caliber.

Still other objects are to provide a pistol which is capable of rapid aimed fire, features automatic ejection of the empty cartridge case on rearward movement of the slide, embodies a manually engageable safety, has a structure which provides for precise and reproducible location of certain moving parts, can be field-stripped instantly, and is suited for use as an undercover handgun.

The foregoing objects and other objects hereinafter set forth or rendered obvious are achieved by providing a pistol that comprises a frame and a slide reciprocally mounted to the upper side of the frame. The frame carries the barrel, hammer and firing mechanism while the slide carries the firing pin, a safety tumbler and a cartridge extractor member. The recoil spring is housed in the slide over the barrel and is disposed so that its front end engages a portion of the slide and its rear end engages a portion of the frame. The firing mechanism comprises a number of parts in a pancake or layered arrangement and is designed to provide a selective double action whereby the'first shot can be fired double action. For single action firing the hammer may be cocked by thumb or by manually retracting the slide.

Other features and many of the attendant advantages of the invention are described in the following description of a preferred embodiment of the invention and the associated drawings wherein: I FIG. 1 is a right hand side view in elevation of a .380 caliber pistol constituting a preferred embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 2 and 3 are rear and front views respectively of the samepistol;

FIG. 4 is a left hand side view in elevation of the same pistol;

FIG. 5 is a plan view of the pistol;

FIGS. 6 and 7 are both right hand views in elevation of the slide with different portions broken away to show certain features and the rear sight'omitted in FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a left hand view in elevation of the slide;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale of the rear sight, the safety tumbler and safety-tumbler detent mechanism;

FIG. 10 is a plan view of the cartridge case extractor;

FIG. 1 1 is a right hand view in elevation of the frame with a portion broken away to show details of the rear I frame rail which interlocks with the side;

FIG. 12 is a left hand view in elevation of the frame;

FIG. 13 is a fragmentary view in elevation of the left hand side of the frame with a portionbroken away to show how the hammer is pivotally mounted thereto;

FIG. 14 is a right hand view in elevation of the pistol with a portion of the frame broken away to show the locations of the hammer and sear;

FIG. 15 is like FIG. 14 but with the trigger, single action sear drawbar, and disconnector added;

FIG. 16 is like FIG. 14 but with the double action hammer drawbar and pivot lever added;

FIG. 17 is a view like FIG. 11 but with a portion of the right hand side wall of the frame broken away to show the magazine cavity, cartridge ramp and chamber, and a portion of the barrel; and

FIG. 18 is a perspective rear view of an enlarged scale of the hold open catch.

Referring now to FIGS. 1-5, the illustrated pistol comprises a frame 2, a slide 4 reciprocally mounted on. the top side of the frame, and a cartridge magazine 6 inserted in the handle portion of the frame.

As seen in FIGS. 6-8, the slide is L -shapedin side elevation and comprises an elongate top section 10 and a shorter bottom section 12. The elongate top section 10 is hollowed out by an axial bore 11 drilled in from its rear end so that it comprises opposed side walls 13 and 14, a top wall 15 and an end wall 18 that together define an elongate axially extending chamber 21 (see FIG. 6). A plug 17 is inserted in bore 11 to close off I to accommodate the hammer member 200 hereinafter described. The plug is secured in place by a pin 19 that is anchored in holes formed in side walls '13 and 14 and its rear end surface is inclined as shown for engagement by hammer 200. The forward portion of the bottom of the slides top section is closed off by a short bottom wall 20 (FIG. 1-5), while the remainder of the bottom of the top section in front of bottom section 12 is open so that it can fit over boss 164 and recoil spring tube 178 on the upper portion of the frame. An axially elongated opening 22 is formed in top wall 15 near its front end and the inner surface of its front wall 18 is provided with a recess 24 that serves as a seat for a recoil spring 182. The lower side of bottom wall is provided with a fiat shallow groove which is undercut at its sides so as to provide opposed side rails 26 (see FIG. 3) which are used to slidably connect the slide to the frame.

The right hand side wall 14 of the slide also is notched as shown at 28. The notch 28 cooperates with a notch 29 provided in the frame when the slide is retracted to define a side opening through which a spent cartridge may be ejected. At its top side adjacent hammer slot 16 the top section of the slide is provided with a transverse dovetail slot 30 which serves as a mounting means for a rear sight member 32. Aligned holes 34 are provided in the side walls of the top section of the slide below and rearward of dovetail slot 30. These holes are used for mounting a safety tumbler member 36.

Referring now to FIGS. 6-9, the rear sight member has a dovetail shape (as viewed in side elevation) which permits it to be inserted in slot 30. The rear sight member is sized so as to make a tight fit in slot 30, whereby it will not move relative to the slide unless forced manually. The sight member is notched at its center in a fore and aft direction as shown at 38 and has a recess in its rear side defined by a flat vertical end surface 42 and a semi-cylindrical side surface 44. End surface 42 is provided as shown with a semicircular depression 43 below notch 38 and is coaxial with the semi-cylindrical surface 44. Preferably, depression 43 is painted with a luminous paint that shows up well in the dark or in a dim light. Rear sight member 32 also is notched at its rear left-hand corner so as to provide an inclined surface 45 which acts as a perch for the detent spring 68 associated with safety tumbler 36. The latter, as shown in FIG. 9, comprises a cylindrical shaft 47 having an enlarged diameter section 48 that provides a shoulder 49, and a flat arm 50 that extends at a right angle to shaft 47. The outer surface of arm 50 is knurled to facilitate manual movement. The shaft 46 is slotted'centrally as shown at 52 so as to provide a flat substantially diametrically extending surface 54. Also near shoulder 49 the shaft 47 is provided with a circumferential groove 56 with two spaced hemispherical depressions 58 formed in the groove. These depressions are sized to accept the rounded ends of a detent member. In FIG. 9, only one depression 58 is visible in part since the other is occupied by the end of the detent member. The two depressions 58 are spaced apart about 120. The detent member comprises a cylindrical sleeve 62 that is closed off by a solid rounded end section 64 that rides in groove 56 and is sized to fit the depressions 58. The detent member is slidably mounted in an inclined bore 66 that extends down from the dovetail slot and intersects the axis of the tumbler mounting holes 34. The detent spring 68 extends into the open end of sleeve 62 and by virtue of its retention by the rear sight it maintains with detent member in tight engagement with groove 56. The tumbler member is maintained in its mounting holes by the detent member with shoulder 49 engaging the outer surface of the left hand side wall of the upper section of the slide. The latter is recessed as shown at 70 to allow arm 50 to sit close to the slide.

The hammer slot 16 extends down through the rear end of the slides lower section, with the result that the slides lower section 12 comprises two spaced side walls that are integral with and extensions of side walls 13 and 14 and are connected at their front ends by a solid transverse bridge portion 72 that may be considered as a breech block. The curved rear surface of bridge portion 72 forms the forward end of slot 16. Bridge portion 72 closes off a portion of the bottom side of chamber 14 and is formed with a longitudinally extending bore 74 in which a firing pin 76 is mounted for reciprocal movement. The rear section of firing pin 76 has an enlarged diameter and the forward end of bore 74 has a reduced diameter so as to provide shoulders to engage the opposite ends of a firing pin spring 78 which is an ordinary compression coil spring. The firing pin has an elongated slot 80 on its upper side and a pin 82 extends transversely of slot 80. Pin 82 is mounted in a suitable transverse bore in bridge section 72 of the slide and cooperates with slot 80 to retain the firing pin in bore 74 and also to limit its reciprocal movement. Spring 78 holds the firing pin in a retracted position (FIG. 7) wherein its rounded front end is withdrawn into bore 74 and its rear end protrudes into the hammer slot 16. The length of slot 80 is great enough to allow the firing pin, when struck by the hammer, to move forward in bore 74 far enough for its front end to project through the front end of the slides lowersection and strike and fire a cartridge positioned in the chamber of the pistol.

Still referring to FIGS. 6-8, the bottom section of the slide has a smaller transverse outside dimension (thickness) than its upper section, so that the side walls each have a flatunder surface 86 that is aligned with the undersurface of the corresponding side rail- 26. The right hand undersurface 86 (FIGS. 6 and 7) is formed with a curved depression 88 located just below the rear sight. Depression 88 is provided to permit proper operation of the disconnector member of the firing mechanism hereinafter described.

The right and left hand outside surfaces of the slides lower section 12 are recessed'along their bottom edges as shown at 90 in FIGS. 6 and 8 to provide clearance for the upper ends of the side walls of magazine 6 when the slide is mounted to the frame. Additionally, the left hand side surface of the slides lower section 12 is formed with a longitudinally extending groove 92 and a vertical groove 94 that intersects groove 92. As explained more" fully hereinafter, groove 92 cooperates with a portion of the frame to slidably lock the slide to the frame and groove 94 is provided to permit detachment of the slide from the frame.

The slide also carries a cartridge extractor 98 (FIGS. 1 and 10) which is made of spring steel. Extractor 98 is made of flat stock formed so as to consist of an' elongate flat bar 100 with a relatively thick rear end section 102 having integral vertically aligned, circularly curved top and bottom projections 104 (FIG. 15). The forward end of bar 100 is formed with a side projection in the form of a bevelled tooth 106. Rearwardly of tooth 106, bar 100 has a round side projection 108. Extractor 108 is made so that when dissociated from the slide, its bar 100 is bent as shown in FIG. 10. The bar is straightened out when it is mounted to the slide. Extractor 98 is attached to the right hand side of the lower section 12 of the slide. For this purpose the right hand outer surface of section 12 is formed with a longitudinally extending groove 110 sized to accommodate bar 100. Groove 110 is enlarged as shown at 112 to accommodate projections 104 and a side cavity 114 is provided to receive side projection 108. When the extractor is so mounted, its outer surface is flush with the right hand side surface piece and is formed with a top rear hammer-mounting section 120, a handle or grip section 122, a barrel section 125, and a trigger guard section 126. The hammer receiving section and the grip section are hollow and comprise opposite side walls 120 and 130 which are joined at the back by a connecting wall 132 that is slotted so as to provide a slot 136 (FIG. 2) which serves as an extension of the slides hammer travel slot 16. Side walls 128 and 130 are joined at the front by a connecting wall 138 whose upper end is integral with the trigger guard section. As seen best in FIG. 17, the inner surface 140 of connecting wall 138 is flat and extends upwardly at an inclined angle to the upper edges 148 of side walls 128 and 130, while the inner surface of connecting wall 132 is angulated and comprises a lower portion 142 that extends parallel to surface 140, an intermediate portion 144 that is inclined oppositely to lower portion 142, and a top portion 146 which is substantially parallel to the top edges of side walls 128 and 130. The inner surfaces of side walls 128 and 130 cooperate with the inner surfaces 140 and 142 of the front and rear connecting walls respectively to define a magazine-receiving chamber. The inner surfaces of side walls 128 and 130, the rear end of barrel section i open at the top and partly at the rear (to accommodate the lower section of the side and also the hammer and sear members) and communicates with the magazinereceiving chamber.

The upper edges 148 of side walls 128 and 130 are flat and straight. At its upper edge the left hand side wall 128 is formed with a vertical slot 150 that serves as a guideway for a hold open catch member 152 (FIG. 4). A'ffixed to the inner side of the left hand wall 128 is a straight rear slide'guide rail 154 that extends across slot 150 and extends parallel to the side walls upper edge 148. As seen in FIGS. 11 and 12, the side wall 128 is formed with a plurality of small holes 156 which serve to receive projections 158 formed on the outer surface of guide rail 154, whereby the guide rail is secured to the frame. Referring now to FIGS. 11 and 14, the front end portion 160 of the inner surface of guide rail 154 is chamfered, and rearwardly of the chamfered portion it is recessed so as to provide a vertical slot 162. The guide rail is dimensioned so that it can slidably mate with groove 92 in the left hand side of the slides lower section. The inner walls of the frame also are undercut to form ledges 161 and 163 which are engaged by the slide as shown in FIG. 2.

Turning now to FIGS. 11-13 and 15, barrel section 124 of the frame is formed with a boss 164 at its rear end which projects above the level of the upper edges 148 of side walls 128 and 130. Forwardly of boss 164 the barrel section is formed with a rib 166 having a flat upper surface 168. The outer surfaces 170 and 172 of the main portion of barrel section 124 are planar extensions of the outer surfaces of side walls 128 and 130 and terminate in flat upper edges 174 that are extensions of upper edges 148. The boss 164 and rib 166 are narrower than the main portion of the barrel section and each side of rib 166 is formed with a longitudinally extending flange 176. As seen in FIG. 3, when the slide ism ounted to the frame, the rib 166 fits in groove 25 and its flanges 176 interlock with side rails 26 so that the slide and frame are slidably secured to one another.

Referring again to FIGS. 11, 12 and 15, boss 164 is 5 formed with a bore (FIG. 15) that extends longitudinally of the frame and-affixed to the rear side of the boss is a recoil spring tube 178. Boss 164 and tube 178 may be secured to one another in any suitable manner, e.g., by screw threads, welding or a suitable cement. The inner diameter of tube 178- is the same as that of bore 165 and its rear end has an end wall 180 with an aperture 181 therein. When the slide is mounted to the frame, a recoil compression spring 182 is employed to oppose rearward relative movement of the slide. Spring 182 is mounted in place after the slide has been mounted to the frame. This is accomplished by inserting its rear end through the front sight aperture 22 at the front end of the slide and then pushing it through boss 164 into tube 178 so that it engages the latters end wall 180. The front end of the recoil spring is locked to the slide by' the front sight member 184. The latter has a depending offset flange portion 186 which is inserted into the slide via opening 22 and interlocks with the recess 24 in the slides end wall 18. The recoil spring is coupled to the front sight by means of a retaining pin 190 which extends into the spring and has a head that seats in a depression formed in flange portion 186.

Referring now to FIGS. 15 and 17, the barrel section 124 is formed with a longitudinally extending bore 192 in which is received a sleeve 194 that is made to serve as the gun barrel. Alternatively, sleeve 194 may be omitted and bore 192 may be machined to function as the barrel. Barrel 194 is secured in place by a retaining pin 196 that is inserted in a transverse bore 198 in the barrel section and is seated in a transverse groove (not visible) formed in the bottom side of the barrel.

Referring now to FIGS. 2, and 11-16, the hammer member 200 is pivotally secured to the frame between side walls 128 and 130 by a pivot pin 202 which is seated in aligned openings 204 formed in side walls 128 and 130. The upper end of the hammer projects out of slot 16in the rear end of the slide and has a knurled extension 206for enabling the hammer to be cocked by hand. The front side of the hammer has a flat projection 208 which is located so as to engage the firing pin when thehammer is in its forward or firing position. The rear side of the hammer is formed with two teeth 210 and 212 designed for engagement by a sear member 214. When the hammer is held back by engagement of the sear member with its tooth 212, it is in the fully cocked position. When the hammer is held backby engagement of the sear member with tooth 210, the hammer is in a so-called half-cocked position. The left hand side of the hammer is recessed behind its pivot so as to provide a surface 214 which acts as a perch or bearing surface for a main spring plunger 216 whose upper end has a head or flange that bears against surface'2l4. Plunger 216 fits inside of a main spring 218 which is a conventional coil compression spring and is seated in an elongate vertical. groove 222 formed in the inner side of side wall 128. Groove 222 is circularly curved in cross-section and has vertical edges that are spaced apart less than the diameter of spring 218 so as to retain the latter in place. Main spring 218 opposes cocking of the hammer and provides the driving force required to propel the hammer against the firing pin to fire the pistol. Also forming part of the hammer is a pin 224 (FIG. 13) which is force fitted into a hole in the hammer located rearwardly of its pivot pinv Pin 224 projects from the right hand side of the hammer and a roller 226 (FIGS. 14-16) is rotatably secured to the outer portion of pin 224. Roller 226 is long enough to extend through an arcuate hole 228 (FIG. 11) formed in the right hand side wall 130 of the frame. Hole 228 is shaped and sized so as to permit roller 226 the freedom of movement required for the hammer to travel between its firing and fully cocked positions.

The sear member 214 is pivotally mounted between side walls 128 and 130 by a pivot pin 230 that is secured in aligned openings in those side walls. The upper end of sear member 214 is provided with a hook portion 232 that is shaped to hook onto teeth 210 and 212 of the hammer. The bottom end of the sear has a notch 234. Sear 214 is urged toward hammer 200 by a compression spring 235 that is seated in a cavity in the frame as shown.

The firing mechanism also includes a sear drawbar 236 (FIG. 15), a hammer drawbar 238 (FIG. 16), a pivot lever 240, a trigger 242, and a disconnector bar 244. In this connection it is to be noted that the outer surface of the right hand side wall 130 of the frame is provided with a shallow recess to accommodate sear drawbar 236, pivot lever 240, the rear portion of trigger 242, and disconnector bar 244. More specifically, as seen best in FIG. 11, the right hand side wall 130 has a recessed surface 130A to accommodate sear drawback 236, pivot-lever 240 and the rear portion of trigger 242 and a shallow vertically extending groove 246 with a flat base surface 1308 which is an extension of recessed surface 130A;

Referring now to FIGS. 15 and 16, the sear drawbar 236 is a relatively thin member with flat opposite side surfaces and is provided at its rear end with a lateral projection 248 that extends through an oversized opening 250 in the right hand wall 130 of the frame far enough to be engageable with notch 234 of the sear. The forward end of sear drawback 236 has a rounded nose 252. The hammer drawbar 238 is relatively thin member with flat opposite side surfaces and at its upper end its front edge is formed with a notch 254 sized to loosely receive hammer roller 226. At the upper side of notch 254 the drawbar 238 has a corner 256 which can slip past roller 226 to release the hammer when the drawbar is pulled downwardly and forwardly by pivotal movement of lever 240. The bottom end of drawbar 238 is formed with an extension that terminates in a rounded nose 258. Drawbar 238 overlies the sear drawbar 236 and disconnector bar 244. The latter also is a relatively thin member with flat opposite side surfaces and it is disposed in groove 246. The upper end of disconnector bar 244 is rounded and extends up into notch 88 of the slide when the slide is attached to the frame and is in its forward position relative to the frame. The bottom end of disconnector bar 244 also is rounded and extends down far enough to engage the upper edge of sear drawbar 236 which normally is biased against it by spring 296 (see FIG. 15). Disconnector bar 244 is provided with an aperture 260 through which the hammer roller 226 extends into notch 254 of drawbar 238. Aperture 260 is oversized with respect to roller 226 so that the disconnector bar will not impede pivotal movement of the hammer.

Referring now to FIGS. 14-16, the pivot lever 240 has flat opposite side surfaces but is stepped as indicated by the broken line 262 on the side facing the frame so as to provide a first relatively thick portion and a second relatively thin portion. The relatively thick portion has a thickness about equal to the combined thickness of the rounded nose sections of drawbars 236 and 238 and is formed on its inner side with a pivot stud 264 that fits in a pivot hole 266 formed in the right hand side wall of the frame. The lower end of the relatively thick portion is formedwith a circularly curved edge notch 268 which receives the rounded noses of drawbars 238 and 238. Notch 268 is sized so that it will retain the rounded noses of the two drawbars while also allowing them to pivot, whreby each drawbar is connected to the pivot lever by what may be described appropriately as a ball and socket connection. A round disk 270 is attached to the inner surface of the pivot lever in concentric relation with notch 268. Disk 270 strengthens the pivot lever and serves as a flat bearing surface for the inner face of the rounded nose of sear drawbar 236. A hole 272 is provided in the right hand side wall of the frame to provide clearance for disk 270. It is to be appreciated that disk 270 may be formed as an integral part of the pivot lever. The reason for making the upper portion of the pivot lever relatively thin is so that it can overlie the rear end of the trigger. A pivot pin 273 is formed in the inner surface of the upper portion of pivot lever-240.

Referring now to FIGS.. 15 and 16, the trigger 242 comprises an elongate straight slide section 274 and a finger-gripping section 276. Slide section 274 lies flat against the recessed surface A and is guided by two straight edge surfaces 278 and 280 on the frame that extend at right angles to and determine portions of the limits of surface 130A. An elongate hole 282 is formed in slide section 274 to accommodate a guide bushing 284 that is held in place by a screw 326 which is screwed into a tapped hole 288 in the frame. A second vertically elongate hole 292 is formed in the triggers slide section adjacent its rear end to accommodate the pivot pin 273 on the upper end of pivot lever 240. The

finger-gripping section 276 of the trigger is in the form of a semi-cylinder formed integral with slide section 274. The trigger guard portion of the frame is formed with a horizontally elongate hole 294 to accommodate the finger-gripping section of the trigger. The thickness of the finger-gripping section is substantially greater than that of the triggers slide section and substantially the same as that of the trigger guard section of the frame.

Spring pressure is exerted on the drawbars and triggers by two springs 296 and 298 (FIGS. 15 and 16). Drawbar spring 296 comprises a coiled section 300 which fits over a stud 302 formed on the right hand side wall of the frame and comprises a first end section 303 that extends into a groove found in the lower edge of the sear drawbar and a second end section 304 that extends into a groove formed in the rear edge of drawbar 238. End section 303 urges the sear drawbar up against the bottom end of the disconnector bar, while end section 304 biases drawbar 238 into engagement with hammber roller 226. Trigger spring 298 is a convoluted wire spring having a first end which extends into a groove formed in the rear edge of the triggers slide section and a second end which bears against a ridge 308 that is formed on the outer surface of the right hand side wall of the frame. Spring 298 urges the trigger forward to the extent permitted by bushing 284 and hole 282.

Referring now to FIG. 17, the rear portion of the barrel section of the frame is formed with an inclined ramp 310 of circularly curved cross-section to facilitate insertion of a cartridge from the magazine into the rear end of the barrel which constitutes the cartridge chamber. The chamber is tapered as shown up to about line 211.

The magazine is of standard construction and its top end 314. (FIG. 1) projects slightly above the bottom edge of slot 29. Although not shown it is to be understood that the magazine contains a follower and a spring that urges the follower and thus cartridges in the magazine up toward slide 4. Also, the upper edges of the opposite side walls are curved inward to retain the topmost one of the cartridges stored therein. The magazine is held in place by a detent member 316 (FIG. 16) that normally resides in a hole 318 formed in the right hand side wall of the frame and has an integral stud 319 that slidably extends through a'hole in the rear wall 132 of the handle portion ofthe frame. The opposite end of stud 319 is knurled to form a button 320 that projects from the left hand side of the frame. Detent 316 normally is urged against the rear wall 132 by one end of a compression spring (not shown) that seats in a hole 321 in the detent and is engaged at its opposite end by a cover plate 322 (FIG. 1).-The right hand side of the lower end of the magazine has a slot (not shown) sized to receive detent member 316, whereby the latter under the urging of its composition spring acts to lock the magazine in the frame. When button 320 is pressed inward, the detent member moves out of engagement with the magazine toward cover plate 322 and thus the magazine is released for removal from the frame.

The cover plate 322 overlies and concealsthe two drawbars and the pivot lever and all but the top of the disconnector bar and the rear half of the slide section of the trigger. In this connection'it is to be noted that the inner face of cover plate 322 is recessed as shown by the dotted lines 324 in FIG. 1 so as to allow room to accommodate drawbar 238, hammer roller 226 and pivot lever 240. The recessed portion of the inner face of the cover plate 322 is flat and its depth is such that it can act to (a) hold drawbar 238 in contact'with sear drawbar 236 and disconnector bar 244 and (b) pivot lever 240 in contact with surface 130A, while simulta neously allowing these members to move relative one another in their own planes.

Cover plate 322 is secured to the frame by screws 326'that are received in tapped holes in the frame. A right hand stock 328 overlies a portion of cover plate 322 and is secured to the latter by a concealed rivet 330. A left hand stock 334 is screwed directly to the frame by screw 336.

Referring now to FIGS. 4 and 18, the hold open catch member 152 is designed to coact with a slot 340 formed in the slide to hold the slide in open, i.e., retracted, position. Catch member 132 has grooves 342 along its opposite sides which receive the vertical edges that define the front and rear sides of slot 150. Catch member 152 is normally biased upwardly by a wire spring 344 that is seated in a cavity 346 formed in the left hand side of the frame and has one end seated in a small slot 348 in the rear edge of the catch member.

10 When the slide is in its forward position, catch member 152 bears against the undersurface 86 of the slide.

Operation and use of the pistol will now be described.

Assuming that the magazine 6, loaded with cartridges, has been inserted into the handleof the pistol and the chamber is empty, the topmost cartridge is transferred from the magazine into the chamber by manually retracting the slide and then releasing it so that it returns to its forward position. The hammer is forced by the slide to the fully cocked position when the slide is retracted. On the forward movement of the slide, the end surface 113 of the breech block engages the topmost cartridge and propels it forward into the chamber via the ramp 310. At this point, if the safety tumbler is not in the safety position, the pistol may be fired by single action, or by double action if first the hammer is released and brought gently back to its forward position. Assuming that the pistol is to be fired double action, this is accomplished by pulling the trigger 242. As the trigger is pulled, the pivot lever 240 pivots counterclockwise on its pivot pin 264 (as seen in mer continues to move rearward as the hammer drawbar, still engaged with roller 226, is pulled by pivot lever 240. As the trigger nears the end of its rearward stroke, the flat surface or abutment 271 on the rear edge of pivot lever 240 engages the confronting flat surface or abutment 273 on the front edge of hammer drawbar 238, with the result that the pivot lever cams drawbar 238 rearwardly about the pivot axis of the pivot lever far enough for the drawbar to slip off of roller 226. This frees the hammer so that it can return under the influence of hammer spring 218 to its forward position wherein it engages the firing pin 76 and causes the latter to be thrust forward and strike the cartridge in the chamber. As the sear drawbar is pulled forward, its projection 248 engages the sear 214 and pivots the latter counterclockwise (as seen in FIG. 16). This action of the sear occurs just as the hammer is released from the drawbar 238, with the result that the sear is held by the sear drawbar out of engagement with the hammer so that the hammer can move forward and fire the pistol. The gases produced by firing of the cartridge in the chamber cause the slide to move rearwardly. Asthe slide moves rearwardly, its cam surface 88 cams the disconnector bar 284 downward. The downward movement of the disconnector bar forces the sear drawbar downwardly so that its projection 248 cannot engage the sear, whereby the sear remains in contact with the hammer. The rearward movement of the slide causes the hammer, by engagement with safety tumbler 36 and the rear surface of the breech block, to be pivoted rearwardly far enough for its tooth 212 to be engaged by the sear, whereby the hammer is held in its fully ccked position. When the slide reaches the end of its rearward travel (which is determined by engagement of the bottom of section 186 of the front sight with the front surface of boss 164), it immediately starts forward again under the influence of the recoil spring and the rebound from the boss 164. The forward position of the slide is determined by engagement of the front surface 117 of the breech block with the bottom of the rear surface of boss 164.

On the rearward movement of the slide, bevelled tooth 106 on the front end of the extractor bar 98 interlocks with the flange on the rear of the shell case in the chamber and pulls that case rearwardly with the slide. As the slide continues to move rearwardly, the empty cartridge case moves into alignment with the side opening 29. Simultaneously, the opening 28 on the side of the slide moves into registration with side opening 29. When this occurs, the empty case is free to be ejected from the pistol via side openings 28 and 29. This ejection is produced by virtue of an unbalanced camming action combining the pulling force of the extractor on one side of the case and engagement of the case with a step 167 in side rail 154 rearward of its bevelled surface 160. When the slide moves forward again, the end surface of the breech block engages the next cartridge in the magazine and propels it forward into the chamher.

On release of the trigger, spring 298 drives it back to its forward position. The resulting clockwise pivoting of lever 240 on its pivot 264 returns the sear and hammer to their original positions. On its return movement, hammer drawbar 238 is automatically reen'gaged with hammer roller 226 and is held there by end section 304 of spring 296.

The pistol is now ready to be fired in the single action mode since its hammer is cocked. In this connection it is to be noted that the cocking movement of the hammer acts through roller 226, drawbar 238 and pivot lever 240 to retract the trigger so that the latter needs to be pulled further rearward only a relatively short distance to fire the pistol. It is to be noted, as shown in FIG. 16, that the notch 254 in drawbar 238 is over sized with respect to roller 226 so that the hammer can be drawn back a substantial distance before roller 226 begins to push down on the drawbar. Also, as the hammer drawbar is pushed downward by roller 226 on cocking of the hammer, the abutment 271 on lever 240 moves close to the abutment 273 on drawbar 238 so that the pivot lever needs to pull the drawbar further only a limited distance in order to cause the drawbar to be cammed out of engagement with roller 226. In the single action mode, when the trigger is pulled, the pivotlever will cam the hammer drawbar backward away from roller 226; at the same time the pivot lever acts to pull the sear drawbar forward far enough for its side projection 248 to engage and pivot the sear away from the hammer, whereby the hammer is free to be propelled forward by its spring. When the next cartridge is fired, the slide is again forced backward by the propellant gases so that the hammer is again cocked, the empty cartridge case is ejected and a new cartridge is delivered into the chamber.

When the slide is retracted, the disconnector bar 244 is cammed downward and causes the sear drawbar to move down far enough to avoid interfering with the sear, so that when the slide has completed its rearward movement and is moving forward again, the sear will be urged by its spring into engagement with the hammer and thereby lock the hammer in cocked position.

If desired, the hammer can be held in a half-cocked position. This is achieved by thumbing the hammer back far enough for the sear to engage its tooth 210. In this half-cocked position, the hammer cannot be accidentally dislodged from disengagement with the sear,

thus the pistol cannot be fired. On the other hand, the pistol may be fired after cocking the hammer manually.

It is also possible to prevent the pistol from firing through use of the safety tumbler 36. When the tumbler handle 50 is in the position shown in FIG. '4, the flat surface 54 of the tumbler is aligned with the inclined rear end surface of plug 17, so that the hammer can move far enough forward to engage the firing pin. However, if the safety tumbler handle is rotated counterclockwise (as seen in FIG. 4) about its flat surface 54 will be facing forwardly rather than rearwardly and the solid portion of the tumbler will project rearwardly from the rear end surface of plug 17 far enough to intercept the hammer and prevent it from engaging the firing pin.

If desired, the magazine may be emptied whilein place without firing the weapon. This is achieved-by manually retracting the slide and then allowing it to be carried forward again by recoil spring'182, and repeating this procedure until all of the cartridges have been ejected from the magazine. Each time the slide is retracted, the cartridge in the chamber is ejected and another cartridge is forced from the magazine into the chamber when the slide returns to its forward position. The hammer will be cocked the first time the slide is retractedand will stay cocked on each subsequent operation of the slide manually. This operation may be conducted with or without the trigger being retracted manually. If the trigger is not retracted, the movement of lever 240 resulting from cocking movement of the hammer is not sufficient to cause the sear to be pivoted to hammer releasing position by sear drawbar 236. If the trigger is retracted, the rearward movement of the slide earns the disconnector bar down far enough to disengage the sear drawbar from the sear.

The pistol can be field-stripped rapidly. This is achieved by forcing the front sight 184 rearwardly far enough for its offset wall 186 to be disengaged from the end wall 18 of the slide, and then withdrawing the sight from the slide through the aperture 22. Removal of the front sight withdraws the recoil spring and its plunger from chamber 14. Once the recoil spring has been removed, the slide'is free to be moved rearwardly with relatively no effort. Also, the slide now may be moved rearwardly far enough for its groove 94 to be aligned with the notch 162 in the rail 154, whereupon the rear end of the slide can be lifted up out of engagement with the frame and the rails 26 can be disengaged from the flanges 176. The foregoing procedure is reversed in recoupling the slide to the frame.

The opening 181 at the rear end-of the recoil spring tube 178 acts as an exhaust port'for any internally trapped air. By adjusting the size of this orifice, it is possible to control the recoil force of the slide frame. It is also contemplated that a one-way valve may be mounted in the opening 181 to provide controlled flow of trapped air.

It is believed apparent that the pistol herein described and illustrated is relatively compact, easy to assembly and disassemble, and is capable of reliable operation. Also, the relatively low position of the barrel reduces the tendency of the recoil force to cause the front end of the pistol to move upward, thereby improving firing accuracy.

I claim:

1. A firearm comprising:

a frame;

a hammer-in said frame pivotable between cocked and firing positions;

a spring mounted in said frame for urging said hammer to its firing position;

a sear movable to a position to hold the hammer cocked and to another position to release the cocked hammer so that the hammer can fire the firearm;

a movable sear drawbar having sear-engaging means for engaging the sear and moving it to hammerreleasing position;

a movable hammer drawbar having cocking means operative during double action for moving said hammer for firing position to cocked position and thereafter releasing said hammer so that said hammer can fire said firearm;

a trigger movably mounted to said frame;

a pivoting lever pivotally mounted to said frame and pivotally connectedto said sear drawbar and said hammer drawbar; and

means pivotally connecting said pivoting lever to said trigger, said pivoting lever being arranged so that when said trigger is pulled said pivoting lever will (a) cause said sear drawbar during single action to move said sear to hammer releasing position and (b) cause said hammer drawbar during double action to move said hammer from firing position to cocked position and thereafter to release said hammer so said hammer can fire said firearm.

2. A firearm according to claim 1 wherein said sear drawbar and said hammer drawbar are pivotally connected to said pivoting lever by a ball and socket connection.

3. A firearm according to claim 1 wherein said hammer is disposed in a first plane and said scar and hammer drawbars are disposed in second and third parallel planes respectively.

4. A firearm according to claim 3 wherein said sear is disposed in said first plane and said sear engaging means extends into said first plane.

5. A firearm according to claim 3 wherein said frame has first and second spaced side walls with said hammer located between said side walls, and said sear and hammer drawbars are disposed on the outer side of one of said side walls.

6. A firearm according to claim 5 wherein said sear is disposed between said side walls and is pivotally mounted to said frame below the pivot point of said hammer.

7. A firearm according to claim 6 wherein a portion of said sear drawbar extends between said one side wall and a portion of said hammer drawbar.

8. A firearm according to claim 5 wherein said one sidewall has a shallow recess and said sear drawbar and said pivoting lever are disposed in said recess.

9. A firearm according to claim 8 wherein said frame has a handle portion and a grip cover plate secured to said handle portion and covering said recess and the sear drawbar and pivoting lever disposed in said recess.

10. A firearm according to claim 9 wherein a portion of said sear drawbar extends between said one side wall and a portion of said drawbar, and further wherein said grip cover has an inner surface that is spaced from said one side wall and coacts therewith to define an en- 12. A firearm according to claim 1 including a disconnector for moving the sear drawbar so that it cannot move the sear to hammer releasing position.

13. A firearm according to claim 12 further including a slide reciprocally mounted to said frame, and means on said slide for operating said disconnector when said slide is moved rearwardly on said frame.

14. A firearm according to claim 13 wherein said slide includes a cam surface for engaging and cocking said hammer when said slide is moved rearwardly on said frame.

15. A firearm according to claim 13 wherein said disconnector comprises a bar reciprocally mounted to said frame, and said slide includes means for camming said bar in a direction to move. said sear drawbar away from said sear during rearward motion of said slide on said frame.

16. A firearm according to claim 1 wherein said frame includes a barrel and a chamber for receiving a cartridge to be fired, and further including a slide reciprocally mounted to said frame and a recoil spring disposed in said slide above said barrel, one end of said spring being engaged with means on said slide and'the opposite end of said spring being engaged with a portion of said frame that extends into said slide.

17. A firearm according to claim 16 further includinga firing pin reciprocally mounted in said slide rear wardly of said chamber, means on said slide for restricting movement of said firing pin between a first retracted position in which one end of said firing pin is disposed for engagement by said hammer and a second extended position in which the opposite end of said firing pin engages a cartridge residing in said chamber, and spring means normally holding said firing pin said first retracted position.

18. A firearm according to claim 17 including a cartridge ejection opening in said frame, and means in said slide for ejecting a spent cartridge case from said pistol via said ejection opening on rearward movement of said slide relative to said frame.

19. A firearm according to claim 17 further including a safety mechanism comprising a tumbler member rotatably mounted to said slide, said tumbler member being rotatable from a nonsafety position in which said hammer can move to firing position and a safety position in which said tumbler prevents said hammer from engaging said firing pin, a rear sight on said slide, and detent means for locking said tumbler in either of said nonsafety and safety position, said detent means including a detent member engageable with said tumbler and spring means biasing said detent means against said tumbler, said spring means being retained by said rear sight.

20. A firearm according to claim 17 further including a front sight removably attached to said slide, said one end of said recoil spring being engaged with a portion of said front sight disposed within said slide.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1664788 *May 27, 1926Apr 3, 1928Oberhammer LudwigAutomatic or self-loading small arm
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4539889 *Apr 29, 1982Sep 10, 1985Gaston GlockAutomatic pistol with counteracting spring control mechanism
US4760663 *Dec 17, 1987Aug 2, 1988Steyr-Daimler-Puch AgFirearm
US5765302 *Jan 17, 1996Jun 16, 1998Heckler & Koch GmbhAmmunition transport in a repeating weapon
US6382200 *Mar 21, 2000May 7, 2002Sergey LevkovTrigger mechanism
US8006609 *Sep 5, 2008Aug 30, 2011Sturm, Ruger & Company, Inc.Slide catch-ejector assembly for firearm
US8590200 *Nov 25, 2011Nov 26, 2013Sig Sauer, Inc.Firearm with magazine disconnector
US9127903Apr 21, 2014Sep 8, 2015Taurus International Manufacturing, Inc.Body contoured handgun
US9140510Jun 23, 2014Sep 22, 2015Smith & Wesson Corp.Rotary disconnector
US9194638Oct 17, 2013Nov 24, 2015Rock River Arms, Inc.Firearm with magazine release lever
US20010016998 *Oct 31, 1997Aug 30, 2001Daniel L. ChapmanPassive safety mechanism
US20100281735 *Sep 5, 2008Nov 11, 2010Kallio Robert ASlide catch-ejector assembly for firearm
US20130133237 *Nov 25, 2011May 30, 2013Sig Sauer, Inc.Firearm with magazine disconnector
US20150027020 *Jul 16, 2014Jan 29, 2015Sig Sauer, Inc.Firearm safety assembly including a lever detent spring
EP2203704A1 *Sep 10, 2008Jul 7, 2010STURM, RUGER & COMPANY, INC.Slide catch-ejector assembly for firearm
WO2007066323A2Nov 27, 2006Jun 14, 2007Yehuda MellerFirearm
WO2009042398A1 *Sep 10, 2008Apr 2, 2009Robert A KallioSlide catch-ejector assembly for firearm
WO2009065161A1 *Nov 21, 2008May 28, 2009Gaston GlockTrigger mechanism of a small arm
Classifications
U.S. Classification89/145, 89/138, 89/148, 89/147, 42/25, 42/15, 89/196
International ClassificationF41A11/00, F41A17/74, F41A3/82, F41A19/48
Cooperative ClassificationF41A19/48, F41A11/00, F41A17/74, F41A17/42, F41A3/82
European ClassificationF41A17/42, F41A11/00, F41A17/74, F41A19/48, F41A3/82