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Publication numberUS3857466 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 31, 1974
Filing dateDec 18, 1973
Priority dateDec 18, 1973
Also published asCA983538A1, DE2459641A1
Publication numberUS 3857466 A, US 3857466A, US-A-3857466, US3857466 A, US3857466A
InventorsBerkovitz H, Tosato L
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Closure system
US 3857466 A
Abstract
A closure system including a door mounted to open and close an entrance way, and an object detector including a transmitter and detector mounted on the door. The transmitter directs a beam of radiant energy to a sill having a non-specular surface, and the detector is aimed to intersect the beam of radiant energy at the sill. The detector controls the operation of the door when an object interrupts reflected radiant energy from the sill to the detector.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1191 Berkovitz et a1.

[ 1 Dec. 31, 1974 CLOSURE SYSTEM [75] Inventors: Harry Berkovitz, Glenrock;

Lawrence Tosato, Millburn, both of NJ.

[73] Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corporation,

Pittsburgh, Pa.

[22] Filed: Dec. 18, 1973 [21] Appl. No.: 426,261

[52] US. Cl 187/52, 49/25, 250/221 2,853,158 9/1958 Brandon et a1. 187/48 2,953,219 9/1960 Drexler 187/48 Primary ExaminerRichard A. Schacher Assistant Examiner-James L. Rowland Attorney, Agent, or Firm-D. R. Lackey 5 7 ABSTRACT A closure system including a door mounted to open and close an entrance way, and an object detector including a transmitter and detector mounted on the door. The transmitter directs a beam of radiant energy to a sill having a non-specular surface, and the detector is aimed to intersect the beam of radiant energy at the sill. The detector controls the operation of the 5 References Cited door when an object interrupts reflected radiant en- UNITED STATES PATENTS ergy from the sill to the detector.

1,947,079 2/ 1934 Ellis 187/52 16 Claims, 5 Drawing; Figures 25 33 Q la 1 I 27 I 2| e -29 g 13 A15 9 7 9 A21 A7 A9 a) I I 3: n [1 M: I];

H A13 1 5 I: 11

[I l 1 A51 11 l 11 a 1 R70 A17 17 Lass :1 a5 :1 1: 1 '1 1: 1 1 1: l} l 1 I T3 T2 {i l: mz i 1 e 1 a 5i CLOSURE SYSTEM BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The invention relates in general to closure systems, and more specifically to object detecting arrangements for closure or door control which are especially suitable for elevator systems.

2. Description of the Prior Art Closure control, which includes object detecting means for controlling door operation to prevent the door from striking an object in the closing path of the door, is in common usage, especially in elevator systems. For example, US Pat. No. 1,947,079 teaches a car mounted object detector system which directs a beam of radiant energy out from the elevator car to a reflector disposed in a glass covered enclosure in the floor of the landing. The reflector reflects the radiant energy back to a detector mounted on the car.

US. Pat. No. 2,900,521 teaches a plurality of door mounted transmitters and detectors disposed to direct a plurality of horizontal beams of radiant energy across the door opening of the elevator car.

US. Pat. No. 2,953,219 teaches door mounted transmitters and detectors which direct two beams along the edge of the door of the elevator car.

US. Pat. No. 3,063,516 teaches a door mounted object detector which reflects a beam of radiant energy from one car door to a reflector on the adjacent hoistway door, across the opening of the elevator car to a reflector on the other hoistway door, and then to a detector on the other car door.

In all of these patents, which are assigned to the same assignee as the present application, the object detector system either transmits a beam of radiant energy directly from a transmitter to a detector, or the transmitter transmits the beam of radiant energy against a specular surface or mirror, with the reflected energy going directly to a detector, or indirectly to a detector via ad ditional reflectors. When reflectors are used, the angle of incidence of the transmitted beam of radiant energy to the normal of the reflector, and the angle of reflection, are equal. In specular or regular reflection, the direction of propagation of the energy of the concentrated beam is still sharply defined after reflection, the reflected and incident beams of radiant energy travel in directions making equal angles with the normal to the reflecting surface, and the transmitted beam, the reflected beam, and the normal of the reflecting surface, all lie in the same plane.

While the arrangements of these patents are all effective object detectors, they are limited as to the locations of the beams of radiant energy by the requirement of directly aiming the detector at the transmitter, or by the requirement of placing the transmitter and detector according to the characteristics of specular reflection, when reflectors are used.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly, the present invention is a new and improved closure system having an object detector which uses a transmitter, a detector, and a reflector, with the reflector being a sill associated with the entranceway of the closure system. The sill is not a reflector in the usual sense, as it is important that its surface be nonspecular. The transmitter directs a focused beam of radiant energy to the sill, and the detector is aimed to intersect the beam at the sill. The non-specular surface of the sill produces a diffuse reflection, i.e., scattered, a certain portion of which will proceed from the sill to the detector which is aimed at the location on the sill to which the beam of radiant energy is directed. The detector is adjusted to be responsive to the level of the reflected energy such that it detects when the reflected energy is blocked by an object in the path between the spot" on the sill to which the detector is aimed, and the detector.

The locations of the transmitter and detector are not limited by the equal angles of incidence and reflection, which is characteristic of specular reflection, nor are their locations limited to the same plane limitations of specular reflection.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the new and improved closure system is used in an elevator system to provide an edge detector for each hoistway door, using primarily car mounted apparatus. In this preferred embodiment, the transmitter and detector are both mounted on the door of the elevator car, and at least one beam of radiant energy is projected from the transmitter to a sill disposed at the landing. This sill extends past the hoistway door, when it is closed, on the corridor side of the landing. At least the portion of the sill which is on the corridor side of the hatchway door has a non-specular surface. The beam of radiant energy is projected to this portion of the sill, and the reflection of radiant energy to a detector mounted on the car door provides a reflective path which extends past the leading edge of the hoistway door to provide an object detector immediately adjacent the leading edge of the hoistway door upon closure thereof. A plurality of radiant beams may be used to provide several object detection zones adjacent the leading edge of the closing hoistway door. Similar edge protection may be provided for the leading edge of a closing car door.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The invention may be better understood, and further advantages and uses thereof more readily apparent, when considered in view of the following detailed description of exemplary embodiments, taken with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a view in front elevation of an elevator car having a closure system embodying the invention;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary side elevation of the closure system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of the closure system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of door control which may be used for operating the closure system shown in FIG. 1; and

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view which illustrates a modification of the closure system shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS While the invention is applicable to closure designed for various applications, it is especially suitable for doors employed in elevator systems. Thus, the invention will be described with particular reference to elevator closures or doors. Further, the invention is applicable to doors of various types, such as center opening, side opening, single speed, and two speed assemblies.

For purposes of example, reference will be made to door assemblies of the center opening, power operated type, such as employed in elevator systems. In order to simplify its presentation, the invention is assumed to be applied to an elevator car employing the center opening, horizontally slidable doors, and controls therefor, as illustrated in US. Pat. No. 2,992,818, which patent is assigned to the same assignee as the present application. Only the portion of the controls of this patent necessary to understand the invention will be described. If the description of the complete control is desired, reference may be had to this patent for a detailed description.

Referring now to the drawings, and FIG. 1 in particular, there is shown an elevator system 1 which includes an elevator car 2 mounted for movement in the hoistway 3 of an associated building or structure to serve the landings or floors therein. FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of the elevator car 2 which is illustrated parked at a landing with its doors open. The associated hoistway or hatch doors which close and expose the opening to the hoistway from the associated landing are not shown in FIG. 1, for clarity.

The elevator car 2 includes center opening car doors, shown fully open, with the car doors comprising two sections 5 and A5. A number of similar components are employed for the door sections 5 and A5. Insofar as is practicable, a component for the door section A5 which is similar to a component for the door section 5 will be identified by the same reference numeral as is employed for the corresponding component associated with the door section 5 prefixed by the letter A.

The door section 5 is provided with a door hanger 7 on which door hanger wheels 9 are mounted for rotation. The door hanger wheels for the door sections 5 and A5 are positioned for movement along a horizontally-mounted track 11 in a conventional manner. The track 11 is secured to the elevator car by any suitable means.

Movement of the door section 5 is effected by a lever 13 pivotally mounted on the elevator car by means of a pin 15. The lower end of the lever 13 is pivotally connected to one end of a link 17, the other end of the link being pivotally connected to the door section 5. The lever 13 is coupled to the lever A13 by a link 19, the ends of which are pivotally attached to the levers 13 and A13 by pivots 21 and A21, respectively. The pivot 21 is positioned above the pin 15, whereas the pivot A21 is located below the pin A15. Consequently, rotation of the lever 13 to close the door section 5 moves the link 19in the proper direction to close the door section A5.

The lever 13 preferably is operated by a suitable door operator 23 which may include a reversible electric motor 25 coupled through suitable gearing to a shaft 27. The shaft 27 carries an arm 29 which is pivotally connected to one end of a link 31, the remaining end of the link 31 being pivotally connected to the lever 13. Consequently, the motor 25 may be energized in a conventional manner for the purpose of opening and closing the door sections 5 and A5. When the door 1 is to be opened, the motor 25 is operated to rotate the arm 29 in a clockwise direction as viewed in FIG. 1. In order to reclose the door, the electric motor is reversed.

A control assembly 33 is mounted on the elevator car adjacent the motor 25. Positive driven contact cams located in the control assembly 33 control the rate of acceleration and deceleration of the door I. The control assembly also houses control contacts and control resistors. The contact cams are keyed to the gearing associated with the motor 25 and operate the control contacts for predetermined distances of travel of the arm 29 to vary motor armature circuit resistance, thus controlling the doors rate of acceleration and of deceleration. Each cam is symmetrical and operates two spring-closed contacts, one contact being located on each side of the cam. For each direction of door movement, a separate and identicalset of contacts is actuated, one for the opening movement of the door, the other for the closing movement of the door. Such arrangement is well known in the art.

The car door sections 5 and A5 are associated with hoistway door sections 34 and A34, respectively, best shown in FIG. 3. The hoistway or hatchdoor sections 34 and A34 are operable for opening and closing an en trance way to the hoistway. Although the hoistway door sections may be operated by any conventional door operator, the hoistway sections are preferably operated by the door operator 23 mounted on the elevator car 2 via cooperative vane and drive block members 35 and 36, respectively. The vane 35 is secured to the car door section 5 and is adapted for reception in a slot of the drive block 36, which is secured to the hoistway door section 34. A suitable linkage (not shown), similar to that disposed between the car door sections 5 and A5, is provided between the hoistway door sections 34 and A34. Thus, operation of the door operator mounted on the elevator car effects movement of both the car and hoistway door sections in unison.

During the closing operation of the car and hoistway doors it is highly desirable that the door sections be prevented from striking an object located in the closing paths thereof. Further, it is desirable that such protection include an edge protector or safety edge on the leading edge of each door section upon closure thereof. It is common to provide such edge protection on the car door, but-providing object protecting means for the edges of the hoistway doors is costly, since each hoistway door must be outfitted with such door edge devices. Not only is the direct cost proportional to the number of hoistway doors in the elevator system, but the maintenance problem associated with such detecting apparatus will also be directly proportional to the number of hoistway doors. The present invention provides door edge object detecting means on the hoistway doors without any apparatus being required for each hoistway entrance, other than a non-specular surface adjacent the hoistway opening, such as a sill having a non-specular surface. The door edge object detector for the hatch door is thus achieved with very little equipment required for a hoistway door, and little additional maintenance.

FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 illustrate front, side and plan views, respectively, of object detecting means constructed according to the teachings of the invention. The object detecting means includes transmitter means 60 and detector means 62 associated with the left hand car and hoistway door sections 5 and 34, respectively, as viewed in FIG. 1 and transmitter means 64 and detector means 66, associated with the right hand car and hoistway door sections A5 and A34, respectively. Since the arrangement and operation of the object detecting means is similar for the left and right hand door sections, only the object detecting means for the left hand door sections will be described in detail.

Transmitter means 60 is mounted on car door section 5, preferably towards the bottom thereof, and adjacent to the leading edge of the door with reference to the closing direction of the door. Transmitter means 60 is arranged to provide at least one beam of radiant energy, and preferably at least two as illustrated in the fig ures, with first and second radiant beams 68 and 70 being provided by transmitter devices T1 and T2, respectively.

Transmitter devices T1 and T2 are positioned to direct or project the radiant beams 68 and 70 across the small opening 72 between the elevator car 2 and the hoistway wall 3 to the sill 74 associated with the hoistway entrance. At least one of the beams, such as beam 68, is directed to strike the sill 74 on the corridor side of the hoistway door 34, as opposed to the hoistway side, and the other beam is projected to strike the sill substantially adjacent to the edge of the hoistway door 34. The corridor is indicated with reference numeral 76 in FIG. 3. The beams 68 and 70 of radiant energy are directed to predetermined spots or locations on the sill 74, indicated at 78 and 80, respectively, which locations will move across the sill 74 with movement of the car and associated hatch door sections 5 and 34 respectively. In order to project the beams of radiant energy across the opening between the elevator car and hoistway wall to the corridor side of the sill 74, it may be necessary to remove a small portion of the sight guard (not shown) which blocks the view into the space between the car 2 and hoistway wall 3. However, since it is only necessary to remove the sight guard close to the floor level, it will not be noticeable to prospective passengers.

It is important to note that at least the portions of the sill 74 to which the beams 68 and 70 of radiant energy are directed throughout movement of their associated car door section, be formed of a material which has a non-specular surface and which will not become polished or specular during use. A sill constructed of a fairly rough bronze, i.e., unpolished, has been found to be satisfactory, but any material may be used which will scatter the reflection of the beam of energy from its surface, instead of reflecting the beam with a sharply defined projection. A sill formed of a metallic grit, such as aluminum oxide, held together with a suitable binder, such as epoxy resin, is also suitable, as the small metallic particles uniformly scatter the reflection of the beam of radiant energy from its surface.

Detector means 62, which is sensitive to the level of the reflection which will be received from the sill 74, includes the same number of detector devices as there are radiant beams to detect. In other words, when two transmitters, T1 and T2 are used to transmit two beams 68 and 70, detector means 62 will include two detectors D1 and D2. Detector means 62 is mounted for movement with car door section 5, and each detector device of detector means 62 is aimed to intersect a beam of radiant energy at the sill 74. Thus, as shown most clearly in FIG. 3, the detector device D1 would be aimed at the spot or location 78 on the sill 74, and detector device D2 would be aimed at spot or location 80 on the sill. A suitable detector is Photo-hell's side sensitive receiver type RPS3R.

Detector means 62 is mounted at the top of the car door 5 with detector device D1 spaced from the edge of the door 5, such as about 3 inches, and with detector device D2 spaced from the edge of the door 5, such as about one-half inch. The reflection path from spot 80 to detector device D2, indicated by beam Rin FIG. I, proceeds past the edge of the hoistway door about one-half inch therefrom. Therefore, an object such as a hand placed on the edge of the hoistway door 34 will interrupt the reflection from spot to detector D2, and this interruption initiates a control action in the door control circuit to retard further closing movement, and to reverse the doors, if desired. The reflection path from spot 78 to detector Dl, indicated by beam R68 in FIG. 1, proceeds past the edge of the hoistway door, about 3 inches therefrom, and extends the object detection zone out to the point where detection of an object provides time for the closing door to stop without contact with the person or object interrupting this reflection.

It will be noted in FIGS. 1, 2 and 3 that the detectors D1 and D2 are not placed such that the angle of reflection from the sill is equal to the angle of incidence of the beams the detectors are to cooperate with, and that the angle of reflection is not in the same plane as the angle of incidence of the beams and the normal to the sill 74. This arrangement is made possible by the nonspecular surface of the sill, enabling the reflections to be directed to locations for object detecting not heretofore possible. Thus, edge detectors are provided on the leading edges of the hoistway doors upon closure thereof, without the necessity of adding apparatus to each hoistway door.

The object detecting means for the right hand door sections are similar to those for the left hand door sections, with the transmitter means including transmitter device T3 and T4, directed to spots A78 and A80 on sill 74, and the detector means 66 includes detectors D3 and D4 aimed at spots A78 and A80, respectively.

It will be noted in FIG. 3, that detector devices 62 and 66 are offset from one another to permit them to pass upon closure of the doors. The 3 inch" detectors D1 and D3 are rendered ineffective by a limit switch Ll disposed to cutout these detectors just before they would detect an interruption of the reflected energy due to normal door closure, and the one-half inch" detectors D2 and D4 are rendered ineffective by a limit switch L2.

The radiant energy projected by the transmitting device 60 may have a frequency selected from a widerange. For example, the transmitting device may be designed to project visible light. However, since numerous sources of light are present both within the elevator car and in the corridors served by the elevator car, the possibility of false operation of the apparatus due to these external sources is present; and if an attempt is made to shield the detecting means 62 from other light sources, it becomes difficult to clean and to maintain the detecting device. For these and other reasons, nonvisible radiant energy is desirable.

Preferably, the transmitting device 60 is designed to transmit a beam of infrared radiant energy. Such devices are well known in the art. The detecting device 62 may be of any type responsive to the radiant energy received from the transmitting device 60. Thus, for infrared radiant energy the detecting device 62 may be of the photoemissive type, the photoconductive type or the photovoltaic type, as desired. Such detecting devices also are well known. Reference may be made to the Eames US. Pat. No. 2,900,521 for details of construction of suitable radiant energy transmitting and detecting devices.

In order to illustrate suitable operation of the door controller 33, a schematic control diagram is shown in FIG. 4. In this diagram, the armature 25A and the field winding 25F of the door operating motor 25 (FIG. 1) are illustrated. Electrical energy for the control circuits is derived from a pair of direct-current buses L+ and L-. It will be observed that the motor field winding 25F is connected directly across the buses L+ and L. In parallel with the field winding 25F is a rectifier 90 of a conventional type, such as silicon. Current flows through the rectifier 90 in the direction indicated by its circuit symbol in FIG. 4. Thus the rectifier 90 provides a path for induced current as a result of the collapse of the motor field windings magnetic field in the event that power is removed from the buses L+ and L.

The motor 25 is energized to open or to close the car door by operation of a switch SW. Although this may be a manually operated switch, in a preferred embodiment of the invention this switch represents the contacts of a relay or relays employed in any conventional door operating system to initiate an opening or a closing operation of the door. Thus, movement of the operating member of the switch SW up, as viewed in FIG. 4, to close its contacts SW1, completes, with a limit switch 37 and break contacts CLl of a door closing relay, CL, a circuit connecting a door opening relay OP across the buses L+ and L for energization. The limit switch 37 is opened as the door arrives at its fully open position by a cam located in the control assembly 33.

Movement of the operating member of the switch SW down results in closure of its contacts SW2 to complete, with a limit switch 39 and break contacts 0P1 of the door opening relay OP, a circuit connecting the door closing relay CL across the buses L+ and L for energization. The limit switch 39 is opened as the door arrives at its fully closed position by a cam located in the control assembly 33.

The break contacts CLl prevent energization therethrough of the door opening relay OP when the door closing relay CL is energized. The break contacts OP] operate in a similar manner in the circuit of the door closing relay CL. Also associated with the relay OP are make contacts 0P2 and 0P4 and break contacts 0P3. Associated with the relay CL are make contacts CL2 and CL4 and break contacts CL3. These contacts control energization of the motor armature 25A, the circuits for energization of the armature being located in the lower portion of FIG. 4.

Associated with the armature 25A are a plurality of adjustable resistors and a plurality of cam-operated control contacts for controlling acceleration and deceleration of the motor 25. These resistors and contacts, together with the contact cams for the latter, are located in the control assembly 33 as above described.

It will be noted that the adjustable resistor 41 is dis posed in series circuit relationship with the armature 25A in the bus L+. The remainder of the adjustable resistors associated with the armature 25A bear identifying symbols which are indicative of their functions. Thus, the adjustable resistor RAC is employed to effect acceleration of the motor during a door closing operation while the adjustable resistor RAO is employed for accelerating the motor during door opening movement.

Similarly, the resistor RDCl is used for decelerating the motor and thereby the door during a door closing movement while the adjustable resistor RDOl effects deceleration. The cam operated control contacts bear identifying symbols which are indicative of their control functions. For example, the contacts AC and A0 are effective for accelerating the door during door closing and door opening movements, respectively. The contacts DCl through DC4 effect deceleration of the door during door closing movement and operate sequentially in the order of their suffix numerals. The contacts DOl through D04 in sequence similarly control door deceleration during a door opening operation.

Make contacts ASC and AS0 are disposed in series circuit relationship with the cam-operated contacts DC4 and D04, respectively. These contacts are associated with an anti-stall or checkback relay AS. If a pair of limit switches 43 and 45 both are in closed condition, the relay AS is connected for energization across the buses L+ and L. In parallel with the coil of the relay AS is a resistor-capacitor network comprising serially connected resistors 47 and 49 and a capacitor 51. In parallel with the resistor 47 is a rectifier 53 of a conventional type such as silicon. Current flows through the rectifier 53 in the direction indicated by its circuit symbol in FIG. 4. Thus, when both of the limit switches 43 and 45 are in closed condition, the capacitor 51 charges through the resistor 49 and the rectifier 53, which, in effect, then shorts the resistor 47. When one of the limit switches 43 or 45 is opened, the capacitor 51 discharges through the resistors 47 and 49 and the coil of the anti-stall relay AS. Since the length of times of charge and discharge of the capacitor are dependent upon the RC network time constant, the rectifier 53 effects a fast charge of the capacitor 51 and a relatively slow discharge thereof.

The limit switches 43 and 45 are located in the control assembly 33 and are operated by cams disposed therein. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cam associated with the switch 43 operates to open the switch simultaneously with the opening of the control contacts DC4 by its associated contact cam. The limit switch 45 is opened by its cam simultaneously with the opening of the control contacts D04 by it associated contact cam. Each of these limit switches remains in open conditon from the time of its opening to the time when the door reaches the same position in a door movement opposite in direction to that in which the door was moving when the respective limit switch was operated by its associated cam.

The present invention modifies the circuit of the aforesaid US. Pat. No. 2,992,818 by connecting the energizing coil of a door safety relay DR between buses L+ and L via serially connected contacts B1, B3, B2 and B4. Contacts B1, B3, B2 and B4 are associated with detectors D1, D3, D2 and D4, respectively, with these contacts being directly controlled by any suitable translating device associated with the detectors. Such a translating device may take the form of relays whose energizing coils are not shown. Contacts B1, B2, B3 and B4 are closed as long as its associated detector device is receiving radiant energy from the spot on the sill 74 to which it is aimed. Limit switches L1 and L2 shown in FIG. 4 are connected to shunt or short contacts B1 and B3, and B2 and B4, respectively, to render these contacts ineffective when the doors close. Door safety relay DR includes a make contact DR] which is connected in series with the energizing coil of the closing relay CL, and break contacts DR2 connected to shunt contacts SW1 of switch SW. It should be noted that the contacts DR! and DR2 are shown in the condition when buses L+ and L are deenergized. When the door is closing and no obstruction is detected by any of the detectors, relay DR will be energized. Thus, contacts DRl will be closed to enable the closing coil CL to be energized, and contacts DR2 will be open, and they will thus have no circuit affect on the door open relay OP. Should reflection of radiant energy to any of the detector devices be interrupted, its associated contact would be open, such as contact Bl, which drops out the door safety relay DR. Contacts DR] open to deenergize the coil CL of the closing relay and stop the closing motion of the car and hoistway doors, and contacts DR2 close to energize the door open relay OP. Should it only be desired to stop the closing of the doors upon interruption of radiant energy from the sill to one of the detectors, instead of reversing the doors, contacts DR2 would not be required. When the doors reach the point during closing where reflection from the sill will be interrupted by the opposite door section, limit switches L1 and L2 successively operate to first disable the 3 inch detectors, and then the one'half inch detectors. It is to be understood that while these detectors are referred to as the 3 inch and one-half inch detectors, that their loca tions may be changed from these dimensions, if desired.

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary plan view, similar so that of FIG. 3, except modified to illustrate that the detector means 64 may direct two additional beams of radiant energy to the sill 96 of the elevator car, indicated by spots A92 and A94, and the detector means includes two additional detectors D5 and D6 aimed to intersect the beams at spots A92 and A94, respectively, thus providing object detecting means immediately adjacent the leading edges of the car door, as well as the hatch door. Contacts associated with detectors D5 and D6, as well as the additional detectors for the left hand door section, would be connected in series with the door safety relay DR, as illustrated for the contacts 81 through B4.

in summary, there has been disclosed a new and improved closure system, in which placement of the transmitter and detector devices is not limited by the characteristics of specular reflection. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the new and improved closure system is used in an elevator system to provide edge detection for the hoistway doors, without requiring transmitters and detectors for each hoistway opening. The transmitters and detectors are all mounted on the car, requiring only a sill having a non-specular surface at each hoistway opening. The new and improved closure system thus permits edge protection for hoistway and car doors, without requiring a mechanical edge with its maintenance problems, and the elimination of the mechanical safety edge increases the opening size. Further, the new and improved closure system is sensitive to any object in the path of the closing doors, and is not limited to detecting objects having a certain amount of capacitance.

We claim as our invention:

1. A closure system, comprising:

an entranceway,

a sill associated with said entranceway, at least a portion of said sill having a non-specular surface,

a door for said entranceway,

means mounting said door for movement to open and close said entranceway,

an object detecting means including transmitter means providing at least one beam of radiant energy, and detector means responsive to such energy,

said transmitter means being mounted on said door for movement therewith and positioned to direct a beam of radiant energy at said non-specular sur' face of the sill, said beam of radiant energy forming a predetermined angle with the normal of said sill,

said detector means being mounted on said door for movement therewith and positioned to intersect said beam of radiant energy at said sill, with the angle of reflection from the :sill to said detector means relative to the normal thereof, being other than said predetermined angle,

said detector means being responsive to an interruption of reflected radiant energy from said sill for controlling the operation of said door.

2. The closure system of claim 1 wherein the angle of reflection of the radiant energy from the sill to the detector means forms a plane with the angle of incidence of the beam of radiant energy which is different than the plane that would be formed between the same angle of incidence and the angle of reflection from a specular surface.

3. The closure system of claim 1 wherein the radiant energy which reflects from the sill to the detector means is spaced from and substantially parallel to the leading edge of the door upon closure thereof.

4. The closure system of claim I wherein the transmitter means provides a plurality of spaced beams of radiant energy which are directed at the non-specular surface of the sill, with the detector means including a plurality of detector devices aimed to intersect a different beam of radiant energy at the sill, with the radiant energy which reflects from the sill to the plurality of detector devices being spaced from and substantially parallel to the leading edge of the door upon closure thereof, to provide a plurality of spaced object detecting locations.

5. An elevator system, comprising:

a structure having a hoistway, a landing having an opening to the hoistway, and a sill at the landing adjacent the opening, said sill having a nonspecular surface,

an elevator car mounted for movement in the hoistway of said structure to serve said landing,

said elevator car having an opening therein which is in registry with the opening to the hoistway when said elevator car is at said landing,

a car door mounted for movement to open and close the opening of said elevator car,

a hoistway door mounted for movement with said car door to open and close the opening to the hoistway,

and object detector means including transmitter means providing at least one beam of radiant energy, and detector means responsive to such energy,

said transmitter means being mounted on said car door for movement therewith and positioned to direct a beam of radiant energy at said non-specular surface of the sill,

said detector means being mounted on said car door for movement therewith and aimed to intersect the beam of radiant energy at said sill,

said detector means being responsive to an interruption of reflected radiant energy from said sill for controlling the operation of said car and hoistway doors.

6. The elevator system of claim wherein the transmitter and detector means are oriented such that reflected radiant energy from the sill to the detector means is spaced from and substantially parallel to the leading edge of the hoistway door upon closure thereof.

7. The elevator system of claim 5 wherein the sill includes a portion which extends past the side of the hatch door which is opposite to the side which faces the opening, with the beam of radiant energy being directed to this portion of the sill, and the detector means is disposed such that the reflected radiant energy from the sill to the detector means is spaced from and substantially parallel to the leading edge of the hoistway door upon closure thereof.

8. The elevator system of claim 5 wherein the transmitter means directs a plurality of spaced beams of radiant energy at the non-specular surface of the sill, the detector means includes a plurality of detector devices each aimed to intersect a different beam of radiant energy at the sill, said plurality of detector devices being disposed such that the reflected radiant energy from the sill to the detector devices provides a plurality of spaced object detection locations adjacent to the leading edge of the hoistway door upon closure thereof.

9. The elevator system of claim 5 wherein the elevator car includes a sill adjacent its opening, at least a portion of which has a non-specular surface, the transmitter means directs at least one beam of radiant energy at the car sill in addition to the at least one beam which is directed to the landing sill, and the detector means includes first and second detector devices aimed to intersect the beams of radiant energy at the car and hatch sills, respectively, said detector means controlling the operation of the car and hatch doors when reflection of the radiant energy to either detector device is interrupted.

10. An elevator system, comprising:

a structure having a hoistway and a landing having an opening to the hoistway,

an elevator car mounted for movement in the hoistway of said structure to serve said landing,

said elevator car having an opening therein which is in registry with the opening to the hoistway when said elevator car is at said landing,

a car door,

means mounting said car door for movement to open and close the opening in said elevator car,

object detector means including transmitter means providing at least one beam of radiant energy, and detector means responsive to such radiant energy, said transmitter means being mounted on said car door and positioned to direct at least one beam of radiant energy to a predetermined location on said landing, with the predetermined location at any instance depending on the instantaneous position of said car door,

the predetermined location on said landing to which one beam of radiant energy is directed having a non-specular surface, said detector means being mounted on said car door and oriented to the same predetermined location of said landing to which the transmitter device is directing the at least one beam of radiant energy,

said detector means being operatively connected to control the operation of said car door, in response to the interruption of the reflection of the at least one beam of radiant energy from the non-specular surface of the location on said landing to said detector means.

11. The elevator system of claim 10 wherein the landing includes a sill adjacent the opening to the hoistway, and wherein the predetermined location to which the transmitter directs the beam of radiant energy at any instance is on said sill.

12. The elevator system of claim 10 wherein the landing includes a hoistway door, means mounting the hoistway door to open and close the opening to the hoistway with like movement of the car door, and a sill disposed at the landing adjacent the opening to the hoistway, wherein the predetermined location to which the transmitter directs the beam of radiant energy at any instant is on said sill, and the detector means is positioned on the car door to be responsive to an object in the path of at least the hoistway door when it is closing its associated openings.

13. The elevator system of claim 12 wherein the sill is disposed such that at least a portion thereof is on the side of the hatch door opposite to the opening to the hoistway, and wherein the transmitter means is positioned on the car door to direct the beam of radiant energy to said portion of the sill, such that the detector means, oriented to said portion of the sill, is responsive to an object in the path of the hoistway door.

14. The elevator system of claim 11 wherein the detector means is aimed at the sill along but spaced from, the leading edge of the hoistway door upon closure thereof.

15. The elevator system of claim 10 wherein the transmitter means directs its plurality of separate, spaced beams of radiant energy to predetermined different locations on said landing, all of which locations are on portions of the landings having the non-specular surface, with the detector means being responsive to the interruption of the reflection of any said plurality of beams to the detector means.

16. The elevator system of claim 15 wherein the detector means includes separate detector devices each aimed along the leading edge of the hoistway door at the different predetermined locations to which the plurality of beams of radiant energy are directed, said separate detector devices all being mounted on the car door and spaced along the opening to the elevator car to provide a plurality of spaced object detector locations adjacent the leading edge of the hoistway door upon closure thereof.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4565029 *Nov 28, 1983Jan 21, 1986The Stanley WorksTraffic responsive control system for automatic swinging door
US4621452 *Jan 18, 1985Nov 11, 1986Deeg Wyman LPowered sliding door safety system
US4698937 *Mar 8, 1984Oct 13, 1987The Stanley WorksTraffic responsive control system for automatic swinging door
US4823010 *May 11, 1987Apr 18, 1989The Stanley WorksSliding door threshold sensor
US4914859 *Sep 23, 1988Apr 10, 1990Lanson Electronics, Inc.Automatic door safety system
US5644111 *May 8, 1995Jul 1, 1997New York City Housing AuthorityElevator hatch door monitoring system
US5656898 *Jul 12, 1995Aug 12, 1997Kalina; Edward T.Sliding door apparatus
US5659159 *Dec 16, 1994Aug 19, 1997Otis Elevator CompanyElevator level control system using elevator/landing gap as a reflection duct
US6050369 *Oct 7, 1994Apr 18, 2000Toc Holding Company Of New York, Inc.Elevator shaftway intrusion device using optical imaging processing
US7940300Feb 24, 2006May 10, 2011Stanley Black & Decker, Inc.Automatic door assembly with video imaging device
Classifications
U.S. Classification187/317, 49/25, 250/221
International ClassificationB66B13/24, B66B13/26
Cooperative ClassificationB66B13/26
European ClassificationB66B13/26