US 3858247 A
Removably located within an elongated epithelium-lined tract (tunnel) surgically formed in the subcutaneous layer of the scalp is the elongated subdermal portion of a scalp anchor. Mounted on at least one end of the subdermal member is a flange or tab, closely overlying the subjacent surface of the scalp, the flange being attachable to an overlying hairpiece. A plurality of such anchors securely yet removably retains the hairpiece in the desired position on the scalp.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Bauman 3,858,247 Jan. 7, 1975 SCALP ANCHOR FOR HAlRPlECE  Inventor: Jack Bauman, PO. Box 25310, Los
Angeles, Calif. 90025  Filed: Apr. 24, 1973 21 Appl. No.: 354,019
 U.S. Cl. 3/1, 128/330  Int. Cl ..A61f1/00, A61b 17/00  Field of Search 3/1; 128/330; 248/300  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,600,859 9/1926 Wright 248/300 X 2,807,431 9/1957 McHale 248/300 X 3,621,837 11/1971 Gindes 3/1 3,694,819 10/1972 Meyer 3/1 3,755,824 9/1973 Spcrling 3/1 Primary ExaminerChanning L. Pace Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Lothrop & West  ABSTRACT Removably located within an elongated epitheliumlined tract (tunnel) surgically formed in the subcutaneous layer of the scalp is the elongated subdermal portion of a scalp anchor. Mounted on at least one end of the subdermal member is a flange or tab, closely overlying the subjacent surface of the scalp, the flange being attachable to an overlying hairpiece. A plurality of such anchors securely yet removably retains the hairpiece in the desired position on the scalp.
4 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures Patented Jan. 7, 1975 ,247
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SCALP ANCHOR FOR HAIRPIECE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Surgically installed scalp anchors for hairpieces are not unknown in the patent literature, exemplary being the disclosure in my US. Pat. No. 3,553,737.
Although the structures and procedures set forth in the foregoing patent have served quite satisfactorily in actual use, there is room for improvement, particularly in facilitating placement and removal of a hairpiece while, at the same time, affording a secure, reliable and comfortably fitting installation capable of being worn for extended periods of time.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to improvements in anchors for removably securing a hairpiece to the scalp.
It is an object of the invention to provide a scalp anchor which is small in size, unobtrusive in appearance and comfortable to wear, yet is reliable and secure under all normal conditions of use.
It is another object of the invention to provide a hairpiece anchor which is relatively economical yet is durable and long-lived.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a scalp anchor which can readily be installed and, as quickly, can be removed when desired.
It is another object of the invention to provide a generally improved scalp anchor for a hairpiece.
Other objects, together with the foregoing, are attained in the embodiments described in the following description and shown in the accompanying drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view, to a greatly enlarged scale, of a stylized form of scalp anchor, constructed, for example, of a subdermal implant material, such as Silastic;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view, to an enlarged scale, of a stylized representation of the skin overlying a scalp, the epidermal layer being incised to form a spaced pair of slots;
FIG. 3 is a view comparable to FIG. 2, but showing a small hemostat, or forceps, inserted through the slots to grasp one end of the scalp anchor shown in FIG. 1, and elevating the epidermal layer above the subcutaneous tissue preparatory to being withdrawn so as to implant the anchor in the subcutaneous tissue;
FIG. 4 is a view comparable to FIG. 2, but showing the implanted anchor in position;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view, to a greatly enlarged scale, ofa split thickness of skin rolled into tubular configuration;
FIG. 6 is a view comparable to FIG. 1, but with the skin tube of FIG. 5 secured to the anchor;
FIG. 7 is a view comparable to FIG. 4 but with the skin-covered anchor of FIG. 6 in installed position;
FIG. 8 is a view comparable to FIG. 7 but showing the tract, or tunnel, lined with epithelium after removal of the anchor;
FIG. 9 is a view comparable to FIG. 1, but showing a modified form of anchor;
FIG. 10 is a view comparable to FIG. 9 but showing still another modified form of anchor;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view, to a greatly enlarged scale, of a wire clip form of scalp anchor;
FIG. 12 is a top plan view, to a reduced scale, of a scalp in which five tracts have surgically been installed;
FIG. 13 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a scalp tract, to a greatly enlarged scale, taken on the line 1313in FIG. 12, and showing a wire clip form'of anchor located within the tract, the clip being secured to the base fabric of a hairpiece; and,
FIG. 14 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view, at approximately actual size, showing a portion of a hairpiece installed on the scalp with two of the end wire clips oriented in opposite directions and lodged within their respective registering scalp tracts, the plane of the section being indicated by the line 14 14 in FIG. 12.
While the hairpiece scalp anchor of the invention is susceptible of numerous physical embodiments, depending upon the environment, requirements of use and personal preferences of the wearer, substantial numbers of the herein shown and described embodiments have been made and tested with very satisfactory results.
In the somewhat stylized arrangement depicted in FIGS. 1 4, one form of the scalp anchor of the invention, generally designated by the reference numeral 16, includes a shaped elongated strip of subdermal implant material of any suitable make, such as Silastic" manufactured by Dow Corning Corp. of Midland, Mich.
Exemplary approximate dimensions of the FIG. 1 4 scalp anchor are as follows: thickness, l mm; width, 5 mm; overall length (including the length of the two end flanges 17, or tabs), 2.5 cm; length of central web 18, 1.5 cm; length of each tab 17, 5 mm; vertical offset 19 of each tab, 3 mm; and overall height, 5 mm.
In each tab 17 an opening 21 is provided to receive threads (not shown) or other suitable attachment means for securing the anchor 16 to the customary cross-woven fabric base of a hairpiece. The precise manner of attachment of the scalp anchor to the hairpiece can vary considerably and since the attachment, as such, forms no direct part of the present invention, it is not described in detail.
The Silastic scalp anchor 16 shown in FIG. 1 is implanted in the scalp 22 and, more particularly, in the subcutaneous layer 23 of skin covering the skull 24. A spaced pair of incisions 26 is made in the epidermis 27, or outer layer of skin, the incisions being slightly in excess of the 5 mm width of the anchor 16, and being spaced apart approximately 1.5 cm, i.e., the length of the central web 18.
Surgical techniques, including the use of a local anesthetic are rigidly adhered to throughout.
Following the incisions, a pair of forceps 29, or a hemostat, shown to an enlarged scale, for clarity, in FIG. 3, is inserted through one incision and out the other far enough to grip one of the tabs 17. The anchor gripping instrument 29 is thereupon withdrawn and the scalp anchor 16 is released upon reaching the desired implant position, as shown in FIG. 4.
In due time, such as a month to 6 weeks, an epithelial layer of tissue forms around the implant, with the result that a relatively tough enclosure, or tunnel, or tract, for the scalp anchor is provided. The two exposed tabs 17 (see FIG. 4) with the openings 21 therein closely overlie the epidermis and afford a sturdy comfortable attachment for a hairpiece. The interfacial area between the anchor and the encompassing walls of the tract is considerable, thereby reducing the unit pressure imposed by random forces acting on the hairpiece.
The above-described implant process is facilitated, and the tract formed much more quickly, by utilizing a split-thickness skin technique wherein a very small, thin, rectangular sheet of skin, obtained from the users thigh, back, or other appropriate planar skin surface, by well-recognized surgical procedures, is rolled into a flattened tubular configuration, as shown in stylized manner in FIG. 5, and designated by the reference numeral 32.
The split skin tube 32 is wrapped around the anchor 16 so that the epithelial layer 33 is on the outside of the tube in face to face engagement with the central web 18 and the upstanding ends 19 of the anchor. Suture-formed loops 36 secure the tube 32 to the anchor, as shown most clearly in FIG. 6.
Substantially the same technique is employed as in FIGS. 2-4 to lodge the split thickness skin-covered anchor in place, as appears in FIG. 7. Within a very short time, such as 2 or 3 weeks, or so, the implanted tube 32 merges with the surrounding tissues in such a manner that if the Silastic anchor 16 were to be thereafter removed, a tract 37, or tunnel, lined with epithelium 38, would remain, as appears most clearly in FIG. 8.
As is well-recognized, epithelial tissue is relatively tough and moderately insensitive to pain, with the result that appropriately configured scalp anchors of Si-- lastic or other skin-compatible material can be reinserted in the tract 37, at will, with confidence and assurance that the anchor will be securely and comfortably retained in position. An especially strong tract is afforded if the incision is lined with two strips of full thickness skin grafts with the two strips arranged so that the epithelial tissues are face to face.
FIGS. 9 and illustrate variant forms of the Silastic" strip, or band, type of anchor heretofore shown and described, noting that other tissue compatible material can also be used. FIG. 9 shows an anchor 40 with a flange '41, or tab, on each upstanding end portion 42 of the central web 43, the tabs 41 forming symmetrical T-shaped configurations. In each tab there is provided a plurality of apertures 44 to receive threads (not shown), or other attaching means, for securing the hairpiece to the anchor 40. The anchor 46 depicted in FIG. 10 is similar to the form of anchor device shown in FIG. 9 except that the flanges 47 and 48, or tabs, are of different size and are asymmetrically arranged on the respective upstanding portions 51 and 52 of the central web 53. As before, apertures 54 in the tab 47 and apertures 56 in the tabs 48 afford securing points for threads (not shown) fastened to the fabric base of the superposed hairpiece.
FIGS. 11-14 illustrate still another embodiment of the invention wherein a plurality of small, yet tough and resistant sockets 60, or receptacles, is provided in the scalp 59 to receive a plurality of respective cliptype anchors 61.
Each of the sockets 60 is, as before, surgically formed, with the use of a local anesthetic. Either the split skin thickness or the twin full thickness skin graft technique is followed so as to provide, quickly and safely, a plurality of elongated epithelium-lined tracts, or tunnels 62, 63, 64, 65 and 66 (see FIG. 12) oriented so that their axes converge in a location 68 substantially centrally disposed on top of the scalp.
Since most dynamic forces, such as wind and water, tending to dislodge a hairpiece come from the front, more anchor sockets are preferably disposed forward of the transverse center line through the geometrical center 68 than aft thereof.
As appears most clearly in FIG. 11, the removeable, clip-type of anchor 61 includes a tissue-compatible wire 71 which is symmetrical about a fore and aft axis 72. Arranged in substantially parallel relation is a pair of arcuately bowed, side by side, spaced apart, fore and aft portions 76 joining at their recurved forward end 77, the after ends 78 of the bowed wire portions 76 being recurved upwardly and forwardly throughout the portions 80 for approximately one half the length of the bowed portion 76, then flaring laterally outwardly in planar fashion to form a pair of wings 81, or tabs, which overlie, in snug relation, the top of the exposed skin of the scalp, as appears most clearly in FIGS. 13 and 14. The spacing between the portions 76 affords an air channel connecting the tunnel with the outside so that air can circulate into and out of the tunnel.
The bowed parallel wire portions 76 are downwardly concave in side elevation except for the forwardmost end 77 which protrudes somewhat from the tract (see FIGS. 13 and 14) for even greater security against being dislodged by vertical stress components, and can readily be inserted in the respective similarly arcuately bowed tracts previously provided in the scalp by surgical means. I
The divergent wings 81 and the associated arcuately convex portions 80 afford convenient tabs to which threads from the hairpiece base 83, of woven network or fabric material, can be secured.
By orienting all of the sockets 60 toward the central point of convergency 68, and by correspondingly locating and orienting the clip-type anchors 61 on the hairpiece 84, the wearer can readily place the hairpiece in the appropriate location on the scalp so that the individual clips 61 can be inserted in that respective sockets 60. Thereafter, any force tending to slide or otherwise move the hairpiece in any direction along the top of the scalp will encounter effective resistance and opposition from one or more of the anchors. Secure placement of the hairpiece is thereby afforded.
Yet, should the wearer decide to remove the hairpiece for any reason, finger manipulation of the individual clips 61 will readily effect withdrawal of the concavely bowed portions 76 from the respective sockets 60. i
As will be appreciated, the clip form of anchor although readily lending itself to fabrication from stainless steel wire, can also be formed, to advantage, from a stamping, as from thin, stainless steel sheet or strip stock.
It can therefore be seen that I have provided an economical and versatile yet efficient scalp anchor for securely yet releasably retaining a hairpiece.
What is claimed is:
1. In combination with a hairpiece for covering a wearers scalp, an anchor for the hairpiece comprising an elongated clip of wire-like material symmetrical about a fore and aft axis and including a pair of downwardly concave arcuately bowed, side by side, fore and aft, scalp-engageable portions joined at their forward ends, the after ends of the bowed portions recurving upwardly and forwardly for approximately one half the length of the bowed portions then flaring laterally outwardly to form a pair of oppositely extending hairpieceengaging tabs lying in approximately a horizontal comside elevation.
4. The combination as in claim 1 in which there is a plurality of said anchors secured to the hairpiece and in which the individual clips are oriented so that the axes of the side by side portions approximately intersect at the center of the hairpiece.