|Publication number||US3858534 A|
|Publication date||Jan 7, 1975|
|Filing date||Jan 16, 1973|
|Priority date||Jan 16, 1973|
|Publication number||US 3858534 A, US 3858534A, US-A-3858534, US3858534 A, US3858534A|
|Inventors||Roy E Berg|
|Original Assignee||Interstate Utilities Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (14), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Berg 1 1 Jan. 7, 1975 SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING ELECTRIC 3.648.629 3/1972 Southwick 110/8 R 3,747,542 7/1973 Ruoholu 110/8 R POWER AND CONCURRENTLY DISPOSING OF GARBAGE AND REFUSE Inventor: Roy E. Berg, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
Assignee: Interstate Utilities Corporation,
Filed: Jan. 16, 1973 Appl. No.: 324,088
U.S. Cl. 110/8 R, 60/670, 110/10,
122/2 Int. Cl. F23g /00, F22b 33/18 Field of Search 110/8 R, 122/2 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS Primary Examiner-Alan Cohan Assistant ExaminerAllen M. Ostrager Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Howard E. Thompson, Jr.
 ABSTRACT A system is provided for dependably and constantly producing electric power while, at the same time, disposing of garbage and refuse. The system utilizes a low grade fuel oil as a primary heat source and garbage and refuse as a secondary heat source, the two heat sources, or fuels, being fired in a cupola-type furnace wherein all organic matter is completely combusted and all inorganic matter is reduced to a molten state. The hot gases generated from the combustion of the two fuels are utilized as the heat energy to produce steam, which, in turn, provides the energy for producing electric power at a uniform and dependable rate.
14 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures Patented Jafi. 7, 1975 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING ELECTRIC POWER AND CONCURRENTLY DISPOSING OF GARBAGE AND REFUSE This invention relates to a system for constantly and dependably producing electric power through the combustion of primary and secondary heat-fuel sources. The primary heat-fuel source is provided by a low grade fuel oil while the secondary heat-fuel source is provided from garbage and refuse. The production of electric power from these two fuel sources is accomplished by employing a cupola-type furnace wherein the fuels are fired and combusted at extremely high temperatures, and the hot gases generated are utilized to produce electric power. Hence, while this invention in its broader aspect is directed toward a system for producing electric power, it also provides the means for effectively, efficiently and economically disposing of garbage and refuse.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The expression garbage and refuse as used herein refers to and is intended to include, but not be limited to, food scraps, discarded furniture and appliances, brush, leaves and grass, containers manufactured from glass, 'metals, plastics and combinations thereof, rubbish, and the like. Basically, garbage and refuse can be said to comprise organic and inorganic matter whether naturally occurring or synthetically produced. Hence garbage and refuse is inclusive of the abovedescribed materials and the term GAR is employed throughout this application and in the appended claims as an abbreviation of this expression.
Complete and efficient disposal of GAR has become a problem of national concern since the methods presently employed for such disposal create unsanitary conditions, tend to pollute our air and waters, and are generally inefficient, insufficient and uneconomical.
Unsanitary conditions abound when GAR is dumped in exposed land fills as these land fills are known breeding grounds for rats and other disease carrying vermin, not to mention the noxious and unpleasant odors emitted from them into nearby residential areas.
In many areas, incinerators are employed in attempts to dispose of some forms of GAR by combustion. While incinerators are an improvement over land fills, they are not entirely satisfactory since they generally are not capable of disposing of all of the GAR and are, therefore, insufficient and inefficient. In many instances, imcompletely combusted GAR is exhausted into the atmosphere or fed into nearby waters from these incinerators thereby adding to and further compounding the already alarming pollution of our natural environment.
Illustrative of the types of incinerators that have been I proposed for use in the disposal of GAR are those disclosed and described in US. Pat. Nos. 2,033,685 to Coutant; 2,057,450 to Schrenk; and 3,482,533 to Ankersen. These incinerators are generally of complex construction and operation, require separation or comminution of GAR into common type and/or uniform size, operate at temperatures too low to insure complete combustion of all GAR, are not capable of disposing of all GAR, are costly to build and operate, and the like.
More recently, an incinerator has been developed wherein combustion at high temperatures is achieved in a furnace which utilizes oxygen or an oxygen enriched atmosphere. While the high temperatures employed may dispose of more GAR than the incinerators noted above, the use of oxygen or an oxygen enriched atmosphere is hazardous and costly.
In addition to effectively and efficiently disposing of GAR to abate pollution of our air and waters, another problem of ever increasing amplitude confronts us: insufficient electric power. More and more homes and industries are utilizing electricity as their main source of power for heat, refrigeration, light, machinery, appliances, and the like. Coupled with our increasing population, these factors have created an acute shortage of electric power in and around our cities and industrialized areas to the extent that brown outs are frequently predicated by electric utility companies and often become fact. Furthermore, complete electric failure in parts of our country has been experienced and is becoming more common.
THE INVENTION It has now been found that the aforementioned problems and shortcomings can be effectively and efficiently overcome through the system of this invention which not only provides means for the more effective disposal of GAR, but also provides means for producing electric power dependably and constantly at low cost. In general, this system includes means for feeding and firing a low grade fuel in a heat-insulated, cupolatype furnace together with GAR as a secondary fuel source to attain combustion temperatures sufficiently high to completely burn all organic matter and completely melt all inorganic matter comprising the GAR; means for utilizing thehot gases generated in the furnace for producing steam and preheating combustion air; means for utilizing the hot gases generated in the furnace for producing steam and preheating combustion air; means for utilizing the steam to produce electric power; means for cooling and removing noxious gases and particulate solids from the spent gases; and, means for exhausting the cleaned and cooled gases into the atmosphere.
The heart of the new system is a cupola--type furance, with a vertically elongated combustion chamber, having primary fuel and preheated air continuously introduced at the base and hot combustion products continuously discharged at the top to an outer circumferential chamber communicating with steam generating means, while GAR as the secondary fuel is introduced at the upper central portion of the combustion chamber, at a point below the combustion products discharge.
Since GAR generally has a heat value of only about 5,000 BTU per pound, it burns at a low temperature of only about 1500F., about 300F. higher than that of a burning cigarette. Consequently, when GAR is burned in presently employed incinerators, there is incomplete combustion as is readily evidenced by the significantly large amounts of carbon particles which issue from the exhaust stacks of these incinerators which often includes charred pieces of paper with legible printing still visible. This incomplete combustion also results in the accumulation and production of'large volumes of ash and residue which must be disposed of and which can amount to from about l5 to 25 percent by weight of the total amount of GAR incinerated per day. However, by employing a low grade oil having a heat value of about 150,000 BTU per gallon, such as number 6 bunker oil, as the primary fuel source, together with proper amounts of GAR, temperatures of the order of about 3000F. and higher are attained. These high temperatures are achieved by utilizing the fuels at a ratio of 55-60 percent fuel oil to 40-45 percent GAR, the ratio being computed on the basis of the heat value of the fuel oil and the GAR. This proportion of fuel oil to GAR, based upon their heat values, results in an overall BTU value on the order of about 13,500 BTU or higher per pound of total fuel; that is, fuel oil plus GAR.
At these temperatures which are in excess of 3,000F., all organic GAR is completely combusted while all inorganic GAR is melted. It should be appreciated that since the rate of combustion varies as the square of the temperature, the rate of combustion at temperatures of about 3,000F. is four times faster than at temperatures of about 1500F..
' While the invention, in one sense, can be viewed as providing a system for the complete disposal of all GAR, in its broadest sense it should be viewed as providing a system for producing-electric power wherein part of the fuel used to generate'the necessary heat energy is. obtained from the combustion of GAR.
Details of the invention will become more apparent from the following description when considered together with the accompanying drawings wherein a typical embodiment of the invention hasbeen illustrated with the various parts thereof identified by suitable reference characters in the several views, and wherein:
V FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic plan view illustrating a typical system for producing electric power while disposing of GAR utilizing the principles of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic elevation view of the system shownin FIG. 1 as generally viewed in the direction of line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an elevation view in cross-section of the furnace and adjoining structures of the invention, certain structural details being eliminated and other emphasized for greater clarity;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view substantially on the line 44 of FIG. 3 showing a typical arrangement of circumferentially spaced fuel feeds; and
FIG. 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially on the line 55 of FIG. 4 showing further details of the fuel feed'system.
The embodiment of the invention shown in the various Figs. of the drawing is illustrative of a system capable of handling the disposal of GAR for communities of 300,000 to 350,000 persons, and is capable of reliably producing 70,000 KW of electric power per day which is about sufficient to supply the present needs of a city having a population of about 100,000 to 150,000 people. In the ensuing description, therefore, all amounts, sizes, dimensions, and the like, are related to a 70,000 KW system and this should be borne in mind when considering the embodiment being illustrated as these specifications will naturally have to be adjusted to accommodate larger or smaller systems.
As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the system of the invention lies at the center of a U-shaped roadway comprising an inclined entrance ramp 10, an elevated, central unloading area 11, and a downgraded exit ramp 12. A weighthouse station 13 to supervise several scales 14 can be located at the beginning of entrance ramp to weigh loaded trucks delivering GAR. It should be noted in this connection that the 70,000 KW system should consume about 1,000 to 1,500 tons of GAR per day.
' Adjacent platform 11. is a large storage bin 15 into which GAR can be dumped and held. Transfer of GAR from bin 15 to a hopper 16 from which GAR is fed to the top of cupola furnace 17 can be accomplished by the use of several overhead cranes (not shown).
The size of bin 15 can suitably be about 400 X 50 X 50 feet to assure an adequate supply of GAR while unloading area 11 should be atleast 45 feet wide to assure that the trucks delivering and dumping the GAR have sufficient room to maneuver. 4
A heat-insulated chamber and steam superheater 18 at the base of furnace 17 serves to deliver hot gases generated in furnace 17 to a high pressure steam boiler 19. The gases then pass through a heat exchange unit 20 for preheating combustion air, then through a scrubber 21, and ultimately are exhausted into the air through stack 22.
By means of suitable conduits the steam generated at steam boiler 19 is delivered to conventional steam turbines and alternator means housed at 23 capable of producing, in this case, 70,000'KW of electric power per day. Delivery of the electric power output can be controlled by means of switchgear and transformers housed as at 24. Space for housing administrative and staff personnel, and other. facilities including a central control room and offices can be provided centrally of the system as at 25. v
As the components from the steam boiler 19 to the switch and transformer gear 24 are all conventional components of a steam-powered electricity generating installation, little further need to be said about the details of these components. The air preheater 20 is provided with a suitable blower 26 for picking up atmospheric air and, after being heated to about 350F., delivering the same through conduit 27 to the base of the furnace 17. Flow of air through the conduit can be controlled byvalve means 27a and/or by varying the speed of the blower 26.
The scrubber 21 which serves both to remove suspended particles from the gas stream and to further reduce the temperature to a safe exhaust temperature, preferably below about 200F., requires substantial quantities of water which for economic and environmental reasons may preferably be re-used. The system is therefore provided with 2 settling ponds 28 and 29, suitably measuring about 300 feet in length, feet in width, and 25 feet deep, which can be installed above, partially above, or below ground level, and which are equipped with conventional settling pond clarifiers diagrammatically indicated in dotted line at 30 and 31.
In the setup of the type described, and with the system in operation, water from one of the settling ponds will be recirculated through the scrubber 21 at the rate of about 150,000 gals/day for three consecutive days while the other pond remains dormant to permit cooling and the settling out of solids for removal at the end of the 3-day period. By alternately switching the active and dormant status of settling ponds 28 and 29 after each 3-day or other appropriate interval an adequate supply of appropriate clear water is assured for proper operation of the scrubber.
Various industrial scrubbers of the type used in industries such as iron and steel making, coke production, oil refining, and the like, can be used in the system herein disclosed. An improved type of scrubber particularly suited for use in the new system has been disclosed in my pending application, Ser. No. 262,317
filed June 13, 1972. The scrubber disclosed in said application employs a close packing of vertical tubes, uniquely mounted for easy replacement or repair, in which an upward flow of water for discharge at the top of the tubes provides a continuous and constantly changing coating of water externally of the tubes for intimate contact with a gas stream passing through the scrubber.
The heart of the new system for effectively disposing of GAR while at the same time providing a constant and dependable source of elelctric power is the cupolatype furnace 17 for which the GAR provides only a secondary fuel and the primary fuel is either gas or an economical grade of fuel oil. In FIG. -1 there has been shown at 32 a large submerged storage tank for providing an adequate reserve of fuel oil.
As shown in FIGS. 3, 4 and 5 the furnace 17 com prises a vertically elongated and generally cylindrical combustion chamber 33, the wall structure 34 of which corresponds generally with that of a steel blast furnace with the inner surface being lined with fire brick or other refractory material capable of withstanding temperatures of the order of 3500F. which will be encountered within the combustion chamber 33. The lower portion of the wall structure 34 is provided with a plurality of circumferentially and vertically spaced appertures or tuyeres 35 through which preheated air through conduit 27 entering the annular bustle-like chamber 36 is fed to the combustion chamber 33.v The upper portion of wall structure 34 is also provided with the plurality of circumferentially and vertically spaced appertures or tuyeres 37 through which high temperature combustion products pass the combustion chamber 33 to an outer chamber 38 enclosed by annular wall structure 39 having an enlarged opening 40 on one side thereof registering with chamber 18 leading to the steam boiler. Chamber 38 is separated from the bustlelike chamber 36 by a transverse wall or partition 39a and it will be apparent that the upper surface of the partition 39a and the inner surface of the wall 39 should be lined with fire brick or other suitable refractory material to withstand the high temperatures of combustion products passing through the chamber 38.
Primary fuel is introduced to the combustion chamber 33 through a feed line 41 which, as more clearly shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 divides after entering the bustle-like chamber 36 into curved branches 42, 42a which extend around the major portion of the circumference of the wall structure 34. At circumferentially spaced points along the divided fuel line 42, 42a are divided nozzle units 32 (six such circumferentially spaced units being shown) with each unit having a horizontally oriented nozzle 44, an upwardly oriented nozzle 45, and a downwardly oriented nozzle 46 as generally shown in FIG. 5 of the drawing. Coupling means 47 may be provided to facilitate individual attachment and detachment of the angularly disposed nozzles 45 and 46.
The top of furnace I7 is provided with a domed enclosure 48 having a generally cylindrical wall portion 49, having at one side thereof a trap door 50 pivotally mounted at the upper end thereof at 51 through which GAR is fed to the furnace. An annular wall portion 52 of the domed enclosure 48, extends between wall structures 34 and 39 to provide a top closure for the chamber 38, and having a lower surface protected by fire brick or other refractory material in the manner previously described. The annular wall portion 52 is integrally joined to a central downward tapered orfunnellike portion 53 which in turn joins an elongated and generally cylindrical extension 54 providing a feed passage 55 through which GAR introduced to the enclosure 48 is guided into the combustion chamber 33 at a point substantially below the tuyeres 37. The external wall structure of the extension 54 and tapered portion 53 must be formed of tire brick or other refractory material as protection against the hot combustion products passing to the tuyeres 37.
It will be understood in this connection that the downward flow of GAR through the chamber 55 and the substantial seal of the enclosure 48 provided at the trap door 50 will minimize or substantially eliminate flow of combustion from the chamber 33 into the passage 53.
The upper portion of furnace 17 is provided with a protruding structure 56 extending partially over storage bin 15 supporting the feed hopper l6 and feed mechanism 57 for forcing GAR through the trap door 50. While various feed mechanisms can be employed, the mechanism 57 has been diagrammatically illustrated as comprising a hydraulic cylinder driving a piston 58 having an elongated skirt 59 at the upper portion thereof to close off the bottom of the hopper 16 when the piston is advanced. The weight of the door 50 and the pressure applied to the piston 58 are such as to leave a compressed plug of GAR 60 when the piston 58 is retracted to the position shown in FIG. 3. This compressed plug of GAR acts to supplement the door 50 in sealing the enclosure 48 and prevent entrance of combustion products into the enclosure 48.
It should be understood that the size and configuration of hopper 16 has been shown diagrammatically and can be varied in any manner desired to accommodate the required feed of GAR. It will also be understood that while a single feed mechanism 57 has been shown it may be practical in some instances to provide two or more such mechanisms functioning alternately or in sequence to provide the desired quantity and uniformity of GAR feed.
As GAR which is fed to enclosure 48 drops through the passage 54 into the combustion chamber 33 its downward flow is slowed by the upward flow of combustion products, the temperature of which is so great that much of the GAR will be completely consumed before it can reach the level of the tuyeres 35. For example, all cellulosic and plastic materials should undergo complete combustion before reaching the level of the tuyeres 35, and metal, glass and ceramic objects should be partially or completely melted, depending on their size. Such materials will fall into a molten pool having an upper level 61 which is below the level of tuyeres 35 tory material 66, in accordance with practices well-' known in the steel and other metalworing arts.
While combustion products are prevented as above described from entering the enclosure 48, it will be apparent that this entire enclosure, located as it is directly above the combustion chamber, will be substantially GAR will be accomplished as it passes through enclosure 48 and downwardly through the cylindrical extension 54. This preheating and partial drying of combustible components of the GAR makes possible the substantially complete combustion of combustible items in their downward fall through the flame in the combustion chamber.
Any combustible items which reach the surface 61 of the molten pool will simply float on the surface until they are completely consumed.
In the combustion of GAR as above described, a certain amount of fly-ash will be carried out of the combustion chamber 33 into the outer chamber 38, and thence through the opening 40 to the structures 19 and 20 housing, the boiler and air preheater. In order to facilitate settling out and removal of such fly-ash a plurality of transverse baffles 67 are provided in the assemblage, two being shown in the drawing and adjacent bottom appertures 68 on the downstreamside of the baffles registering with individual or collective ducts 69 for ash removal through trap door or closure means 70.
In the operation of the GAR disposal and power generating system as herein described, it -is important to have a substantial excess of preheated air for complete combustion of both primary fuel'and GAR, and smooth operation of the system to provide a uniform power output will depend on constant and proper adjustment of several variables. These includes the rate of feed of GAR, the selection of the type of GAR to feed with a particular feed of primary fuel, and adjustment of the rate of feed of primary fuel to different types of GAR being supplied to the furnace. With respect to the type of GAR available, there will be inherent seasonal changes as between moist garden refuse in the spring and the summer versus dry garden refuse in the fall. There can also be day-to-day fluctuation depending on the nature of GAR being generated in surrounding areas and the schedule of pickups therefrom. Skill in the supervision of loading GAR into the storage bin and delivery of GAR to the hopper 16 will therefore be important in regulating the composition and heat content of the GAR being charged to the furnace.
It will be recognized, however, that with the primary fuel at all times providing the major heat source for producing steam and generating power, prompt and frequent variation in the feed of primary fuel can adjust to the variation in heat being supplied by the combustion of GAR; and if for any reason the feed of GAR to the furnace was interrupted by mechanical breakdown or by a cutoff of supply, as during a strike, the system can operate by the combustion of the primary fuel alone to maintain the uniform power output which the system is intended to supply. This ability to guarantee a constant power output regardless of fluctuations and possible cutoffs in the supply of GAR lends unusual practicability to the system because we are in equal need of means for effectively disposing of large quantities of GAR and providing guaranteed sources of uniform electric power.
Various changes and modifications in the GAR disposal and power generating system as herein disclosed may occur to those skilled in the art, and to the extent that such changes and modifications are embraced by the appended claims, it is to be understood that they constitute part of the present invention.
1. A GAR (Garbage and Refuse) disposal means capable of providing a dependable heat output over wide variations in the nature of the GAR supplied thereto, said GAR disposal means comprising a vertically elongated cupola-type furnace; means for feeding combustion air and a primaryfluid fuel at the base of said furnace; means for feeding GAR at the top, of said furnace; means for receiving said GAR and guiding it axially of said combustion chamber, means at one side of said furnace for discharging hot gaseous combustion products therefrom; means for guiding hot gaseous combustion products first as a central upward flow in thermal contact with at least a part of said means for receiving said GAR and guiding it axially of said combustion chamber, and then as an outer downward flow commu nicating with said side discharge; means at the bottom of said furnace for removing in the molten state noncombustible residue from said GAR; and, means for individually varying the feeds of said primary fuel, combustion air, andGAR to provide substantial uniformity in the heat content of the gaseous combustion products discharged from said furnace.
2. The GAR disposal means of claim 1 wherein said furnace comprises a generally cylindrical inner shell of refractory material defining a combustion chamber; an outer generally concentric shell spaced from said inner shell; transverse partition means between said inner and outer shells to form a bustle-like inlet air chamber at the lower portion of said furnace and a hot gaseous combustion products chamber at the upper portion of said furnace; a plurality of circumferentially and vertically spaced tuyeres at the lower portion of said inner shell establishing communication between said inlet air chamber and said combustion chamber; a plurality of circumferentially and vertically spaced tuyeres at the upper portion of said inner shell establishing communication between said combustion chamber and said hot gaseous combustion products chamber; and, one side of said outer shell having an enlarged opening adjacent said partition means providing for discharge of said hot gaseous combustion products.
3. The GAR disposal means of claim 2 wherein said furnace includes a domed structure at the upper portion thereof providing a GAR receiving chamber, and said means for guiding the feed of GAR axially of said combustion chamber being located at the lower portion of said GAR receiving chamber.
4. The GAR disposal means of claim 3 wherein said guiding means is of funnel-like contour extending downwardly into said combustion chamber to a point below the lowermost of said upper tuyeres.
5. The GAR disposal means of claim 3 wherein at least one trap door is provided in said domed enclosure through which GAR is introduced to said GAR receiving chamber and mechanical means is provided for the pressure feeding of GAR through said trap door.
6. The GAR disposal means of claim 5 wherein said mechanical means is spaced from said trap door such as to assure maintenance of a compressed plug of GAR externally of said trap door, said compressed plug of GAR providing a supplementary seal to said domed enclosure.
7. The GAR disposal means of claim 2 wherein a feed line for said primary fluid fuel is arranged within said bustle-like chamber and disposed to introduce said primary fuel to said combustion chamber through said plurality of circumferentially and vertically spaced lower tuyeres.
8. The GAR disposal means of claim 7 wherein said fuel feed line at each circumferentially spaced location is divided into three separate feeds passing through said vertically spaced tuyeres.
9. The GAR disposal means of claim 8 wherein each of said circumferentially spaced sets of fuel feeds include a horizontally disposed feed, an upper and upwardly directed feed and a lower and downwardly direction feed.
10. The GAR disposal means of claim 2 wherein the portion of said inner shell below said lower tuyers forms a reservoir for collecting non-combustible resi due of said GAR in a molten state as stratified layers comprising an upper molten ceramic layer and a lower molten metal layer, said reservoir having vertically spaced discharge means for separately withdrawing therefrom said molten ceramic and metal layers.
11. A GAR disposal means as defined in claim 1 wherein said means for discharging hot gaseous combustion products communicates directly with steam generating means.
12. A GAR disposal means as defined in claim 11 wherein said steam generating means includes means for the collecting and removing of particled materials entrained in said hot gaseous combustion products.
13. A GAR disposal means as defined in claim 11 wherein said steam generating means includes means for preheating combustion air supplied to said furnace.
14. A combination power generating and GAR disposal means characterized as providing a uniform dependable power output over wide variations in the nature of the GAR supplied thereto, said combination power generating and GAR disposal means comprising a vertically elongated cupola-type furnace; means for feeding combustion air and a primary fluid fuel at the base of said furnace; means for feeding GARat the top of said furnace; means for receiving said GAR and guiding it axially of said combustion chamber; means at one side of said furnace for discharging hot gaseous combustion products therefrom; means for guiding hot gaseous combustion products first as a central upward flow in thermal contact with at least a part of said means for receiving said GAR and guiding it axially of said combustion chamber, and then as an outer downward flow communicating with said side discharge; means at the bottom of said furnace for removing in the molten state non-combustible residue from said GAR; means for individually varying the feeds of said primary fuel, combustion air, and GAR to provide substantial uniformity in the heat content of the gaseous combustion products discharged from said furnace; and said means for discharging hot gaseous combustion products communicating directly with the steam generating means feeding steam turbine and alternator means of an electric power generating installation.
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|U.S. Classification||110/234, 60/670, 110/243, 122/2|
|International Classification||F23G5/46, F23G5/24, F23G5/08|
|Cooperative Classification||F23G5/24, F23G5/085, F23G5/46, Y02E20/12|
|European Classification||F23G5/24, F23G5/46, F23G5/08C|