|Publication number||US3859504 A|
|Publication date||Jan 7, 1975|
|Filing date||Apr 6, 1973|
|Priority date||Apr 6, 1972|
|Also published as||DE2316707A1, DE2316707B2, DE2316707C3|
|Publication number||US 3859504 A, US 3859504A, US-A-3859504, US3859504 A, US3859504A|
|Inventors||Masaharu Fukushima, Yutaka Motokawa|
|Original Assignee||Kureha Chemical Ind Co Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (63), Classifications (24)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 1 1111 3,859,504 Motokawa et al. Jan. 7, 1975 [5 MOISTURE RESISTANT PANEL HEATER 3,584,198 6/1971 Doi et al. 1. 338/212 X 3,627,981 12/1971 Kuhn .1 338/210 X [751 Invemorsi 3,657,516 4/1972 Fujihara 219/345 9 1 Japan FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 731 Assignees; Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki 1,267,248 6/1961 France... 219/345 i y ki 866,938 4/l958 Great Br1ta1n 2l9/345 Kabushiki Kaisha, Osaka, Japan Primary ExaminerJ, V. Truhe  Flled 1973 Assistant Examiner-Clifford C. Shaw  Appl. No.: 348,786 Attorney, Agent, or FirmSughrue, Rothwell, Mion,
Zinn & Macpeak  Foreign Application Priority Data Apr. 6, 1972 Japan 47-34698 ABSTRACT A panel heater comprising a heat-generating element  CI 4 4 5 formed of a sheet of carbon fiber-containing paper I 3 8/212 33 ,25 3 B g 28 and electrodes at ,both ends, layers ofa synthetic resin g i and then aluminum foils laminated successively 0n [5 1 g both surfaces of said sheet of paper, and sheets of a 3 lzlz 3 3 synthetic resin further laminated on both surfaces of 219/528 541 the aluminum foils. Electricity can be passed to the electrodes of the heat-generating element with good  References CIted insulation.
UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,422,130 7/1922 Reynolds 338/329 x 3 Clam, 3 Drawmg Flgures ,fish culture.
MOISTURE rdtsrsrANr PANEL HEATER BACKGROIIND or THE INVENTION l. Fieldof the Invention This invention relates to a panel heater for use in water or in a wet condition, especially in a fish tank for 2. Description of the Prior Art The panel heater for such purposes must meet a number of requirements, among which are;
I. It shouldhave an output suited for the particular size of the water tank, and be free from current leakage.
2.,Its surfacetemperature should not be too high (watt density).
3. It should not be corroded by sea water.
4'. There should be no change in the resistance of the heat-generating element with the passage of time, and the element should generate a constant amount of heat.
5. The outer sheath of the heater should not burn when exposed to air. I
6. The size of the heater should be moderate and easy to withdraw from the tank.
The conventional underwater heater which has a metal surface-has a high watt density and a surface temperature of more than 200C, and its temperature gradient in a water tank is steep.,Therefore, it is unsuitable for fish culture. Furthermore, the metal coating on the surface is especially heavily corroded in a fish tank for sea fish, and can be used only for a short duration of time. I
Commercially available vinyl resin coated wires are sometimes used as a heater for a fish tank. Officially,
with laminated layers of synthetic resin films on both sides suffer from an increase in the resistance of the heating element by the influence of moisture which has permeated through the films as time passes, and a decrease in output cannot be avoided. Furthermore, when the heaters of this type are connected in water to an alternating current source, the worker standing on the ground feels leaked current when putting his hand into the water, although the leakage does not affect the fish in the tank. According to the Law for Regulating Electric Appliances, the leaked current should be less than 1 mA. Experiments show that in order to adjust the leaked current to less lmA, the maximum area of the panel heater should be restricted to 700cm and its output should be adjusted to less than 140 W. With such a panel heater, it is impossible to maintain a water tank having a capacity of 300 to 500 liters at a moderate temperature of to 28C.
SUMMARY. OF THE INVENTION The present invention Provides a panel heater containing a carbon fiber-containing paper as a heating element, which is free from the above-mentioned defects as an underwater heater.
The main object of this invention is to provide an underwater heater for maintaining a fish tank for sea fish culture at a moderate temperature, which is safe and usable for prolonged periods of time, that is, to reduce leakage of current by incorporating aluminum foil in a panel heater, and to prevent a change of the resistance of the heating element with the passage of time.
Still another object is to prevent the leakage of current at the current passing part of a panel heater.
- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a plan view showing the structure ofa moisture resistant panel heater of this invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of a part of the panel heater shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is a partly sectional plan view showing the current passing part of the panel heater of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The structure of the panel heater of this invention will be described by reference to the accompanying drawings.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown a panel heater consisting of a heating element 1, layers 2 and 2' of a synthetic resin such as polyethylene, aluminum foils 3 and 3', layers 4 and 4' of the above-mentioned synthetic resin, outer layers 5 and 5 of a synthetic resin such as a polyester, electrodes 6 and 6, and conducting wires 7 and 7' for passing electricity. Specifically. on both surfaces of the heating element 1 consisting of a sheet of carbon fiber-containing paper and electrodes 6 and 6 made, for example, of a copper wire gauze I connected to both ends of the paper sheet are laminated the synthetic resin layers 2 and 2. On both surfaces of the resin layers, the aluminum foils 3 and 3' are then laminated. Furthermore, on both surfaces of the.
aluminum foils, the synthetic resin layers such as polyethylene 4 and 4 and then the synthetic resin sheets such as polyester 5 and 5' are laminated successively. The heating element 1 is adapted to be heated by passing electricity through the electrodes 6 and 6.
For example, when the panel heater is used in water or in a wet condition, it is necessary to take measures for preventing current leakage at terminals leading to the heating element in water or in a wet condition, as shown in FIG. 3. An extension of the electrode 6 of the panel heater is soldered to a core 10 of an exteriorly insulated conductor, and a polyethylene insulating layer ll of the conductor is laminated by hot pressing to the polyethylene layer2 and 2 which is an interlayer of the synthetic resinportion of the above-heating element. Then, a part of a polyvinyl chloride sheath 8 of the conductor is brought into contact with the edge 12 of the above laminated synthetic resin Sand 5, and then, both of them are wrapped in contact with each other in a cloth, such as a felt or flannel I3, impregnated with an epoxy resin, and by curing the epoxy resin the, terminal portions of thepanel heater are completed.
By this construction, the impermeability of the aluminum foils serves to avoid an increase in the resistance of the carbon fiber-containing paper, and hence a decrease inoutput. Furthermore, the presence of the aluminum foils contributes to the reduction of leaked current to about one-third as compared with a panel heater which does not include aluminum foils. Thus, the area of the panel heater can be increased by about three times.
The panel heater of this invention produces output suitable for a given fish culture tank, and is free from current leakage and corrosion by sea water. It also prevents changes in the resistance of the heating element with the passage of time, and also burning of the outer layer during heat generation in air. It is flexible and can be formed into any desired shape, and moreover, a suitable temperature gradient in the fish tank can be provided by its suitable surface temperature. Thus, the panel heater of this invention can be effectively used with safety not only in water but also ina wet environment. v
What we claim is: g
l. A moisture resistant panel heater comprisinga heating element consisting of a carbon fiber-containing paper sheet and electrodes on two opposite ends thereof, a layer of polyethylene laminated to both surfaces of said heating element, a layer of aluminum foil laminated to both outer surfaces of the polyethylene layers, sheets of a synthetic resin laminated to both outer surfaces of said aluminum foils, and further comprising extended portions of said electrodes soldered to a core of an insulated conductor having a polyethylene vlaminated to both outer surfaces of the polyethylene layers, .a polyethylene layer laminated to both outer surfaces of said aluminum foils, and polyester sheets laminated to both outer surfaces of the last-mentioned polyethylene layers, and further comprising extended portions of said electrodes soldered to a core of an insulated conductor having a polyethylene insulating layer and an outer sheath, said polyethylene insulating layer of said conductor being melt-bonded to said firstmentioned polyethylene layers, and a felt impregnated insulating layer and an outer sheath, said polyethylene insulating layer of said conductor melt-bonded to said polyethylene layers, and a felt impregnated with an with an epoxy resin which is cured, said felt holding an edge of the outer synthetic resin layers of said heater and the outer sheath of said conductor.
3. The panel heater of claim 1 wherein said electrodes are made of a copper wire guaze.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1422130 *||Feb 18, 1921||Jul 11, 1922||Woolridge Reynolds Robert||Electrical heater resistance element|
|US3584198 *||Feb 25, 1969||Jun 8, 1971||Matsushita Electric Works Ltd||Flexible electric surface heater|
|US3627981 *||Nov 5, 1969||Dec 14, 1971||Kabel Metallwerke Ghh||Areal heating element|
|US3657516 *||Oct 30, 1970||Apr 18, 1972||Kansai Hoon Kogyo Kk||Flexible panel-type heating unit|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4119836 *||Jul 21, 1977||Oct 10, 1978||Kakogawa Plastics Kabushiki Kaisha||Heat-controlled doctor knife|
|US4242573 *||Jan 24, 1979||Dec 30, 1980||Raychem Corporation||Water immersible heater|
|US4250398 *||Mar 3, 1978||Feb 10, 1981||Delphic Research Laboratories, Inc.||Solid state electrically conductive laminate|
|US4314231 *||Apr 21, 1980||Feb 2, 1982||Raychem Corporation||Conductive polymer electrical devices|
|US4442139 *||Dec 11, 1979||Apr 10, 1984||Raychem Corporation||Elements comprising fibrous materials|
|US4471212 *||Dec 21, 1981||Sep 11, 1984||Armstrong World Industries, Inc.||Light weight thin buckle-resistant ceiling heating panel|
|US4534886 *||Jan 15, 1981||Aug 13, 1985||International Paper Company||Non-woven heating element|
|US4547659 *||Dec 5, 1983||Oct 15, 1985||Raychem Corporation||PTC Heater assembly|
|US4560428 *||Aug 20, 1984||Dec 24, 1985||Rockwell International Corporation||System and method for producing cured composites|
|US4673801 *||Jun 28, 1985||Jun 16, 1987||Raychem Corporation||PTC heater assembly|
|US4719335 *||May 19, 1987||Jan 12, 1988||Raychem Corporation||Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions|
|US4761541 *||May 19, 1987||Aug 2, 1988||Raychem Corporation||Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions|
|US4777351 *||May 20, 1987||Oct 11, 1988||Raychem Corporation||Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions|
|US5138134 *||Dec 22, 1988||Aug 11, 1992||Ellison Mearl E||Decorative wall hanging heater|
|US5155800 *||Feb 27, 1991||Oct 13, 1992||Process Technology Inc.||Panel heater assembly for use in a corrosive environment and method of manufacturing the heater|
|US5451351 *||Sep 13, 1991||Sep 19, 1995||Composite Components, Inc.||Method for rehabilitating a pipe with a liner having an electrically conductive layer|
|US5605418 *||Sep 20, 1993||Feb 25, 1997||Taisei Home Engineering Kabushiki Kaisha||Road snow melting system using a surface heating element|
|US5925275 *||Oct 2, 1997||Jul 20, 1999||Alliedsignal, Inc.||Electrically conductive composite heater and method of manufacture|
|US5932124 *||Apr 19, 1996||Aug 3, 1999||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, or countertop surface|
|US5942140 *||Aug 22, 1996||Aug 24, 1999||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating the surface of an antenna dish|
|US5954977 *||Apr 19, 1996||Sep 21, 1999||Thermion Systems International||Method for preventing biofouling in aquatic environments|
|US5966501 *||Apr 19, 1996||Oct 12, 1999||Themion Systems International||Method for controlling the viscosity of a fluid in a defined volume|
|US5981911 *||Apr 19, 1996||Nov 9, 1999||Thermicon Systems International||Method for heating the surface of a food receptacle|
|US6004418 *||Oct 28, 1997||Dec 21, 1999||Lear Corporation||Method of joining a cover material to a substrate utilizing electrically conductive bonding|
|US6015965 *||May 13, 1999||Jan 18, 2000||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, roof, or countertop surface|
|US6018141 *||Apr 19, 1996||Jan 25, 2000||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a tooling die|
|US6087630 *||Dec 7, 1999||Jul 11, 2000||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, roof, or countertop surface|
|US6145787 *||May 20, 1998||Nov 14, 2000||Thermion Systems International||Device and method for heating and deicing wind energy turbine blades|
|US6420682 *||Nov 3, 2000||Jul 16, 2002||Newhome Bath & Mirror, Inc.||Fogless mirror for a bathroom shower and bathtub surround|
|US6432344||Nov 4, 1998||Aug 13, 2002||Watlow Polymer Technology||Method of making an improved polymeric immersion heating element with skeletal support and optional heat transfer fins|
|US6483087||Dec 8, 2000||Nov 19, 2002||Thermion Systems International||Thermoplastic laminate fabric heater and methods for making same|
|US6516142||Feb 12, 2001||Feb 4, 2003||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Internal heating element for pipes and tubes|
|US6519835||Aug 18, 2000||Feb 18, 2003||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Method of formable thermoplastic laminate heated element assembly|
|US6541744 *||Feb 12, 2001||Apr 1, 2003||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Packaging having self-contained heater|
|US6748646||Feb 21, 2002||Jun 15, 2004||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Method of manufacturing a molded heating element assembly|
|US7131739||Apr 8, 2004||Nov 7, 2006||Newhome Bath And Mirror, Inc.||Fogless mirror|
|US8058194||May 30, 2008||Nov 15, 2011||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs|
|US8172982||Dec 22, 2008||May 8, 2012||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs and process for making same|
|US8334226||May 28, 2009||Dec 18, 2012||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs containing electrical pathways and method for making same|
|US8372766||Jul 31, 2007||Feb 12, 2013||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs|
|US8697934||Jul 31, 2007||Apr 15, 2014||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Sensor products using conductive webs|
|US8866052||May 28, 2009||Oct 21, 2014||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Heating articles using conductive webs|
|US9327923||Nov 17, 2014||May 3, 2016||Quintin S. Marx||Portable heated ramp and method|
|US20020038801 *||Feb 12, 2001||Apr 4, 2002||Keith Laken||Formable thermoplastic laminate heating tray assembly suitable for heating frozen food|
|US20030136078 *||Jan 22, 2003||Jul 24, 2003||Hugo Brown||Thermal insulation|
|US20030199947 *||Nov 13, 2002||Oct 23, 2003||Gardner Alan D.||Thermoplastic laminate fabric heater and methods for making same|
|US20040056020 *||Sep 19, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Heated patient positioning device for a medical apparatus|
|US20040257656 *||Apr 8, 2004||Dec 23, 2004||Sellgren Reid C.||Fogless mirror|
|US20050098684 *||Mar 14, 2003||May 12, 2005||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Polymer-encapsulated heating elements for controlling the temperature of an aircraft compartment|
|US20060186110 *||Feb 22, 2005||Aug 24, 2006||Mark Campello||Electric heater with resistive carbon heating elements|
|US20070172215 *||Jan 20, 2006||Jul 26, 2007||Charves Chang||Far infrared heater|
|US20070181565 *||Jan 9, 2007||Aug 9, 2007||Ichikoh Industries, Ltd.||Parts for vehicles and line heater unit for snow-melting structure part thereof|
|US20090036012 *||Jul 31, 2007||Feb 5, 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide,Inc.||Conductive webs|
|US20090036015 *||May 30, 2008||Feb 5, 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive Webs|
|US20090036850 *||Jul 31, 2007||Feb 5, 2009||Davis-Dang Nhan||Sensor products using conductive webs|
|US20090294435 *||May 28, 2009||Dec 3, 2009||Davis-Dang Hoang Nhan||Heating Articles Using Conductive Webs|
|US20090321238 *||May 28, 2009||Dec 31, 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive Webs Containing Electrical Pathways and Method For Making Same|
|US20100155006 *||Dec 22, 2008||Jun 24, 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive Webs and Process For Making Same|
|EP0030479A1 *||Dec 10, 1980||Jun 17, 1981||RAYCHEM CORPORATION (a California corporation)||Conductive element and process for making the same|
|EP0223444A2 *||Oct 27, 1986||May 27, 1987||COLLINS & AIKMAN CORPORATION||Electrical heating pad with antistatic surface|
|EP0223444A3 *||Oct 27, 1986||Feb 22, 1989||COLLINS & AIKMAN CORPORATION||Electrical heating pad with antistatic surface|
|WO1979000705A1 *||Mar 5, 1979||Sep 20, 1979||Delphic Res Labor||Solid state electrically conductive laminate|
|WO1991011891A1 *||Jan 24, 1991||Aug 8, 1991||Hastings Otis||Electrically conductive laminate for temperature control of surfaces|
|U.S. Classification||219/528, 392/503, 392/448, 219/549, 338/255, 338/314, 338/212, 338/329|
|International Classification||H05B3/30, H05B3/22, A61B6/04, H05B3/20, A01K63/06, H05B3/06, H05B3/14, H05B3/78|
|Cooperative Classification||H05B3/06, H05B3/30, A61B6/045, H05B3/145|
|European Classification||A61B6/04A10, H05B3/30, H05B3/14G, H05B3/06|