US 3860219 A
A process for manually mixing batches of cement wherein a pliable bag is converted from the common use as a container for holding dry cement into a means for feasibly mixing said cement and water in quantities intermediate those that can be vigorously shaken by hand and those that require mechanical means due to substantial weight. In other words, a process adapted to be used for batches ranging in weight from 10 to 100 pounds but not necessarily limited to that range. A process that comprises the steps of placing a pliable bag on a flat surface such as the ground; filling said bag with the proper ratio of cement and water; closing said bag and trapping air within in a manner wherein said air will support said bag from within causing it to form an ellipsoid, which, generally defined as ball shaped, will readily lend itself to being rolled about on the ground thereby mixing the cement and water.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Unite Nickerson, Jr.
States atent PROCESS FOR MANUALLY MIXING CEMENT  Inventor: Bryan W. Nickerson, Jr., 200 Lore Ave., Wilmington, Del. 19809  Filed: Nov. 20, 1969  Appl. No.: 878,467
 US. Cl 259/146, 206/47 A, 259/72  Int. Cl. B28c 3/00  Field of Search 259/145, 146, 147, 148,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,828,858 4/1958 Tooke 206/47 A 2,863,305 12/1958 Shepherd..... 206/47 A 3,144,242 8/1964 Retzlaff 259/148 3,389,893 6/1968 Arcuri 259/146 3,419,258 12/1968 Ritchie..... 206/47 A 3,473,789 10/1969 Dietrich 259/175 Primary ExaminerRobert W. Jenkins  ABSTRACT A process for manually mixing batches of cement wherein a pliable bag is converted from the common use as a container for holding dry cement into a means for feasibly mixing said cement and water in quantities intermediate those that can be vigorously shaken by hand and those that require mechanical means due to substantial weight. In other words, a process adapted to be used for batches ranging in weight from 10 to 100 pounds but not necessarily limited to that range. A process that comprises the steps of placinga pliable bag on a flat surface such as the ground; filling said bag with the proper ratio of cement and water; closing said bag and trapping air within in a manner wherein said air will support said bag from within causing it to form an ellipsoid, which, generally defined as ball shaped, will readily lend itself to being rolled about on the ground thereby mixing the cement and water.
1 Claim, 8 Drawing Figures PATENTEIIJAIII4I975 3,860,219
BRYAN W. NICKERSON, JR. INVENTOR PROCESS FOR MANUALLY MIXING CEMENT This invention relates to a process for mixing cement, and more particularly to manually mixing cement in a bag.
I-Ieretofore the so called handyman or do-it-yourself repairman who had a small job to do around the house involving cement work, had been faced with a bothersome chore, and, in some instances wherein the person was physically restricted, an impossible task. This was due to the fact that he was not normally set up to do a type of job that would involve mixing cement. That is to say, he did not have a receptacle such as a mortar pan in which to mix the cement nor the proper tools such as a hoe with which to mix it. He has, therefore, been forced to resort to makeshift methods and means for mixing the cement. This usually involved using a tub or bucket as a container for the cement and a garden tool or trowel as a mixing utensil.
This method has found to be extremely bothersome and inconvenient if not impossible in some cases. Cement is heavy and powdery by nature, and when done in a tub or bucket, must be lifted and folded into the liquid by strenuous manipulation of the mixing utensil. All this requires a great deal of expenditure of work. Furthermore, the cement tends to cake up at the bottom of the container and actually sheds water due to its powdery nature; thereby hampering the mixing process. Frequently this was beyond the physical ability of some men particularly older men who make up a large percentage of the do-it-yourself homeowners. Younger men who are able to do the work found it considerably inconvenient.
Therefore it is a general object of this invention to provide a process for manually mixing small batches of cement and a liquid with a degree of ease and convenience heretofore impossible.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a process for manually mixing cement and a liquid whereby the foot-pounds of energy needed to mix a comparable amount of cement is a fraction of that employed by other methods.
It is a further object of this invention to provide a process for manually mixing cement and a liquid wherein the mixing process is accomplished without the necessity of actually lifting and folding into the liquid portions of the cement in order to facilitate the mixmg.
It is a further object herein to provide a process for mixing small batches of cement and a liquid wherein the mixing is done within a bag thereby eliminating the need for containers, utensils, etc.
It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a process for mixing small batches of cement and a liquid wherein the mixture is rolled to the site of the job in the same bag in which it is mixed.
The term cement as used herein shall be taken to mean a dry mixture of limestone and clay or some similar material used to make mortar, concrete, or the like. The term cement may also include a mixture of gravel and/or sand or any combination of these to form a cement aggregate.
The term liquid as used herein generally means water, but shall include any liquid used to mix cement to produce mortar and the like.
The term bag as used herein shall be taken to mean any conventionally shaped bag with an opening at the top. The preferred teaching herein is that a plastic bag be used that is pliable, watertight, and transparent such as found in the polyethylene class of plastics. The term pliable means soft and conforming such as a bag of plastic film would generally be.
The term ellipsoid as used herein has a broad application and may be applied to any solid shape that roughly resembles a ball. It may be a flattened ball or an elongated ball. The ellipsoid may have a tail or be squared off somewhat at the top as shown in the drawing; But generally speaking, any shape that will lend itself to being moved about an axis by a movement such as rocking or rotating, and said axis is parallel to the surface on which the bag rests; any solid shape will fall within the scope of the term ellipsoid as used herein, i.e., if it can qualify as above.
The term, manual manipulation, as used herein refers to any action taken on an object by a human being and shall not be restriced to the use of the hands, per se. The feet, for example, or any other part may be used to provide the manual manipulation.
Referring now to the drawing, all the illustrations with the exception of FIG. 8 are to be viewed as if one were looking at a transparent bag. Furthermore, all the views except FIG. 8 show the bag resting on a surface such as the ground.
FIG. 1 shows an open bag in which the proper ratio of cement and a liquid have been deposited.
FIG. 2 shows one method of closing the bag.
FIG. 3 shows a modified method of closing thebag.
FIG. 4 shows yet another method of closing the bag.
FIG. 5 shows a form of manipulation, viz, moving or rocking the bag to the right thereby mixing the cement and liquid together.
FIG. 6 shows a rocking motion to the left.
FIG. 7 shows the bag in a position after having been moved about an axis. The movement may stop there and the bag returned to its original position, or it may be rotated to a full 360.
FIG. 8 is across-sectional view of FIG. 1 taken thru line A-A and represents one of the axis about which the bag may be rotated.
Referring again to FIG. 1, the process is started by placing the pliable bag 9 on a surface 10, as shown, and depositing within said bag the proper ratio of cement 11 and a liquid 12. The proper ratio means the right proportion of cement to liquid that will provide a pastelike consistency when mixed that is suitable for use as mortar and the like. As may be seen in FIGS. 1 thru 4, the bag is only fractionally filled withthe cement and liquid. Above the cement and liquid may be found varying amounts of air 13. The air varies in volume due to the modified methods of closing the bag (see FIGS. 2 and 3).
It should be understood at this time that the preferred teaching herein is that the bag be placed on the ground, but it does not necessarily have to be the ground or even a flat surface. For example, the bag may be placed on the surface of a human hand or arm and thereon manipulated.
The bag is then closed, as for example, by gathering together the sides of the bag as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 and designated by the numeral 14. The gathering together may then be secured as at 15 by any practical means. It is taught herein that a wire twister be employed to encircle the gathering and the loose ends twisted about themselves. A rope may be used, or, for that matter, the gathering may be held closed by hand.
It may been seen also from viewing FIGS. 2 and 3 that the bag, having been fractionally filled with the cement and liquid and been closed, will form a shape generally defining an elipsoid. This is true irregardless of the fact that there is some resemblance of a tail or stem protruding above the bag. It may also be noted, particularly in FIG. 2 and to a lesser degree in FIG. 3, that there is some amount of air trapped above the liquid. The air may aid in filling out the bag, however trapping substantial amounts of air in the top of the bag is not a prerequisite step in the process as illustrated in FIG. 3 wherein the volume of air is nil. Therefore the amount of air trapped in the bag is not predetermined or necessarily substantial as long as said air is sufficient to support the pliable bag from within causing it to form an ellipsoid as set forth in the description and best shown in FIG. 2.
It is evident from the above description taken in conjunction with the drawing that the steps of fractionally filling a pliable bag with cement and a liquid and closing said bag while it is resting on a surface, has caused the bag to form a shape whereby itwill lend itself to being moved about an axis parallel to the surface on which it rests. In other words, the bag is in a condition to be rocked to and fro or rotated 180 or a full 360 which ever is preferred. This movement or manual manipulation has the affect of mixing the cement and liquid within the bag. The amount of manipulation required will vary with the amount of cement being mixed and the method of manipulation employed.- After the mixing is complete, the bag may be rolled to the site of the job and cut open to allow access to the mixture which is now ready for use.
FIG. 4 shows one modification of the closing step in the process wherein the top edge of the bag is closed and secured by a different means thereby providing an elipsoid in a somewhat broader sense of the word but still within the scope of the claims because the structure in FIG. 4 will lend itself to being moved about an axis parallel to the ground.
Thus a series of steps, viz., fractionally filling a pliable bag with cement and a liquid and closing said bag while it is resting on a surface, has led to the unexpected result that this combination of steps has created an environment whereby the cement and liquid can be mixed for final use with an ease and convenience heretofore inconceivable. This environment is primarily manifested in the shape of the bag although the inneraction of the other elements as a result of the foregoing steps is a contributing factor. Therefore it has been discovered that the bag in its present shape, generally defined as an ellipsoid; having been formed by the above steps, will readily lend itself to being manually manipulated by rocking, rotating, or some similar motion, causing the cement and liquid to mix in a manner as set forth in the objects of this disclosure. Modifications and variations may be resorted to without departing from the scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. A process for manually mixing cement and a liquid by converting a pliable bag into a means for mixing said cement and liquid, comprising the steps of: placinga pliable bag on a surface, fractionally filling said bag with the proper ratio of cement and liquid, closing said bag and trapping air within to a degree that the volume of air trapped therein is greater than that which said bag would hold if it were unaffected by said air trapped therein whereby said unaffected bag will remain in its natural preformed state subject to collapsing in the air portion thereof; the trapping of 'said air serving to concavely deform said bag from within and support said bag from within in an uncollapsible manner, said deformity characterized as an elipsoid having concave sides when viewed from within and when said bag is filled with the cement, liquid and air, subjecting said bag to manual manipulation characterized as moving said bag about an axis parallel with the surface on which it rests thereby mixing said cement and said liquid.