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Publication numberUS3861992 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 21, 1975
Filing dateJul 5, 1972
Priority dateJul 5, 1972
Also published asCA976075A, CA976075A1, DE2334066A1
Publication numberUS 3861992 A, US 3861992A, US-A-3861992, US3861992 A, US3861992A
InventorsFrank H Denobriga, Richard D Neal
Original AssigneeEastman Kodak Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Flame-resistant textile foundation fabric
US 3861992 A
Foundation fabrics useful for tufted textile products and the like, which comprise a primary backing material having a web-like structure of self-extinguishing flame-resistant fibrous material attached to one surface thereof. Also disclosed are flame-resistant tufted carpets utilizing the foundation fabric.
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United States Patent DeNohriga et al.

[4 1 Jan. 21, 1975 FLAME-RESISTANT TEXTILE FOUNDATION FABRIC Inventors: Frank H. DeNobriga; Richard D.

Neal, both of Kingsport, Tenn.

Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y.

Filed: July 5, 1972 Appl. No.: 268,968

U.S. Cl 161/67, 161/62, 161/64,

161/403, 161/80 Int. Cl. D03d 27/00, D04h 11/00 Field of Search 161/62, 64, 67, 80, 81,

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,348,993 10/1967 Sissors 161/81 3,600,261 8/1971 Kerres 161/64 Primary ExaminerMarion E. McCamish {57] ABSTRACT 8 Claims, N0 Drawings FLAME-RESISTANT TEXTILE FOUNDATION FABRIC This invention relates to primary backing structures for tufted carpets which retard burning of primary backing, latex and secondary backing, if any, in a finished carpet, before and after washing, and result in an improved tunnel test rating for certain contract carpets-The backing structures of this invention may be jute or polypropylene foundation fabrics into which about 1 to ounces/square yard self-extinguishing flame-resistant fibers have been needle punched or attached thereto by other means.

The novel primary backings of this invention exhibit unexpected flame-retarding characteristics for such low levels of self-extinguishing flame-resistant fibers. Preferred self-extinguishing flame-resistant fibers useful in the practice of our invention are modacrylic fibers such as DYNEL (copolymer of vinylidene chloride and acrylonitrile) and VEREL (copolymer of vinylidene chloride and acrylonitrile with about by weight of N-isopropylacrylamide mixed'therein) and polyvinyl chloride fibers. However, it is to be understood that other fibers having self-extinguishing flameresistant properties and which when made into a weblike structure and attached to a foundation fabric will not unduly interfere with tufting, latex application and finishing operations on the finished carpet or the like.

Prior studies have shown that about to 45 percent by weight of flame-retarding fiber must be used in blends with various carpet fibers to prevent burning of the pile in certain carpet styles such as twist set shags, friezes, etc. Thus a ounce/square yard shag would contain 6 to 13.5 ounces/square yard of said fireresistant fiber(s) in the pile yarn and a ounce/square yard twist set shag would contain about 9 to 20.25 ounces/square yard.

The textile foundation fabric of this invention comprises a conventional primary carpet backing having attached to one surface thereof a web-like structure comprising self-extinguishing flame-resistant fibrous materials, the web-like structure weighing from about I to 10 ounces/square yard. The carpets prepared using the foundation fabric of this invention may be tufted in the conventional manner. When tufted the face yarn of the carpet will extend from and through the backing and through the web-like structure so that the web-like structure is located between the free or face surface of the face yarns and the primary backing thus forming in effect a fibrous barrier between the free ends of the tufts in the carpet and the primary backing material. It is not known why only 1 to 10 ounces/square yard of the fire-resistant fibrous web-like material is sufficient to prevent back burning even when relatively non-fire resistant or relatively low-grade fire-resistant latex is used, such as carboxylated SBR latex (CSBR), CSBR with only 150 parts alumina trihydrate, relatively low viscosity pre-dry latex (such as Gafcote R-367-N modified to contain only 100 parts alumina trihydrate).

Latex penetration into carpet backing structures is facilitated by this invention. Prior art backings such as spunbonded polypropylene and woven polypropylene into which nylon fiber has been needle punched are quite difficult to penetrate, at times producing unsatisfactory adhesion between the primary and secondary backings and other problems. Thus these prior art backings tend to have an adverse effect on the performance of fire-resistant latex with regard to both adhesion and/or fire-resistance characteristics, while our novel backing is quite compatible with fire-resistant latex systems. In fact, an advantage of our invention is compatibility with existing latex systems, particularly with polyester carpet yarns and prior art polypropylene primary backing as a foundation fabric.

Our novel backings improve the uniformity of tufted pile height byminimizing differential stitch robbing, particularly when jute and woven polypropylene foundation fabrics are used.

Modacrylic and polyvinyl chloride battings have been found to be easily needle punched as compared to other battings, such as nylon. Perhaps the lower toughness of modacrylic and polyvinyl chloride is one factor, but the reasons for this improvement are not understood. In addition, the backings of this invention are easy to penetrate in tufting and cause no difficulties in overheating and deflecting the needles as can be the case with nylon needle punched into woven polypropylene.

Our novel backings, by virtue of the effect of improved latex penetration and the mat-like structure, produce a pronounced internal-padding effect. Thus a contract carpet (3/16 inch pile, 30 ounces/square yard, for example) of stock-dyed polyester or nylon fiber has a fuller, more resilient feel, more uniform pile height, more uniform shearing, and better fire-resistance characteristics. Our invention provides a more rigid backing and superior total performance compared to prior art backings. The internal-padding effect also permits the carpet to be printed, if desired, without first applying a resilient foam-type secondary backing.

In piece-dyeing, the backings of this invention, particularly when dull modacrylic is used, tend to produce superior sinking characteristics in tufted carpets. This is an important performance advantage over prior art polypropylene backings (with and without needle punched nylon) which tend to be more difficult to sink. Furthermore, the use of silicone anti-foam in dyeing has far less detrimental effect from the standpoint of backing flammability when these novel backings are used compared to products of prior art. Indeed, this is surprising in view of the relatively small amount of fireresistant fiber used. It is a major advantage to be able to use silicone-type products in appropriate amounts for piecedyeing certain carpet styles due to the superior anti-foaming performance. In addition, this invention makes non-silicone, anti-foam products more effective. There are many shag, frieze and other styles which should by dyed with non-silicone, anti-foam products.

Perhaps due to the ability to absorb water and/or other reasons, our novel backings, particularly with modacrylic fiber, have better anti-static properties than prior art backings that utilize needle punched nylon, particularly at 30 to 50 percent RH. Again, possibly due to water absorption, improved penetration and/or other reasons, better continuous dyeing is obtained with the backing of this invention than when spunbonded polypropylene and woven polypropylene with needle punched nylon are used.

When washed as prescribed in AATCC Method 124-1964 or as amended in order to test the permanence of the latex structure containing alumina trihydrate and/or other compounds, our novel backings demonstrate a remarkable ability to minimize damage to said latex structure. This is reflected in the tablet test results when the back burning characteristics of washed carpets (such as twist set shags, plushes, etc.) are observed in a comparison between our novel primary backings and the backings of prior art.

One embodiment of our invention consists of a foundation fabric, like jute, spunbonded polypropylene (such as Typar) or woven polypropylene (such as Polybac) into which batting-like or mat-like structures made of modacrylic and/or polyvinyl chloride fibers have been needle punched. In preferred embodiments, the batting-like structure weighs approximately I to 6 ounces/square yard; but, if desired, weights as high as 10 ounces/square yard can be used. Even at weights in the 6 to 10 ounce/square yard range, excellent needle punching and subsequent tufting can be obtained. Our novel backing can be used for a variety of carpets, including those which are piece-dyed, continuous dyed, stock-dyed or printed.

Alternatively, the aforementioned fibers can be attached to the foundation fabric by other means, such as bonding and curing the materials in a compressed state.

In preferred embodiments of our invention, the aforementioned modacrylic and polyvinyl chloride fibers would range from 1 to 20 D/F in staple lengths of about 1 to 4 inches. Also the fibers may have incorporated therein at least 0.5 percent by weight of antimony oxide.

It is recognized that for various practical reasons such as inventory, economics, operational characteristics and mechanical settings of the nonwoven equipment for producing the battings, etc. there could be a strong need to work-off various fibers by blending with the modacrylic and polyvinyl chloride fibers of our invention. Such practice is discouraged because it tends to reduce the flame-resistance of the novel carpet backing. However, if such blending procedure is employed, the additional fiber should not exceed roughly 25 percent of the total batting weight with at least 75 percent being composed of self-extinguishing flameresistant fibers. In no case should there be less than about 1 ounce/square yard of self-extinguishing flameresistant fiber used in such blends.

For a better understanding of this invention, reference is made to the following examples:

EXAMPLE 1 The following contract carpets were prepared using 2.7/3 c.c., 4.75Z/3S yarns made from D/F x 6 inch poly(ethylene terephthalate) polyester on the worsted system:

A. A 30 ounce/square yard, inch pile carpet was tufted using a woven polypropylene primary. Said primary weighed about 3.0 to 4.5 ounces/square yard.

B. A similar carpet was tufted using woven polypropylene foundation fabric into which about 4 ounces/square yard of 3 D/F dull Verel CA modacrylic fiber was needle punched.

C. A carpet similar to A was tufted using a woven polypropylene fabric into which was needle punched about 2 ounces/square yard of approximately 3 D/F nylon staple fiber.

Less needle deflection and needle heating occurred in tufting carpet B than tufting carpet C even though carpet B had a greater total material weight to be penetrated by the needles. Carpet B had better tuft uniformity than A or C. The three carpets were piece-dyed honey beige using silicone antifoam. Carpet B wet-out and sank more easily than the other two.

In subsequent backing with CSBR type latex containing parts alumina trihydrate using a 7 ounce/square yard jute secondary backing, improved overall latexing performance was obtained with carpet B even though it had a heavier weight of batting material to be penetrated than carpet C, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of penetration and adhesion of the latex when our novel backing is used.

Subsequent Steiner tunnel testing of the three carpets produced consistently lower flame spread ratings for carpet B than for the other two carpets.

EXAMPLE 2 Our next test involved a carpet style that tends to be critical for pile and back burning.

The following twist set shags were prepared using 2.25/2 c.c., 4.2Z/4.5S woolen-spun yarn made from stock-dyed 15 D/E X 4 inch acrylic fiber:

A. A 36 ounce/square yard, 1-% inch pile shag was tufted using spunbonded polypropylene primary backing (approximately 3.0 to 4.5 ounces/square yard).

B. A similar carpet was tufted using a woven polypropylene (approximately 3.0 to 4.5 ounces/square yard).

C. A carpet similar to B was tufted using a woven polypropylene backing into which was needle punched about 2 to 3 ounces/square yard of 3 D/F nylon staple.

D. A similar carpet was tufted using a woven polypropylene backing into which approximately 3 to 4.5 ounces/square yard of 8 D/F X 2 inch dull Verel modacrylic fiber was needle punched.

E. A similar carpet was tufted into which a 50 percent polyvinyl chloride/ 50 percent dull Verel modacrylic blend was substituted for 100 percent dull Verel modacrylic fiber.

Each carpet was cut in two equal sections. One section was latexed with a relatively non-fire resistant product (such as carboxylated SBR containing calcium carbonate, etc.). The other was latexed with a relatively low-grade fire-resistant product (such as a CSBR type containing parts of alumina trihydrate and other necessary components). Upon subsequent tablet testing (ASTM D 2859) of these carpets (40 burns each), with and without the aforementioned washing test (AATCC Method 124-1964), it was observed that carpets D and E produced consistently better resistance to back burning than the others. All the carpets experienced various amounts of pile burning. When a 55 percent acrylic/45 percent polyvinyl chloride yarn was substituted for the 100 percent acrylic, a highly significant reduction in pile burning occurred. Thus, this test demonstrated that when our novel primary backing fabrics are used in combination with proper selection of pile yarn fabrics (and, of course, proper dyeing and fishing procedures), a highly significant improvement in both back burning and pile burning can be obtained even in certain critical styles. As the carpet pile density (measured in ounces/cubic yard) increases, the danger of pile burning decreases. The need for resistance to back burning exists in varying degrees in practically all carpet styles.

EXAMPLE 3 A comparative flammability test was made using our novel primary backing and a spunbonded polypropylene backing of prior art in the following piece-dyed shag carpet construction:

Fiber denier/filament X 6 inch staple length polyester Yarn 2.25/2, 4S/3Z Weight 31 ounces Pile Height l-% inches (as tufted) Latex CSBR with 325 parts of alumina trihydrate Methanamine pill test results (ASTM D2859 or DOC FF 1-70) and an analysis of the burned areas were as follows:

Woven Polypropylene with 2.0 oz/yd of 8 D/F X 3" Dull VEREL Modacrylic Fiber yard and comprising self-extinguishing flame resistant fibrous material overlaying and attached to the surface thereof from which face yarns will extend when tufted into said fabric to locate said web-like structure between said fabric and the free ends of said tufted face yarn to form a flame barrier between said foundation fabric and said face yarn.

2. Foundation fabric of claim 1 wherein said flameresistant material comprises material selected from the group of modacrylic fibers and polyvinyl chloride fibers.

3. Foundation fabric of claim 2, wherein said modacrylic fiber is copolymer of vinylidene chloride and acrylonitrile.

Spunbonded Polypropylene of Prior Art 1.54 Square Inches 0.242 Square Inches 0.0586

36 Passing Specimens L90 Square Inches 0.745 Square Inches 36 Passing Plus 4 Failing Specimens 2.56 Square Inches 2220 Square Inches Using the F-test at the 5 percent level, the variance of the burned areas of the novel backing was found to be significantly less than that of the prior art backing. In addition, the average burned area/specimen was smaller for our novel backing than the prior art backmg.

Although the invention has been described in considerable detail with particular reference to certain preferred embodiments thereof, variations and modifications may be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.

We claim:

1. Textile foundation fabric for use as a primary backing for tufted carpets, said fabric having a web-like structure weighing from about 1 to 10 ounces/square 4. Foundation fabric of claim 2, wherein said modand the foundation fabric of claim 1.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3348993 *Nov 27, 1964Oct 24, 1967British Nylon Spinners LtdFabrics
US3600261 *Dec 26, 1968Aug 17, 1971Girmes Werke AgFlame retarding backing for inflammable webs
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4053668 *May 14, 1976Oct 11, 1977Brunswick CorporationTufted carpenting with unitary needlebonded backing and method of manufacturing the same
US4064298 *Sep 22, 1976Dec 20, 1977Allied Chemical CorporationFlame-retardant polyamide fiber for use in carpets
US4096302 *Sep 2, 1976Jun 20, 1978Conwed CorporationBacking for tufted carpet of a thermoplastic net and plurality of fibers
US4194037 *Jun 28, 1976Mar 18, 1980Phillips Petroleum CompanyFlame-resistant fabric and method of forming same
US4996099 *Oct 27, 1989Feb 26, 1991Springs Industries, Inc.Fire-resistant fabric
US5015522 *Sep 5, 1990May 14, 1991The Dow Chemical CompanyMulticomponent fibers, films and foams
US7011724 *Nov 14, 2002Mar 14, 2006Interface, Inc.Textile products having flame retardant properties and methods of manufacture
US7455898 *Jan 20, 2006Nov 25, 2008Interface, Inc.Textile products having flame retardant properties and methods of manufacture
US7736716Nov 17, 2008Jun 15, 2010Interface, Inc.Textile products having flame retardant properties and methods of manufacture
US20030129902 *Nov 14, 2002Jul 10, 2003Hensler Connie D.Textile products having flame retardant properties and methods of manufacture
US20060121238 *Jan 20, 2006Jun 8, 2006Hensler Connie DTextile products having flame retardant properties and methods of manufacture
US20090075017 *Nov 17, 2008Mar 19, 2009Interface, Inc.Textile products having flame retardant properties and methods of manufacture
U.S. Classification428/95, 442/270, 428/921, 428/96
International ClassificationD05C17/02, B32B33/00, D04H13/00, B32B5/08, B32B5/02
Cooperative ClassificationD04H13/003, Y10S428/921
European ClassificationD04H13/00B3