|Publication number||US3862317 A|
|Publication date||Jan 21, 1975|
|Filing date||Jan 14, 1972|
|Priority date||Jan 16, 1971|
|Also published as||DE2201797A1|
|Publication number||US 3862317 A, US 3862317A, US-A-3862317, US3862317 A, US3862317A|
|Inventors||Anand Chaman Lal|
|Original Assignee||Anand Chaman Lal|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (4), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States atent 11 1 1111 3,862,317 Lal Anand Jan. 21, 1975  REDUCING DEPENDENCE ON TOBACCO 2,600,700 6/1952 Smith 424/255  Inventor: Chaman Lal Anand, 47 Clarendon TH A St., Glasgow G20 '7QP, Scotland 0 ER PUBLIC TIONS R. Wren, Potters Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs &  Flled' 1972 preparations, (1950), p. 252, published by Potter &  Appl. No.1 217,960 Clark, London, England.
 Foreign Application Priority Data Primary Examiner-Stanley J. Friedman Jan. 16, 1971 Great Britain 2231/71 y, g t, r m-Conn lly and Hutz  U.S. Cl. 424/195  Int. Cl A6lk 27/00 ABSTRACT  Field of Search 424/195 Dependence on tobacco is reduced y administration I 561 References Cited to a person dependent thereon of an effective amount of an extract of Avena plants. UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,357,756 9/1944 Musher 424/195 10 Claims, N0 Drawings REDUCING DEPENDENCE ON TOBACCO THIS INVENTION relates to reducing dependence on tobacco.
Tobacco is the fermented leaves of a plant of the genus Nicotiana, especially N. tabacum. As is well known, tobacco may be consumed by chewing or as snuff, but is more usually smoked. In recent years it has been generally recognised that tobacco consumption has undesirable long-termeffects. Lung cancer, in particular, has been shown to be associated in a statistically very significant way with heavy smoking, especially of cigarettes. Other undesirable long-tern effects have been noted.
Unfortunately when a person has become habituated to tobacco, he (or she) generally finds it very difficult to break the habit, and attempts to do so are often attended by severe mental, and even physical, stress. Existing methods of reducing dependence on tabacco have not proved very effective.
When I was in India in 1967, I came across a medically unqualified practitioner of the ancient Ayurvedic medicine who had successfully used a decoction of Avena sativa to cure the opium habit.
When I myself used this treatment but with a tincture rather than a decoction (which I found to be effective in a substantial proportion of cases) at the Susheela Mehra Memorial Hospital, Jullundur City, Punjab, India, I observed that some of the treated patients lost their craving for cigarettes.
I therefore carried out the following trial using a 90% ethyl alcoholic extract of Avena sativa, the preparation of which is described in more detail below.
Twenty-six cigarette smokers including healthy volunteers and chronic patients in the chest wards of Ruchill Hospital, Glasgow, Scotland, including tuberculous patients, participated in the trial. The total duration of their smoking and the average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the preceding 6 months were recorded. They were told that a drug was being tested which might affect their smoking, andthat they were not to make any conscious effort to alter their smoking during the trial. Each patient kept a daily record of cigaretts smoked, commenting on any changes in the craving for cigarettes. By random allocation, 13 patients received the drug and the others received placebo for 28 days. The alcoholic extract (1 ml.) was diluted to ml. and each oral dose was 5 ml. of this dilution given 4 times a day. No psychotherapy was used. No patients were taking any other drugs which could affect smoking. The patients in both groups were comparable in age, sex and smoking history. The results of the trial are given in Table I.
TABLE I Number of Cigarettes Smoked During Trial Group 1 (drug) Group 2 (placebo) TABLE l-Continued Number of Cigarettes Smoked During Trial Group 1 (drug) Group 2 (placebo) Cigarettes Cigarettes Cigarettes Cigarettes per day per day per day per day before trial after trial before trial after trial 25 7 l5 14 l0. l0 9 20 I0 8 8 Av. l9.5 5.7 l6.5 16.7
, Group 1 before (mean 19.5 i 2.0 s.e.) is not statistically separable from-Group 2 before (mean 16.5 i 1.7 s.e.)', 1.33, 0.30 P 0.20. Group 1 before is significantly different from Group 1 after (mean 5.7 i 2.0 s.e.); t= 5.21, P 0.001. Group 2 before is not different from Group 2 after. (mean 16.9 :1.4 s.e.); z 0.180, 0.90 P 0.80. The mean differences between the groups due to treatment (Group 1 before Group 1 after) and (Group 2 before Group 2 after) are naturally equally significant; t= 5.73, P 0.001. All these calculations are based on Students t test.
In the drug group various degrees of loss of craving for cigarettes were reported. The drug seems to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day, along with diminished craving for smoking. Moreover, the reduction in smoking seems to continue even 2 months after the termination of the drug.
The present invention therefore provides a method of reducing dependence on tobacco which comprises administering to a person dependent thereon an extract of part or all of an Avena plant, especially A. saliva, the cultivated oat. Other species of Avena, e.g. A. fatua, A. steritis, and A. strigosa, can also be used.
I prefer to use the whole of the mature green plant and to extract it with an appropriate solvent, e.g. water, ethyl alcohol, acetone, a chlorinated hydrocarbon such as chloroform, diethyl ether, or hexane. Mixtures of such solvents, especially aqueous ethyl alcohol, can also be used.
The extraction is conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, e.g. l025C., though higher temperatures which do not adversely affect the extract, e.g. up to 50C., can also be used. The period of extraction can be from a few hours to several, e.g. 2 to 3 days. The plant should be crushed or comminuted before it is mixed with the solvent. From 1 to 10, preferably about 2 to 4, parts by volume of solvent are used per part by weight of the plant. After the extraction, the plant remains may be removed by filtration or other convenient means.
When a physiologically tolerated solvent is used, the extract so produced may be used as it is, or after dilution with the same or another such solvent miscible therewith, e.g. water. However, when a physiologically unacceptable solvent is used, it must be removed, e.g. by evaporation at low pressure. The residue of the extract which then remains may be used as such or after Name Aerosil." After allowing the solvent to evaporate, the material with the extract from the Avena plant absorbed or adsorbed thereon may be formulated into a capsule or tablet by conventional means, using conventional, pharmaceutically acceptable carrier materials.
The invention is illustrated in the following Examples.
EXAMPLE 1 A quantity of healthy, fresh, whole Avena saliva plant, collected just before harvest, is extracted with parts by volume of 90% ethyl alcohol water) to 1.5 parts by weight of crushed plant i.e. 5 litres of 90% ethyl alcohol to 1.5 kg. of plant. The mixture is kept at room temperature for 72 hours with frequent agitation and then filtered to yield a clear, ambercoloured liquid. For administration to cigarette smokers, 1 ml. of the extract is diluted to 5 ml. with water and administered four times a day. Flavouring and preservatives may be added, as desired.
EXAMPLE 2 The liquid extract obtained by the procedure of Example l is contacted with a quantity of a silica powder of particle size 3 to mp., sold under the Trade Name Aerosil, in the proportion of 1 ml. of extract to l g. of silica, whereby the substance or substances present in the extract and derived from the Avena saliva plant is absorbed by or adsorbed on the silica. The solvent is allowed to evaporate to yield a free-flowing powder which is then mixed with the ingredients shown in the following formula:
mg. silica, containing substance(s) extracted from Avena plant 1,000 lactose 300 microcrystalline cellulose 250 magnesium stearate 50 1,600
This mixture is then compressed to form a tablet suitable for oral administration.
EXAMPLE 3 A silica powder, containing the substance or substances extracted from the Avena plant, is obtained by the procedure of Example 2 and blended with 10% by weight of lactose, 2% by weight of starch and 1% by weight of magnesium stearate. This mixture is compressed into slugs and the slugs are inserted into hard gelatin capsules of suitable size for oral administration.
EXAMPLE 4 The liquid extract obtained in Example 1 is used to fill dropper bottles of suitable size, e.g. 100 ml., which are then used to administer a measured dose of 1 ml. of the liquid, delivered by a dropper of 1 ml. capacity. The measured dose may be delivered into a glass of water as diluent, or onto a suitable carrier, e.g. a sugar lump.
EXAMPLE 5 The liquid extract obtained by the procedure of Example l is evaporated in vacuo to yield 2% by weight of a gummy residue, which is triturated with diethyl ether and the latter solvent is removed by vacuum evaporation. The solid residue is then suspended in water together with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (5% by weight, based on the water content) and flavouring, to give an aqueous suspension suitable for oral adminstration.
The extracts of Avena are normally administered orally in a dosage corresponding to the extract of about 1 to 1.5 grams of the whole green plant per day. This dosage is preferably divided, e.g. into quarters which are separately administered as in the trial described above. Any suitable dosage form, e.g. any one of the compositions described in the Examples above, may be used.
1. A method of reducing dependence on tobacco which comprises administering orally to a person dependent thereon a sufficient amount of a tobacco dependence reducing substance extracted from a whole mature green Avena plant selected from the group consisting of Avena sativa, Avena steritis, Avena strigosa and Avena fatua to reduce said dependence, the tobacco dependence reducing substance corresponding to that obtained by solvent extraction of said Avena plant with from about 1 to 10 parts by volume of solvent per part by weight of plant, the extraction being carried out at from ambient temperature to 50C. and said solvent being selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl alcohol, acetone, 21 chlorinated hydrocarbon, diethyl ether, hexane or mixtures thereofv 2. The method according to claim 1 wherein the tobacco dependence reducing substance is extracted from the Avena plant with a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl alcohol or mixtures thereof.
3. The method according to claim 1 wherein the amount of tobacco dependence reducing substance administered orally per day is equivalent to the aqueous alcoholic extract of about 1 to 1.5 grams of Avena plant.
4. The method according to claim 1 wherein the tobacco dependence reducing substance is obtained by extracting an Avena sativa plant with about aqueous ethyl alcohol at substantially ambient temperature.
5. The method according to claim 1 wherein the tobacco dependence reducing substance is administered with water.
6. The method according to claim 1 wherein the tobacco dependence reducing substance is administered in association with a pharmaceutically compatible carrier.
7. The method according to claim 1 wherein the Avena plant is Avena sativa, the cultivated oat plant.
8. A composition for oral administration to reduce dependence on tobacco which comprises a tobacco dependence reducing substance extracted from a whole the group consisting of water, ethyl alcohol, acetone, a chlorinated hydrocarbon, diethyl ether, hexane or mixtures thereof.
9. The composition according to claim 8 in the form of a capsule or tablet.
10. The composition according to claim 8 in the form of a syrup or elixir.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2357756 *||Jan 3, 1942||Sep 5, 1944||Musher Foundation Inc||Process of preparing a vitamin b complex concentrate|
|US2600700 *||Mar 8, 1949||Jun 17, 1952||Smith Colburn J||Composition for alleviation of the tobacco habit|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5055478 *||Jan 21, 1988||Oct 8, 1991||Cooper Thomas M||Method for stopping smoking|
|US6447815||Dec 19, 2000||Sep 10, 2002||Access Business Group International Llc||Heated alcohol extraction of herbs|
|WO2009080004A2 *||Dec 22, 2008||Jul 2, 2009||Ds-Pharma Gmbh||Barley or oat extract for smoking cessation|
|WO2009080004A3 *||Dec 22, 2008||Oct 29, 2009||Ds-Pharma Gmbh||Barley or oat extract for smoking cessation|
|U.S. Classification||424/750, 514/813|
|International Classification||A61K, A61K36/00, A61K36/899|
|Cooperative Classification||A61K36/899, Y10S514/813|